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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296466/road-accident-fatality-risks-for-vulnerable-versus-protected-road-users-in-northern-ghana
#1
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic which claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low and middle income countries. The unfavourable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in Northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282865/utilizing-crowdsourced-data-for-studies-of-cycling-and-air-pollution-exposure-a-case-study-using-strava-data
#2
Yeran Sun, Amin Mobasheri
With the development of information and communications technology, user-generated content and crowdsourced data are playing a large role in studies of transport and public health. Recently, Strava, a popular website and mobile app dedicated to tracking athletic activity (cycling and running), began offering a data service called Strava Metro, designed to help transportation researchers and urban planners to improve infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians. Strava Metro data has the potential to promote studies of cycling and health by indicating where commuting and non-commuting cycling activities are at a large spatial scale (street level and intersection level)...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259828/how-did-the-economic-recession-2008-2010-influence-traffic-fatalities-in-oecd-countries
#3
Fred Wegman, Richard Allsop, Constantinos Antoniou, Ruth Bergel-Hayat, Rune Elvik, Sylvain Lassarre, Daryl Lloyd, Wim Wijnen
This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden...
March 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253040/demands-of-world-cup-competitions-in-elite-women-road-cycling
#4
Paolo Menaspà, Marco Sias, Gene Bates, Antonio La Torre
PURPOSE: Describing the demand of recent World Cup (WC) races comparing Top 10 (T10) and non-Top 10 (N-T10) performances using power data. METHODS: Race data were collected in 1-day World Cup races during the 2012-2015 road cycling seasons. Seven female cyclists completed 49 WC races, finishing 25 times in T10 and 24 times N-T10. Peak power (1 s) and Maximal Mean Power (MMP) for durations of 5, 10, 20 and 30 s and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min expressed as power to weight ratio were analysed in T10 and N-T10...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235858/in-vivo-assessment-of-regional-mechanics-post-myocardial-infarction-a-focus-on-the-road-ahead
#5
Eva Romito, Tarek Shazly, Francis G Spinale
Cardiovascular disease, particularly the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There is growing recognition that a key factor for post-MI outcomes is adverse remodeling and changes in the regional structure, composition, and mechanical properties of the MI region itself. However, in-vivo assessment of regional mechanics post-MI can be confounded by the species, temporal aspects of MI healing, as well as size, location, and extent of infarction across myocardial wall...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215875/occurrence-and-molecular-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-wild-mesocarnivores-in-spain
#6
Marta Mateo, Marta Hernández de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Lucía Morales, Ana Balseiro, Alberto Espí, Marta Barral, José Francisco Lima Barbero, Miguel Ángel Habela, José L Fernández-García, Rafael Calero Bernal, Pamela C Köster, Guillermo A Cardona, David Carmena
There is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. Consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. In this molecular epidemiological survey a total of 193 individual faecal samples from badgers (Meles meles, n=70), ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, n=2), genets (Genetta genetta, n=6), Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus, n=6), beech martens (Martes foina, n=8), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon, n=2), otters (Lutra lutra, n=2), polecats (Mustela putorius, n=2), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=87), wildcats (Felis silvestris, n=2), and wolves (Canis lupus, n=6) were obtained from road-killed, hunted, and accidentally found carcasses, and from camera-trap surveys or animals entering rescue shelters, during the period December 2003-April 2016...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199799/the-efficacy-of-protein-supplementation-during-recovery-from-muscle-damaging-concurrent-exercise
#7
Lee Eddens, Sarah Browne, Emma J Stevenson, Brad Sanderson, Ken van Someren, Glyn Howatson
This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to three independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of four days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g•kg<sup>-1</sup>•d<sup>-1</sup> carbohydrate, 1...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193281/municipal-investment-in-off-road-trails-and-changes-in-bicycle-commuting-in-minneapolis-minnesota-over-10%C3%A2-years-a-longitudinal-repeated-cross-sectional-study
#8
Jana A Hirsch, Katie A Meyer, Marc Peterson, Le Zhang, Daniel A Rodriguez, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of key development and expansion of an off-road multipurpose trail system in Minneapolis, Minnesota between 2000 and 2007 to understand whether infrastructure investments are associated with increases in commuting by bicycle. METHODS: We used repeated measures regression on tract-level (N = 116 tracts) data to examine changes in bicycle commuting between 2000 and 2008-2012. We investigated: 1) trail proximity measured as distance from the trail system and 2) trail potential use measured as the proportion of commuting trips to destinations that might traverse the trail system...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190422/cyclists
#9
Kristiann C Heesch, Amy Schramm, Ashim Kumar Debnath, Narelle Haworth
Issues addressed: Cyclists' perceptions of harassment from motorists discourages cycling. This study examined changes in cyclists' reporting of harassment pre- to post-introduction of the Queensland trial of the minimum passing distance road rule amendment (MPD-RRA).Methods: Cross-sectional online surveys of cyclists in Queensland, Australia were conducted in 2009 (pre-trial; n=1758) and 2015 (post-trial commencement; n=1997). Cyclists were asked about their experiences of harassment from motorists while cycling...
February 9, 2017: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179003/respiratory-outcomes-of-ultrafine-particulate-matter-ufpm-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-near-roadway-exposures-among-bicyclists
#10
Hye-Youn Park, Susan Gilbreath, Edward Barakatt
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a consistent association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. In particular, exposure can be high for cyclists who travel near roadways. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between short-term exposure of near-road traffic emissions and acute changes in lung function among individuals who frequently bike in the Sacramento and Davis areas in California. Ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) was used as a surrogate for near-roadway exposure in this study since the main source of this pollutant is from motor vehicle exhaust...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157622/built-environmental-correlates-of-cycling-for-transport-across-europe
#11
Lieze Mertens, Sofie Compernolle, Benedicte Deforche, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Johannes Brug, Célina Roda, Thierry Feuillet, Jean-Michel Oppert, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Helga Bardos, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Delfien Van Dyck
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine which objective built environmental factors, identified using a virtual neighbourhood audit, were associated with cycling for transport in adults living in five urban regions across Europe. The moderating role of age, gender, socio-economic status and country on these associations was also investigated. Overall, results showed that people living in neighbourhoods with a preponderance of speed limits below 30km/h, many bicycle lanes, with less traffic calming devices, more trees, more litter and many parked cars forming an obstacle on the road were more likely to cycle for transport than people living in areas with lower prevalence of these factors...
January 31, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145053/challenging-terrestrial-biosphere-models-with-data-from-the-long-term-multifactor-prairie-heating-and-co2-enrichment-experiment
#12
Martin G de Kauwe, Belinda E Medlyn, Anthony P Walker, Sönke Zaehle, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B Harper, Thomas Hickler, Atul K Jain, Yiqi Luo, Xingjie Lu, Kristina Luus, William J Parton, Shijie Shu, Ying-Ping Wang, Christian Werner, Jianyang Xia, Elise Pendall, Jack A Morgan, Edmund M Ryan, Yolima Carrillo, Feike A Dijkstra, Tamara J Zelikova, Richard J Norby
Multifactor experiments are often advocated as important for advancing terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), yet to date, such models have only been tested against single-factor experiments. We applied 10 TBMs to the multifactor Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA. Our goals were to investigate how multifactor experiments can be used to constrain models and to identify a road map for model improvement. We found models performed poorly in ambient conditions; there was a wide spread in simulated above-ground net primary productivity (range: 31-390 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) )...
February 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141928/highly-acidic-ambient-particles-soluble-metals-and-oxidative-potential-a-link-between-sulfate-and-aerosol-toxicity
#13
Ting Fang, Hongyu Guo, Linghan Zeng, Vishal Verma, Athanasios Nenes, Rodney J Weber
Soluble transition metals in particulate matter (PM) can generate reactive oxygen species in vivo by redox cycling, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Most metals, such as those from roadway traffic, are emitted in an insoluble form, but must be soluble for redox cycling. Here we present the mechanism of metals dissolution by highly acidic sulfate aerosol and the effect on particle oxidative potential (OP) through analysis of size distributions. Size-segregated ambient PM were collected from a road-side and representative urban site in Atlanta, GA...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103524/validation-of-a-bicycle-simulator-for-road-safety-research
#14
Steve O'Hern, Jennie Oxley, Mark Stevenson
The study's aim was to assess the behavioural validity of participants using of a newly developed bicycle simulator with respect to a range of cycling performance measures collected both using the cycling simulator and on-road. The validation study consisted of a within-subjects study design comparing participants riding on-road with riding in the simulator. The study recruited 26 participants ranging in age from 18 to 35 years (M=25.0, SD=4.8). Absolute validity was established for measures of spatial positioning including average lane position, deviation in lane position and average passing distance from kerbside parked cars...
March 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095061/methods-of-monitoring-training-load-and-their-relationships-to-changes-in-fitness-and-performance-in-competitive-road-cyclists
#15
Dajo Sanders, Grant Abt, Matthijs K Hesselink, Tony Myers, Ibrahim Akubat
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the dose-response relationships between different training load methods and aerobic fitness and performance in competitive road cyclists. METHOD: Training data from 15 well-trained competitive cyclists were collected during a 10-week (December - March) pre-season training period. Before and after the training period, participants underwent a laboratory incremental exercise test with gas exchange and lactate measures and a performance assessment using an 8-min time trial (8MT)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056908/an-evaluation-of-outdoor-school-environments-to-promote-physical-activity-in-delhi-india
#16
Samiksha Tarun, Monika Arora, Tina Rawal, Sara E Benjamin Neelon
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034560/does-the-new-european-driving-cycle-nedc-really-fail-to-capture-the-nox-emissions-of-diesel-cars-in-europe
#17
Bart Degraeuwe, Martin Weiss
Tests with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) have demonstrated that diesel cars emit several times more NOX on the road than during certification on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Policy makers and scientists have attributed the discrepancy to the unrealistically low dynamics and the narrow temperature range of NEDC testing. Although widely accepted, this assumption was never been put under scientific scrutiny. Here, we demonstrate that the narrow NEDC test conditions explain only a small part of the elevated on-road NOX emissions of diesel cars...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029434/healthy-competition-a-qualitative-study-investigating-persuasive-technologies-and-the-gamification-of-cycling
#18
Paul Barratt
Changing socio-technical practices occurring within cycling are leading the pursuit, and its participants, to become ever more embedded into the networked digital world. GPS enabled mobile-technologies have introduced a new element of competition into recreational riding, whether on the road, competing over timed virtual segments, or online dissecting and comparing the data that has been logged and shared via dedicated ride-logging applications. In order to understand these technologies qualitative study using reflective diaries and semi-structured interviews has been conducted with experienced club cyclists who had fully experienced the effects of their arrival...
October 28, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019001/characteristics-of-road-traffic-accident-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-sri-lanka
#19
Dinesh M Fernando, Sampath U Tennakoon, Achini N Samaranayake, Medhani Wickramasinghe
The mortality and morbidity of road traffic accidents (RTA) is increasing in the South Asian region, including Sri Lanka. Therefore, the demographic factors, types of vehicles involved, and the severity of injuries sustained in RTA was studied. Age, gender, and details of the incident of all patients admitted to hospital following a RTA, between January 2007 and August 2012, were obtained by interview. Following a medico-legal examination, the type and severity of injuries was categorized as, non-grievous, grievous, endangering life or fatal in the ordinary course of nature...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993315/effect-of-physical-effort-on-mental-workload-of-cyclists-in-real-traffic-in-relation-to-age-and-use-of-pedelecs
#20
M J Boele-Vos, J J F Commandeur, D A M Twisk
To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in a field experiment. Two instrumented bicycles, a conventional bicycle and a pedelec, were used. Mental workload of cyclists in two age groups - 30-45 years and 65 years and over - was measured by means of a secondary cognitive task requiring the detection and reaction to visual stimuli on a cycle route that varied in physical effort and task complexity...
December 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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