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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909209/reuse-of-bituminous-pavements-a-mini-review-of-research-regulations-and-modelling
#1
REVIEW
Joke Anthonissen, Wim Van den Bergh, Johan Braet
Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900147/complex-shoulder-girdle-injuries-following-mountain-bike-accidents-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Matthew Alexander Lea, Navnit Makaram, Makaram S Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Mountain and road bike accidents are particularly common with the increased popularity of the sport. We reviewed the attendances in our emergency department over a 4-year period looking at cycling injuries to detect the level and grade of these injuries and their outcomes. METHOD: Royal Blackburn Hospital caters for a population of 550 000. A search through the Hospital information system revealed 104 patients with fractures following mountain bike injuries...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898802/nutrient-cycling-in-grassed-roadside-ditches-and-lawns-in-a-suburban-watershed
#3
Lauren E McPhillips, Peter M Groffman, Rebecca L Schneider, M Todd Walter
Roadside ditches are ubiquitous in developed landscapes. They are designed to route water from roads for safety, with little consideration of water quality or biogeochemical implications in ditch design and minimal data on environmental impacts. We hypothesize that periodic saturation and nutrient influxes may make roadside ditches hotspots for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification as well as biological production of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO). Research sites included 12 grassed ditches and adjacent lawns with varying fertilization in a suburban watershed in central New York, where lawns represented a reference with similar soils as ditches but differing hydrology...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889656/safety-effects-of-the-london-cycle-superhighways-on-cycle-collisions
#4
Haojie Li, Daniel J Graham, Pan Liu
This paper evaluates the effects of the London Cycle Superhighways (CS) on cycle collisions. A total of 45 CS segments and 375 control segments are observed for a period of 8 years in London. Variables such as road characteristics, crash history and socio-economic information are included in the data set. Traffic characteristics including traffic volume, cycle volume and traffic speed are obtained from Department for Transport. We first estimate the safety effects on the CS routes using Empirical Bayes methods...
November 24, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881469/the-role-of-intersection-and-street-design-on-severity-of-bicycle-motor-vehicle-crashes
#5
Morteza Asgarzadeh, Santosh Verma, Rania A Mekary, Theodore K Courtney, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: Safety concerns are a major barrier to cycling. Intersection and street design variables such as intersection angles and street width might contribute to the severity of crashes and the safety concerns. In this study we examined whether these design variables were associated with bicycle-motor vehicle crashes (BMVC) severity. METHODS: Using the geographical information system and latitudes/longitudes recorded by the police using a global positioning device, we extracted intersection angles, street width, bicycle facilities, posted speed limits and annual average daily traffic from 3266 BMVC data from New York City police records...
November 9, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878076/nonmotorized-recreation-and-motorized-recreation-in-shrub-steppe-habitats-affects-behavior-and-reproduction-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos
#6
Robert J Spaul, Julie A Heath
Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807523/effect-of-concurrent-resistance-and-sprint-training-on-body-composition-and-cardiometabolic-health-indicators-in-masters-cyclists
#7
Luke Delvecchio, Peter Reaburn, Gail Trapp, Marko T Korhonen
In older previously sedentary individuals endurance training imposes a more effective stimulus to enhance cardiometabolic health compared with resistance or sprint training. We examined the effect of replacing a portion of endurance training with combined resistance and/or sprint training and how this influences cardiometabolic health indicators in masters endurance cyclists. Twenty-seven well-trained male road cyclists (53.7±8.2 years) were allocated to a resistance and track sprint-cycling training group (RTC, n=10), an endurance and track sprint-cycling group (ETC, n=7) or a control endurance group (CTRL, n=10)...
October 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788436/air-quality-across-a-european-hotspot-spatial-gradients-seasonality-diurnal-cycles-and-trends-in-the-veneto-region-ne-italy
#8
Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Gianni Formenton, Roy M Harrison, Claudio Agostinelli
The Veneto region (NE Italy) lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley, a European hotspot for air pollution. Data for key air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5) measured over 7years (2008/2014) across 43 sites in Veneto were processed to characterise their spatial and temporal patterns and assess the air quality. Nitrogen oxides, PM and ozone are critical pollutants frequently breaching the EC limit and target values. Intersite analysis demonstrates a widespread pollution across the region and shows that primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides, CO, PM) are significantly higher in cities and over the flat lands due to higher anthropogenic pressures...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776000/construct-validity-of-the-neighborhood-environment-walkability-scale-for-africa
#9
Adewale L Oyeyemi, Terry L Conway, Rufus A Adedoyin, Kingsley K Akinroye, Richmond Aryeetey, Felix Assah, Kelli L Cain, Kavita A Gavand, Sandra S Kasoma, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Estelle V Lambert, Richard Larouche, Sarah J Mos, Reginald Ocansey, Vincent O Onywera, Antonio Prista, Mark S Tremblay, James F Sallis
PURPOSE: Development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761356/cycling-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-1997-2012-correlates-time-trends-and-health-consequences
#10
Thiago Hérick Sá, Ana Clara Duran, Marko Tainio, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, James Woodcock
The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760532/how-do-children-travel-to-school-in-urban-india-a-cross-sectional-study-of-5-842-children-in-hyderabad
#11
Shailaja Tetali, P Edwards, G V S Murthy I Roberts
BACKGROUND: Millions of children travel to school every day in India, yet little is known about this journey. We examined the distribution and determinants of school travel in Hyderabad, India. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. School travel questionnaires were used to collect data from children aged 11-14 years, attending private, semi-private and government funded schools in Hyderabad. We used Google Earth to estimate the distance from home to school for each child and modelled the relationship between distance to school and mode of travel, adjusting for confounders...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745664/gaseous-emissions-from-compressed-natural-gas-buses-in-urban-road-and-highway-tests-in-china
#12
Tingting Yue, Fahe Chai, Jingnan Hu, Ming Jia, Xiaofeng Bao, Zhenhua Li, Liqang He, Lei Zu
The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736215/vision-zero-in-the-united-states-versus-sweden-infrastructure-improvement-for-cycling-safety
#13
Matthew Cushing, Jonathan Hooshmand, Bryan Pomares, Gillian Hotz
Inspired by Swedish legislation, Vision Zero policies are being adopted in the United States with increasing frequency. Although some view the goal of eliminating serious injury and death on the road system as impractical, Sweden's lower rates of road-related injury and death provide compelling evidence that more can be done to improve US cycling safety. We examine existing Vision Zero and cycling-related literature to highlight the central components of the Swedish policy, with the goal of providing evidence-based recommendations for successful implementation of similar policies in the United States...
December 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730506/black-carbon-trends-in-southwestern-iberia-in-the-context-of-the-financial-and-economic-crisis-the-role-of-bioenergy
#14
Isabel Malico, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Maria João Costa
Since black carbon concentrations are useful to reveal changes in anthropogenic activities, measurements taken from 2007 to 2015 in a Portuguese city are used to assess to which extent the ambient air was impacted by the economic crisis. The average black carbon concentrations are representative of an urban area of small size (1.3 ± 1.3 μg m(-3)). The highest concentrations are observed in the heating season, being biomass combustion one of the causes for the high values. The daily cycle of black carbon concentrations presents both morning and evening peaks, mainly due to road traffic and, in the heating season, to domestic heating as well...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717811/structure-and-functions-of-the-chaperone-like-p97-cdc48-in-plants
#15
REVIEW
Hervé Bègue, Sylvain Jeandroz, Cécile Blanchard, David Wendehenne, Claire Rosnoblet
BACKGROUND: The chaperone-like p97 is a member of the AAA+ ATPase enzyme family that contributes to numerous cellular activities. P97 has been broadly studied in mammals (VCP/p97) and yeasts (CDC48: Cell Division Cycle 48/p97) and numerous investigations highlighted that this protein is post-translationally regulated, is structured in homohexamer and interacts with partners and cofactors that direct it to distinct cellular signalization pathway including protein quality control and degradation, cell cycle regulation, genome stability, vesicular trafficking, autophagy and immunity...
October 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712198/performance-and-physiological-effects-of-different-descending-strategies-for-cross-country-mountain-biking
#16
Matthew C Miller, Paul W Macdermid, Phil W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p < .01) when compared with off-road coasting despite no difference in vibration exposure (p > ...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699422/methylene-blue-the-long-and-winding-road-from-stain-to-brain-part-2
#17
Robert H Howland
Methylene blue was the first synthetic drug ever used in medicine, having been used to treat clinical pain syndromes, malaria, and psychotic disorders more than one century ago. Methylene blue is a cationic thiazine dye with redox-cycling properties and a selective affinity for the nervous system. This drug also inhibits the activity of monoamine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and guanylyl cyclase, as well as tau protein aggregation; increases the release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine; reduces amyloid-beta levels; and increases cholinergic transmission...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676156/a-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-the-effects-of-16-weeks-of-moderate-to-intensive-cycling-and-honey-supplementation-on-lymphocyte-oxidative-dna-damage-and-cytokine-changes-in-male-road-cyclists
#18
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Frank C Mooren, Karsten Krüger, Leah Z FitzGerald, Mohammad Chehrazi
The aim of this study was to investigate whether honey supplementation (70g, ninety minutes before each training session) attenuates changes in lymphocyte counts, DNA damage, cytokines, antioxidative and peroxidative biomarkers following moderate-to-intensive exercise training in male road cyclists. Healthy nonprofessional cyclists (n=24, aged 17-26years) were randomly assigned to exercise+supplement (EX+S, n=12) and exercise (EX, n=12) groups for an experimental period of 16weeks. Moderate-to-intensive exercise training increased lymphocytes DNA damage, cytokines and peroxidative biomarkers as well as decreased antioxidative biomarkers in the EX group...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671671/land-use-transport-and-population-health-estimating-the-health-benefits-of-compact-cities
#19
Mark Stevenson, Jason Thompson, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Reid Ewing, Dinesh Mohan, Rod McClure, Ian Roberts, Geetam Tiwari, Billie Giles-Corti, Xiaoduan Sun, Mark Wallace, James Woodcock
Using a health impact assessment framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with overall health gains of 420-826 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671668/city-planning-and-population-health-a-global-challenge
#20
Billie Giles-Corti, Anne Vernez-Moudon, Rodrigo Reis, Gavin Turrell, Andrew L Dannenberg, Hannah Badland, Sarah Foster, Melanie Lowe, James F Sallis, Mark Stevenson, Neville Owen
Significant global health challenges are being confronted in the 21st century, prompting calls to rethink approaches to disease prevention. A key part of the solution is city planning that reduces non-communicable diseases and road trauma while also managing rapid urbanisation. This Series of papers considers the health impacts of city planning through transport mode choices. In this, the first paper, we identify eight integrated regional and local interventions that, when combined, encourage walking, cycling, and public transport use, while reducing private motor vehicle use...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
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