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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145464/cellular-hnrnp-a2-b1-interacts-with-the-np-of-influenza-a-virus-and-impacts-viral-replication
#1
Cheng-Kai Chang, Chi-Jene Chen, Chih-Ching Wu, Shiau-Wen Chen, Shin-Ru Shih, Rei-Lin Kuo
The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) of influenza A virus is formed by virion RNA (vRNA), viral polymerase complex, and nucleoprotein (NP). The NP plays an important role in facilitating the replication and stabilization of viral RNA. To explore host factors that may be involved in the regulation of viral replication through interactions with NP, we conducted an immunoprecipitation experiment followed by mass spectrometry to identify NP-associated cellular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that NP can interact and colocalize with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 in mammalian cells and that the interaction may occur via direct binding to the glycine-rich domain (GRD) of hnRNP A2/B1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118123/estimating-initial-viral-levels-during-hiv-siv-reactivation-from-latency
#2
Mykola Pinkevych, Christine M Fennessey, Deborah Cromer, Martin Tolstrup, Ole S Søgaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Brandon F Keele, Miles P Davenport
HIV viremia rebounds rapidly after treatment interruption, and a variety of strategies are being explored to reduce or control viral reactivation post-treatment. This viral rebound arises from reactivation of individual latently infected cells, which spread during ongoing rounds of productive infection. The level of virus produced by the initial individual reactivating cells is not known, although it may have major implications for the ability of different immune interventions to control viral rebound. Here we use data from both HIV and SIV treatment interruption studies to estimate the initial viral load post-interruption and thereby the initial individual reactivation event...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118119/a-mechanism-for-prime-realignment-during-influenza-a-virus-replication
#3
Judith Oymans, Aartjan J W Te Velthuis
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight segments of single-stranded RNA. These segments are replicated and transcribed by a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is made up of the influenza virus proteins PB1, PB2 and PA. To copy the viral RNA (vRNA) genome segments and the complementary RNA (cRNA) segments, the replicative intermediate of viral replication, the RdRp must use two promoters and two different de novo initiation mechanisms. On the vRNA promoter, the RdRp initiates on the 3' terminus, while on the cRNA promoter the RdRp initiates internally and subsequently realigns the nascent vRNA product to ensure that the template is copied in full...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055985/-off-treatment-responses-and-predictors-and-after-long-term-anti-hbv-therapy-with-nucleos-t-ide-analogues
#4
Y D Liu, L Wang
Recurrence rate after cessation of nucleos(t)ide analogues remains high in clinical practice. According to current evidences, age, HBsAg level, HB VRNA level, time of consolidation therapy and HBV DNA load were considered to be associated with off-treatment responses after cessation of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Combinative factors of several predictors might perform better in future accompanying with further studies of HBV related markers.
July 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978704/human-metapneumovirus-induces-formation-of-inclusion-bodies-for-efficient-genome-replication-and-transcription
#5
Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jean Branttie, Kerri Beth Slaughter, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes significant upper and lower respiratory disease to all age groups worldwide. The virus possesses a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 13.3 Kb encapsidated by multiple copies of the nucleoprotein (N), giving rise to helical nucleocapsids. In addition, copies of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large RNA polymerase (L) decorate the viral nucleocapsids. After viral attachment, endocytosis, and fusion mediated by the viral glycoproteins, HMPV nucleocapsids are released into the cell cytoplasm...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973992/3d-spatially-resolved-models-of-the-intracellular-dynamics-of-the-hepatitis-c-genome-replication-cycle
#6
Markus M Knodel, Sebastian Reiter, Paul Targett-Adams, Alfio Grillo, Eva Herrmann, Gabriel Wittum
Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors...
September 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946005/evidence-for-the-role-of-basic-amino-acids-in-the-coat-protein-arm-region-of-cucumber-necrosis-virus-in-particle-assembly-and-selective-encapsidation-of-viral-rna
#7
Syed Benazir Alam, Ron Reade, Jane Theilmann, D'Ann Rochon
Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a T = 3 icosahedral virus with a (+)ssRNA genome. The N-terminal CNV coat protein arm contains a conserved, highly basic sequence ("KGRKPR"), which we postulate is involved in RNA encapsidation during virion assembly. Seven mutants were constructed by altering the CNV "KGRKPR" sequence; the four basic residues were mutated to alanine individually, in pairs, or in total. Virion accumulation and vRNA encapsidation were significantly reduced in mutants containing two or four substitutions and virion morphology was also affected, where both T = 1 and intermediate-sized particles were produced...
December 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933360/detection-of-alphacoronavirus-vrna-in-the-feces-of-brazilian-free-tailed-bats-tadarida-brasiliensis-from-a-colony-in-florida-usa
#8
Tania S Bonny, John P Driver, Taylor Paisie, Marco Salemi, John Glenn Morris, Lisa A Shender, Lisa Smith, Carolyn Enloe, Kevin Oxenrider, Jeffery A Gore, Julia C Loeb, Chang-Yu Wu, John A Lednicky
Bats are natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and other viruses with zoonotic potential. Florida has indigenous non-migratory populations of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) that mostly roost in colonies in artificial structures. Unlike their counterparts in Brazil and Mexico, the viruses harbored by the Florida bats have been underexplored. We report the detection of an alphacoronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequence in the feces of two of 19 different T. brasiliensis that were capture/release bats that had been evaluated for overall health...
February 27, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922369/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-nucleocapsid-protein-has-dual-rna-binding-modes
#9
Subbiah Jeeva, Sean Pador, Brittany Voss, Safder Saieed Ganaie, Mohammad Ayoub Mir
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, a zoonotic viral disease, has high mortality rate in humans. There is currently no vaccine for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and chemical interventions are limited. The three negative sense genomic RNA segments of CCHFV are specifically encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein into three ribonucleocapsids, which serve as templates for the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Here we demonstrate that CCHFV nucleocapsid protein has two distinct binding modes for double and single strand RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911100/genome-wide-analysis-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-nucleoprotein-association
#10
Nara Lee, Valerie Le Sage, Adalena V Nanni, Dan J Snyder, Vaughn S Cooper, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) genomes are composed of eight single-stranded RNA segments that are coated by viral nucleoprotein (NP) molecules. Classically, the interaction between NP and viral RNA (vRNA) is depicted as a uniform pattern of 'beads on a string'. Using high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP), we identified the vRNA binding profiles of NP for two H1N1 IAV strains in virions. Contrary to the prevailing model for vRNA packaging, NP does not bind vRNA uniformly in the A/WSN/1933 and A/California/07/2009 strains, but instead each vRNA segment exhibits a unique binding profile, containing sites that are enriched or poor in NP association...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910636/epitranscriptomic-enhancement-of-influenza-a-virus-gene-expression-and-replication
#11
David G Courtney, Edward M Kennedy, Rebekah E Dumm, Hal P Bogerd, Kevin Tsai, Nicholas S Heaton, Bryan R Cullen
Many viral RNAs are modified by methylation of the N(6) position of adenosine (m(6)A). m(6)A is thought to regulate RNA splicing, stability, translation, and secondary structure. Influenza A virus (IAV) expresses m(6)A-modified RNAs, but the effects of m(6)A on this segmented RNA virus remain unclear. We demonstrate that global inhibition of m(6)A addition inhibits IAV gene expression and replication. In contrast, overexpression of the cellular m(6)A "reader" protein YTHDF2 increases IAV gene expression and replication...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878087/novel-stable-ebola-virus-minigenome-replicon-reveals-remarkable-stability-of-the-viral-genome
#12
Wanyin Tao, Tianyu Gan, Mingzhe Guo, Yongfen Xu, Jin Zhong
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates with a high case fatality rate. No approved drug or vaccine of EBOV is available, which necessitates better understanding of the virus life cycle. Studies on EBOV have been hampered because experimentations involving live virus are restricted to biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories. EBOV minigenome system has provided researchers with the opportunity to study EBOV under BSL-2 conditions. Here, we developed a novel EBOV minigenome replicon which, to our knowledge, is the first EBOV cell culture system that can stably replicate and transcribe EBOV minigenome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859270/effect-of-the-fourth-nucleotide-at-the-3-end-of-neuraminidase-and-matrix-viral-genomic-rna-on-the-pathogenicity-of-influenza-virus-a-pr-8-34
#13
Chung-Young Lee, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Thanh Trung Nguyen, Ilhwan Kim, Hyung-Kwan Jang, Jae-Hong Kim
Twelve nucleotides located at the 3' end of viral genomic RNA (vRNA) are conserved among influenza A viruses (IAV) and have a promoter function. Hoffmann's 8-plasmid reverse genetics vector system introduced mutations at position 4, C nucleotide (C4) to U nucleotide (U4), of the 3' ends of neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) vRNAs of wild-type A/PR/8/34 (PR8). This resulted in a constellation of C4 and U4 vRNAs coding for low (polymerases) and relatively high (all others) copy number proteins, respectively. U4 has been reported to increase promoter activity in comparison to C4, but the constellation effect on the replication efficiency and pathogenicity of reverse genetics PR8 (rgPR8) has not been fully elucidated...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794024/highly-pathogenic-new-world-arenavirus-infection-activates-the-pattern-recognition-receptor-protein-kinase-r-without-attenuating-virus-replication-in-human-cells
#14
Cheng Huang, Olga A Kolokoltsova, Elizabeth J Mateer, Takaaki Koma, Slobodan Paessler
The arenavirus family consists of several highly pathogenic viruses, including the Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa fever virus (LASV) and the New World (NW) Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV). Host response to infection by these pathogenic arenaviruses is distinct in many aspects. JUNV and MACV infections readily induce an interferon (IFN) response in human cells, while LASV infection usually triggers an undetectable or weak IFN response. JUNV induces an IFN response through RIG-I, suggesting that the host non-self RNA sensor readily detects JUNV viral RNAs (vRNAs) during infection and activates IFN response...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768860/zinc-finger-containing-cellular-transcription-corepressor-zbtb25-promotes-influenza-virus-rna-transcription-and-is-a-target-for-zinc-ejector-drugs
#15
Shu-Chuan Chen, King-Song Jeng, Michael M C Lai
Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells. How the cellular proteins are usurped for IAV replication remains largely obscure. The aim of this study was to search for novel and potential cellular factors that participate in IAV replication. ZBTB25, a transcription repressor of a variety of cellular genes, was identified by an RNA interference (RNAi) genomic library screen. Depletion of ZBTB25 significantly reduced IAV production. Conversely, overexpression of ZBTB25 enhanced it...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746373/zika-virus-preferentially-replicates-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-after-vaginal-inoculation-of-rhesus-macaques
#16
Timothy Carroll, Ming Lo, Marion Lanteri, Joseph Dutra, Katie Zarbock, Paola Silveira, Tracy Rourke, Zhong-Min Ma, Linda Fritts, Shelby O'Connor, Michael Busch, Christopher J Miller
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732035/vaccine-induced-immune-responses-against-both-gag-and-env-improve-control-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-replication-in-rectally-challenged-rhesus-macaques
#17
Mauricio A Martins, Young C Shin, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Aline Domingues, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Iris Castro, Diogo M Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian Bailey, Dillon Betancourt, John D Altman, Matthias Pauthner, Dennis R Burton, Benjamin von Bredow, David T Evans, Maoli Yuan, Christopher L Parks, Keisuke Ejima, David B Allison, Eva Rakasz, Glen N Barber, Saverio Capuano, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ronald C Desrosiers, David I Watkins
The ability to control lentivirus replication may be determined, in part, by the extent to which individual viral proteins are targeted by the immune system. Consequently, defining the antigens that elicit the most protective immune responses may facilitate the design of effective HIV-1 vaccines. Here we vaccinated four groups of rhesus macaques with a heterologous vector prime/boost/boost/boost (PBBB) regimen expressing the following simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genes: env, gag, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 1); env, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 2); gag, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 3); or vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 4)...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724771/intracellular-colocalization-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-rab11a-is-dependent-upon-microtubule-filaments
#18
Eric Nturibi, Amar R Bhagwat, Stefanie Coburn, Mike M Myerburg, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) consists of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments that are replicated in the host cell nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. We have previously proposed a model where subcomplexes of vRNA are exported from the nucleus and assembled en route to the plasma membrane. However, the role of host cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasmic assembly of IAV vRNA segments remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that IAV vRNA segments are transported via Rab11A-containing recycling endosomes (RE) and use both microtubules (MT) and actin...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709400/broad-range-potential-of-asphodelus-microcarpus-leaves-extract-for-drug-development
#19
Amalia Di Petrillo, Antonella Fais, Francesca Pintus, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Ana M González-Paramás, Vincenzo Piras, Germano Orrù, Antonello Mameli, Enzo Tramontano, Aldo Frau
BACKGROUND: Many plants have been used in traditional medicine for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In order to find novel antimicrobial and antiviral agents, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm susceptibility of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract. Moreover, the antiviral activity and the phytochemical composition of the active extract were also determined...
July 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690069/bovine-leukemia-virus-g4-enhances-virus-production
#20
Hironobu Murakami, Shotaro Asano, Jumpei Uchiyama, Reiichiro Sato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Tsukamoto
The nonstructural G4 gene of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been thought to function in virus replication. However, the discovery of the AS1 gene on the antisense strand of the G4 gene has affected this interpretation. In this study, we investigated the function of G4 in virus production independent of the AS1 gene using a reverse genetic approach, and briefly examined the association of the G4 protein with Tax, which is also a nonstructural protein that promotes virus replication. First, we constructed a mutant molecular clone of BLV with a nonsense mutation in G4 that had a minimal effect on the AS1 gene...
July 6, 2017: Virus Research
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