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Tourettes syndrome

Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Stefan Fritze, Fabio Sambataro, Katharina M Kubera, Robert C Wolf
Although genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) are frequently found in schizophrenia, they are also considered as an intrinsic feature of bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset such as autism, ADHD, and Tourette syndrome. Such transnosological observations strongly suggest a common neural pathophysiology. This systematic review highlights the evidence on GMA and their neuroanatomical substrates in bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The data lends support for a common pattern contributing to GMA expression in these diseases that seems to be related to cerebello-thalamo-cortical, fronto-parietal, and cortico-subcortical motor circuit dysfunction...
September 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
John L Waddington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Chul Eung Kim
Given the scarcity of studies examining public beliefs regarding multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, this study compared lay beliefs regarding the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome (TS), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attitudes toward individuals with the disorders. We recruited 673 participants aged 20-64 years via an online panel survey in South Korea. Participants completed questionnaires regarding perceived causation of each disorder. Preferred social distance from people with the disorders was measured using a modified version of the Bogardus Social Distance Scale...
August 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Andreas Hartmann, Yulia Worbe, Kevin J Black
This is the fourth yearly article in the Tourette Syndrome Research Highlights series, summarizing research from 2017 relevant to Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. The authors briefly summarize reports they consider most important or interesting. The  highlights from 2018 article is being drafted on the Authorea online authoring platform, and readers are encouraged to add references or give feedback on our selections using the comments feature on that page. After the calendar year ends, the article is submitted as the annual update for the Tics collection on F1000Research...
2018: F1000Research
Nora Behler, Bianka Leitner, Eva Mezger, Elif Weidinger, Richard Musil, Bernhard Blum, Beatrice Kirsch, Linda Wulf, Lisa Löhrs, Christine Winter, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm
Introduction : Current pathophysiological hypotheses of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) refer to temporally abnormal neuronal activation in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) networks. Modifying cortical activity by non-invasive brain-stimulation appears to be a new treatment option in GTS. Background : Previous studies suggested therapeutic effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to pre-supplementary motor areas (SMA), however, treatment modalities concerning electrode placement, current intensity and stimulation-rate have not been systematically explored...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jordan T Stiede, Jennifer R Alexander, Brianna Wellen, Christopher C Bauer, Michael B Himle, Suzanne Mouton-Odum, Douglas W Woods
Children with persistent (chronic) tic disorders (PTDs) experience impairment across multiple domains of functioning, but given high rates of other non-tic-related conditions, it is often difficult to differentiate the extent to which such impairment is related to tics or to other problems. The current study used the Child Tourette's Syndrome Impairment Scale - Parent Report (CTIM-P) to examine parents' attributions of their child's impairment in home, school, and social domains in a sample of 58 children with PTD...
August 25, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Donald L Gilbert, Tanya K Murphy, Joseph Jankovic, Cathy L Budman, Kevin J Black, Roger M Kurlan, Keith A Coffman, James T McCracken, Jorge Juncos, Jon E Grant, Richard E Chipkin
BACKGROUND: Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists used to treat Tourette syndrome may have inadequate responses or intolerable side effects. We present results of a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the D1 receptor antagonist ecopipam in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. METHODS: Forty youth aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette syndrome and a Yale Global Tic Severity Scale - total tic score of ≥20 were enrolled and randomized to either ecopipam (50 mg/day for weight of <34 kg, 100 mg/day for weight of >34 kg) or placebo for 30 days, followed by a 2-week washout and then crossed to the alternative treatment for 30 days...
August 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mark Paul Richard
In 1878, Dr. George Beard reported to other neurologists that in Maine there existed French-Canadian woodsmen who jumped when excited. Beard observed the phenomenon firsthand and his subsequent reports attracted the attention of Georges Gilles de la Tourette in France and other neurologists worldwide for a couple of decades. During the second half of the twentieth century, interest in the jumpers revived among neurologists, as some came forward with similar observations in different parts of Canada and the United States...
September 5, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Aribert Rothenberger, Veit Roessner
While Behavioral Therapy (BT) should be recommended as the first step in the treatment of OCD as well as TS, medication can be added for augmentation and in certain situations (e.g. family preference, BT not available or feasible) the priority may even reverse. This narrative review is given on the complexity of drug treatment in patients comorbid for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic problems. OCD with TS is a co-occuring combination of two generally delimitable, but in detail also overlapping disorders which wax and wane with time but have different courses and necessities and options of treatment...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
N H Jung, A Münchau, V Mall
BACKGROUND: Neuronal plasticity is a core mechanism for learning and memory. Abnormal neuronal plasticity has emerged as a key mechanism in many neurological and neuropediatric diseases. OBJECTIVE: Chances and perspectives of neuromodulation techniques in neurological and neuropediatric diseases with altered neuronal plasticity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Presentation and discussion of own results of neuronal plasticity investigations in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders including RASopathies, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS)...
August 23, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Linda E Klumpers, David L Thacker
Cannabis has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years. As a result of centuries of breeding and selection, there are now over 700 varieties of cannabis that contain hundreds of compounds, including cannabinoids and terpenes. Cannabinoids are fatty compounds that are the main biological active constituents of cannabis. Terpenes are volatile compounds that occur in many plants and have distinct odors. Cannabinoids exert their effect on the body by binding to receptors, specifically cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2...
August 23, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Maryka Quik, James T Boyd, Tanuja Bordia, Xiomara Perez
Accumulating data from preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that drugs targeting CNS cholinergic systems may be useful for symptomatic treatment of movement disorders. Nicotinic cholinergic drugs, including nicotine and selective nAChR receptor agonists, reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesias, as well as antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia, and may be useful in Tourette's syndrome and ataxia. Subtype selective muscarinic cholinergic drugs may also provide effective therapies for Parkinson's disease, dyskinesias and dystonia...
August 17, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
David D Kim, Alasdair M Barr, Yunsun Chung, Jessica W Y Yuen, Mahyar Etminan, Bruce C Carleton, Randall F White, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
BACKGROUND: Although antipsychotics are used to treat Tourette syndrome, there have been reports of paradoxical induction of tics by first- and second-generation antipsychotics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to better characterize tics as the potential adverse effect of antipsychotics. METHODS: A literature search was performed, with no language restriction, using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases for all publications up to January 2018...
August 18, 2018: CNS Drugs
Jennifer B Dwyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Wolf-Julian Neumann, Julius Huebl, Christof Brücke, Roxanne Lofredi, Andreas Horn, Assel Saryyeva, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Joachim K Krauss, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant oscillatory activity has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been established as an effective treatment for severe TS. Modulation of symptom specific oscillations may underlie the mechanism of action of DBS and could be used for adaptive neuromodulation to improve therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a pathophysiological association of pallidal and thalamic local field potentials (LFP) with TS...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Neurology
A E Cavanna
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic tic disorder characterised by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics with onset during development. Tics are the most common hyperkinetic symptoms in childhood and co-morbid behavioural conditions (especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity) are present in the majority of patients. Although GTS is no longer considered a rare medical curiosity, its exact pathophysiology remains elusive...
August 8, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Jennifer Tübing, Bettina Gigla, Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Julius Verrel, Anne Weissbach, Christian Beste, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
The important role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the generation of tics and urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is underscored by an increased SMA-motor cortex (M1) connectivity. However, whether plasticity is also altered in SMA-M1 pathways is unclear. We explored whether SMA-M1 plasticity is altered in patients with Tourette syndrome. 15 patients with GTS (mean age of 33.4 years, SD = 9.9) and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated with a paired association stimulation (PAS) protocol using three transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils stimulating both M1 and the SMA...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
James Robert Brašić, Zoltan Mari, Alicja Lerner, Vanessa Raymont, Eram Zaidi, Dean F Wong
Heat has been reported to exert variable effects on people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). At age 24 years, a 32-year-old right-handed man with TS experienced a marked reduction in tics for two years after undergoing dehydration by entering a hot tub at 103°F (39.4°C) to 104°F (40.0°C) for 3 to 4 hours. On the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) he scored 55 seven months before dehydration and 13 one month after dehydration. An intense heat exposure and dehydration led to an apparent remission in tics...
2018: International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Zeynep Yilmaz, Matthew Halvorsen, Julien Bryois, Dongmei Yu, Laura M Thornton, Stephanie Zerwas, Nadia Micali, Rainald Moessner, Christie L Burton, Gwyneth Zai, Lauren Erdman, Martien J Kas, Paul D Arnold, Lea K Davis, James A Knowles, Gerome Breen, Jeremiah M Scharf, Gerald Nestadt, Carol A Mathews, Cynthia M Bulik, Manuel Mattheisen, James J Crowley
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and likely to share genetic risk factors. Hence, we examine their shared genetic background using a cross-disorder GWAS meta-analysis of 3495 AN cases, 2688 OCD cases, and 18,013 controls. We confirmed a high genetic correlation between AN and OCD (rg  = 0.49 ± 0.13, p = 9.07 × 10-7 ) and a sizable SNP heritability (SNP h2  = 0.21 ± 0.02) for the cross-disorder phenotype. Although no individual loci reached genome-wide significance, the cross-disorder phenotype showed strong positive genetic correlations with other psychiatric phenotypes (e...
August 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Marius Hienert, Gregor Gryglewski, Mara Stamenkovic, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Despite intense research, the underlying mechanisms and the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS) remain unknown. Data from molecular imaging studies targeting the dopamine system in Tourette patients are inconclusive. For a better understanding of the striatal dopamine function in adult dopamine-antagonist-free patients we performed a systematic review in August 2017 identifying 49 PET and SPECT studies on the topic of TS. A total of 8 studies appraised the dopamine transporter (DAT) with 111 Tourette patients and 93 healthy controls, and could be included in a meta-analytic approach...
August 2, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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