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Tourettes syndrome

Alessio Soggiu, Cristian Piras, Viviana Greco, Paola Devoto, Andrea Urbani, Luigino Calzetta, Marco Bortolato, Paola Roncada
The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone and testosterone into neuroactive steroids implicated in a wide array of behavioral functions. The prototypical 5αR inhibitor, finasteride (FIN), is clinically approved for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent evidence has shown that FIN, albeit generally well tolerated, can induce untoward psychological effects in a subset of patients; furthermore, this drug may have therapeutic efficacy for a number of different neuropsychiatric conditions, ranging from Tourette syndrome to schizophrenia...
October 6, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Andreas Hartmann
In patients with severe, treatment-refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of various targets has been increasingly explored over the past 15 years. The multiplicity of surgical targets is intriguing and may be partly due to the complexity of GTS, specifically the various and frequent associated psychiatric comorbidities in this disorder. Thus, the target choice may not only be aimed at reducing tics but also comorbidities. While this approach is laudable, it also carries the risk to increase confounding factors in DBS trials and patient evaluation...
2016: F1000Research
Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilknur Telkes, Ashwin Viswanathan, Nuri F Ince
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Thalamic (Cm-Pf) and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi) targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the STN in PD patients is pathologic...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jinna Yu, Yongming Ye, Jun Liu, Yang Wang, Weina Peng, Zhishun Liu
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat TS written in English or Chinese without restrictions on publication status. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined with the fixed-effect model based on a heterogeneity test...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Navneet Kaur, Puneet Kumar, Sumit Jamwal, Rahul Deshmukh, Vinod Gauttam
BACKGROUND: Tetrabenazine (TBZ) is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of chorea related to Huntington's disease and other hyperkinetic disorders. TBZ was first synthesized in 1950, and was then used for the treatment of psychosis. But later its potential in treating hyperkinetic disorders was proved by its ability to block vesicular monoamine transporters 2 and deplete monoamine stores. There is still lack of awareness about the therapeutic potential of this drug...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
John Alexander, Hera Potamianou, Jinchuan Xing, Li Deng, Iordanis Karagiannidis, Fotis Tsetsos, Petros Drineas, Zsanett Tarnok, Renata Rizzo, Tomasz Wolanczyk, Luca Farkas, Peter Nagy, Urszula Szymanska, Christos Androutsos, Vaia Tsironi, Anastasia Koumoula, Csaba Barta, Paul Sandor, Cathy L Barr, Jay Tischfield, Peristera Paschou, Gary A Heiman, Marianthi Georgitsi
Although the genetic basis of Tourette Syndrome (TS) remains unclear, several candidate genes have been implicated. Using a set of 382 TS individuals of European ancestry we investigated four candidate genes for TS (HDC, SLITRK1, BTBD9, and SLC6A4) in an effort to identify possibly causal variants using a targeted re-sequencing approach by next generation sequencing technology. Identification of possible disease causing variants under different modes of inheritance was performed using the algorithms implemented in VAAST...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Katie Kompoliti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Merina T Su, Fiona McFarlane, Andrea E Cavanna, Cristiano Termine, Imogen Murray, Larissa Heidemeyer, Isobel Heyman, Tara Murphy
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that can have a detrimental impact on the health-related quality of life of children with the condition. To date no patient-reported health-related quality of life measures have been developed for children and adolescents in the English language. This study validated the first disease-specific scale for the quantitative assessment of health-related quality of life in 118 children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (C&A-GTS-QOL) following language adaptation from Italian to English in the United Kingdom...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Amanda K Ludlow, Rachel Brown, Joerg Schulz
Few studies address the daily challenges faced by parents of children diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. This article reports on a qualitative interview study with 15 parents exploring their experiences, the challenges they face and the support mechanisms they have found to be most helpful. Thematic analysis identified four core categories which represented shared experiences of the participants: coping with children's challenging behaviours, misconceptions and lack of understanding of professionals and the lay public, negative experiences of their children's education and lack of support and services for families with Tourette's syndrome...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Sarah Gerasch, Ahmad Seif Kanaan, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tanvi Sambrani, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder defined by the presence of motor and phonic tics, but often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The main objective of this study was to explore the clinical presentation and comorbidities of TS. METHOD: We analyzed clinical data obtained from a large sample (n = 1032; 529 children and 503 adults) of patients with tic disorders from one single German TS center assessed by one investigator...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kelly Isaacs Cloes, Kara S Francis Barfell, Paul S Horn, Steve W Wu, Sarah E Jacobson, Kathleen J Hart, Donald L Gilbert
AIM: To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. METHOD: In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years...
September 27, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Kah Keng Wong, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Siew Hua Gan
Neurological manifestations or disorders associated with central nervous system (CNS) are one of the most common as well as important clinical characteristics of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although in the last updated (2006) classification criteria of APS its neurological manifestations encompassed only transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke, diverse 'non-criteria' neurological disorders or manifestations (headache, migraine, bipolar disorder, transverse myelitis, dementia, chorea, epileptic seizures, multiple sclerosis, psychosis, cognitive impairment, Tourette's syndrome, parkinsonism, dystonia, transient global amnesia, obsessive compulsive disorder and leukoencephalopathy) have been observed in APS patients...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Kara D Beasley
Implantation of deep brain stimulator (DBS) leads for Gilles de Tourette syndrome was first described by Visser-Vanderwalle et al., with a reported 70%-90% decrease in tic frequency. 1 Since that time, several targets, including the basal/ganglia and striatum, have been described. The target remains experimental, and in this case, leads were implanted under an investigator-initiated research protocol. Ms. L. reported an excellent intraoperative reduction in the "urge to tic" that persisted for 15 weeks postoperatively, indicating that the leads were well placed...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
(no author information available yet)
Ms. L. is a 31-year-old female who presents to Dr. Impf, a neurosurgeon. Ms. L. has a more than 25-year history of iteratively worsening Tourette syndrome, characterized by severe motoric and postural tics and respiratory expression (grunting). Ms. L. is a rather shy, somewhat introverted woman who spends her time with her husband and a small group of friends, mostly watching cooking shows. Although she has been, and is generally, a good student, she describes her academic performance as "not stellar." Following years of unsuccessful attempts at pharmacological therapy, Ms...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Prateek Agarwal, Christina E Sarris, Yehuda Herschman, Nitin Agarwal, Antonios Mammis
Schizophrenia is a chronic and progressive psychiatric disease that remains difficult to manage in the 21st century. Current medical therapies have been able to give reprieve and decrease incidence of psychotic episodes. However, as the disease progresses, patients can become ever more refractory to current pharmaceutical agents and the polypharmacy that is attempted in treatment. Additionally, many of these drugs have significant adverse effects, leaving the practitioner in a difficult predicament for treating these patients...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Andreia Corciova
Clonidine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent used for migraine prophylaxis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, menopausal flushing and Tourette syndrome. The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the respective label claim. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the conditions for two spectrophotometric methods for clonidine determination, based on the formation of the ion pair complex between clonidine hydrochloride and thymol blue/bromophenol blue...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Thomas W Faust, Maxime Assous, James M Tepper, Tibor Koós
UNLABELLED: Synchronous optogenetic activation of striatal cholinergic interneurons ex vivo produces a disynaptic inhibition of spiny projection neurons composed of biophysically distinct GABAAfast and GABAAslow components. This has been shown to be due, at least in part, to activation of nicotinic receptors on GABAergic NPY-neurogliaform interneurons that monosynaptically inhibit striatal spiny projection neurons. Recently, it has been proposed that a significant proportion of this inhibition is actually mediated by activation of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on nigrostriatal terminals that evoke GABA release from the terminals of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Natalie J Forde, Ahmad S Kanaan, Joanna Widomska, Shanmukha S Padmanabhuni, Ester Nespoli, John Alexander, Juan I Rodriguez Arranz, Siyan Fan, Rayan Houssari, Muhammad S Nawaz, Francesca Rizzo, Luca Pagliaroli, Nuno R Zilhäo, Tamas Aranyi, Csaba Barta, Tobias M Boeckers, Dorret I Boomsma, Wim R Buisman, Jan K Buitelaar, Danielle Cath, Andrea Dietrich, Nicole Driessen, Petros Drineas, Michelle Dunlap, Sarah Gerasch, Jeffrey Glennon, Bastian Hengerer, Odile A van den Heuvel, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Harald E Möller, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Thaïra J C Openneer, Geert Poelmans, Petra J W Pouwels, Jeremiah M Scharf, Hreinn Stefansson, Zeynep Tümer, Dick J Veltman, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Ludolph, Peristera Paschou
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared etiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No. 316978) is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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