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Head impacts

Ema Mataca, Mario Migaldi, Anna M Cesinaro
BACKGROUND: Equivocal pigmented lesions of the head are usually biopsied to avoid inappropriate treatment. Clinical approach has evolved from simple visual examination to sophisticated techniques for selecting the biopsy sites. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficiency of dermoscopy (DE) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in sampling a histopathologically representative focus of lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma. METHODS: Punch biopsies and surgical excisions of 72 patients, 37 men and 35 women (median age 70...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Cara F Levitch, Chloe Ifrah, Mimi Kim, Walter F Stewart, Richard B Lipton, Molly E Zimmerman, Michael L Lipton
OBJECTIVE: In soccer, unintentional and intentional (heading) head impacts are associated with concussive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. We examined whether personality traits were associated with these behaviors in soccer players. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants completed study visits at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. A total of 307 adult amateur soccer players, recruited from New York City and the surrounding area, completed 737 HeadCount-2w questionnaires...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Vimala N Bharadwaj, Rachel K Rowe, Jordan Harrison, Chen Wu, Trent R Anderson, Jonathan Lifshitz, P David Adelson, Vikram D Kodibagkar, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Clinically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex heterogeneous pathology that cannot be recapitulated in single pre-clinical animal model. Therefore, we focused on evaluating utility of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics following three diffuse-TBI models: mild-closed-head injury (mCHI), repetitive-mCHI and midline-fluid percussion injury (FPI). We hypothesized that NP accumulation after diffuse TBI correlates directly with blood-brain-barrier permeability. Mice received PEGylated-NP cocktail (20-500nm) (intravenously) after single- or repetitive-(1 impact/day, 5 consecutive days) CHI (immediately) and midline-FPI (1h, 3h and 6h)...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Eric M Gold, Vitaly Vasilevko, Jonathan Hasselmann, Casey Tiefenthaler, Danny Hoa, Kasuni Ranawaka, David H Cribbs, Brian J Cummings
An estimated 5.3 million Americans are living with a disability from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is emerging evidence of the detrimental effects from repeated mild TBIs (rmTBIs). rmTBI manifests its own unique set of behavioral and neuropathological changes. A subset of individuals exposed to rmTBI develop permanent behavioral and pathological consequences, defined postmortem as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We have combined components of two classic rodent models of TBI, the controlled cortical impact model and the weight drop model, to develop a repeated mild closed head injury (rmCHI) that produces long-term deficits in several behaviors that correlate with neuropathological changes...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
James C H Chow, Kwok Hung Au, Oscar W K Mang, Ka Man Cheung, Roger K C Ngan
AIM: Second primary tumor (SPT) is a serious late complication after definitive radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We evaluated the incidence, pattern, risk factors and survival impact of SPT in NPC patients following definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: A retrospective review of 780 consecutive IMRT-treated NPC patients between February 2003 and September 2011 was conducted. Cumulative SPT incidence and overall survival after SPT diagnosis were estimated...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Evan M Graboyes, Mark A Ellis, Hong Li, John M Kaczmar, Anand K Sharma, Eric J Lentsch, Terry A Day, Chanita Hughes Halbert
BACKGROUND: Patients who travel a long distance (≥50 miles) for cancer care have improved outcomes. However, to the authors' knowledge, the prevalence of long travel distances for treatment by patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and the effect of travel distance on overall survival (OS), remains unknown. METHODS: The authors used the National Cancer Data base from 2004 through 2013 to identify patients with HNSCC undergoing definitive treatment...
June 22, 2018: Cancer
S Clough, M Burke, B Daly, S Scambler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: British Dental Journal
Fabian Plachel, Gundobert Korn, Sejla Abdic, Philipp Moroder
In the field of traumatic shoulder dislocations, this report of a 61-year-old female patient discusses the case of an acute locked superior shoulder dislocation in conjunction with a chronic rotator cuff arthropathy resulting from a low-energy fall on the outstretched and abducted arm. Radiological assessment revealed a complex combination of associated bony injuries including a fracture of the upper part of the glenoid and an impaction fracture of the inferior articular surface of the humeral head. Closed reduction and immobilisation were not successful in obtaining joint stability...
June 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Calvin Kuo, Michael Fanton, Lyndia Wu, David Camarillo
The head is kinematically constrained to the torso through the spine and thus, the spine dictates the amount of output head angular motion expected from an input impact. Here, we investigate the spinal kinematic constraint by analyzing the head instantaneous center of rotation (HICOR) with respect to the torso in head/neck sagittal extension and coronal lateral flexion during mild loads applied to 10 subjects. We found the mean HICOR location was near the C5-C6 intervertebral joint in sagittal extension, and T2-T3 intervertebral joint in coronal lateral flexion...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Dinh Ng-Nguyen, John Noh, Kathleen Breen, Mark Anthony Stevenson, Sukwan Handali, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis, recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the WHO, is distributed mostly in developing countries of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Pigs and humans act as intermediate hosts, acquiring T. solium cysticerci (larval stage) in their tissue, through the ingestion of T. solium eggs shed in the faeces of humans infected with adult tapeworms. The disease has a negative impact on rural economies due to losses in productivity arising from human disease, pork carcass condemnations and loss of market access...
June 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Moshe Fridman, Paul Hodgkins, Keira Kim, Gisli H Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and head injury (including traumatic brain injury (TBI)) manifest in high levels across prison samples and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence notes that people with acquired brain injury may have increased prevalence of ADHD. We aimed to examine the association of ADHD with TBI and the impact of the association upon health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and service use among imprisoned adults...
June 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Rijk de Rooij, Ellen Kuhl
Excessive physical impacts to the head have direct implications on the structural integrity at the axonal level. Increasing evidence suggests that tau, an intrinsically disordered protein that stabilizes axonal microtubules, plays a critical role in the physical biology of axonal injury. However, the precise mechanisms of axonal damage remain incompletely understood. Here we propose a biophysical model of the axon to correlate the dynamic behavior of individual tau proteins under external physical forces to the evolution of axonal damage...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ines Batinic-Haberle, Artak Tovmasyan, Ivan Spasojevic
SIGNIFICANCE: After ~3 decades of research, two Mn(III) porphyrins(MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010,AEOL10113) and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001) have progressed to 5 clinical trials. In parallel, another similarly potent metal-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic - Mn(II)pentaaza macrocycle, GC4419 - has been tested in clinical trial on application, identical to that one of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ - radioprotection of normal tissue in Head and Neck cancer patients. This clearly indicates that Mn complexes, that target cellular redox environment, have reached sufficient maturity for clinical applications...
June 21, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Song Wang, Yajun Zhao, Bochao Cheng, Xiuli Wang, Xun Yang, Taolin Chen, Xueling Suo, Qiyong Gong
As a hot research topic in the field of psychology and psychiatry, trait optimism reflects the tendency to expect positive outcomes in the future. Consistent evidence has demonstrated the role of trait optimism in reducing anxiety among different populations. However, less is known about the neural bases of trait optimism and the underlying mechanisms for how trait optimism protects against anxiety in the healthy brain. In this investigation, we examined these issues in 231 healthy adolescent students by assessing resting-state brain activity (i...
June 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Olfa Chakroun-Walha, Amal Samet, Mouna Jerbi, Abdennour Nasri, Aziza Talbi, Hassen Kanoun, Basma Souissi, Kamilia Chtara, Mounir Bouaziz, Hichem Ksibi, Noureddine Rekik
INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the debated therapies in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We conducted this study to evaluate the benefits of TXA in TBI on the mortality and its safety in these patients. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized open-label trial including all patients, aged at 18 years or older, hospitalized in the emergency room during a 13-month period, for TBI. After the realization of the body CT scan, the patients were included if they had intracranial bleeding, and were then randomized according to their medical file number to receive or not the TXA...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Elizabeth Benjamin, Gustavo Recinos, Alberto Aiolfi, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: Flail chest is considered a highly morbid condition with reported mortality ranging from 10 to 20%. It is often associated with other severe injuries, which may complicate management and interpretation of outcomes. The physiologic impact and prognosis of isolated flail chest injury is poorly defined. METHODS: This is a National Trauma Databank study. All patients from 1/2007 to 12/2014 admitted with flail chest were extracted. Patients with head or abdominal AIS ≥3, dead on arrival, or transferred, were excluded...
June 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Jillian E Urban, Mireille E Kelley, Mark A Espeland, Elizabeth M Davenport, Christopher T Whitlow, Alexander K Powers, Joseph A Maldjian, Joel D Stitzel
Head impact exposure (HIE) is often summarized by the total exposure measured during the season and does not indicate how the exposure was accumulated, or how it varied during the season. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare HIE during preseason, the first and second halves of the regular season, and playoffs in a sample of youth football players (n=119, ages 9-13). Athletes were divided into one of four exposure groups based on quartiles computed from the distribution of risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Calvin Kuo, Lyndia Wu, Jesus Loza, Daniel Senif, Scott C Anderson, David B Camarillo
Previous research has sought to quantify head impact exposure using wearable kinematic sensors. However, many sensors suffer from poor accuracy in estimating impact kinematics and count, motivating the need for additional independent impact exposure quantification for comparison. Here, we equipped seven collegiate American football players with instrumented mouthguards, and video recorded practices and games to compare video-based and sensor-based exposure rates and impact location distributions. Over 50 player-hours, we identified 271 helmet contact periods in video, while the instrumented mouthguard sensor recorded 2,032 discrete head impacts...
2018: PloS One
Anthony Ding, Robert V OʼToole, Renan Castillo, Brad Reahl, Ryan Montalvo, Jason W Nascone, Marcus F Sciadini, Anthony R Carlini, Theodore T Manson
OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors for early reoperation after operative fixation of acetabular fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation. SETTING: Level I Trauma Center. PATIENTS: Seven hundred ninety-one patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) from 2006 to 2015. Average follow-up was 52 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early reoperation after acetabular ORIF, defined as secondary procedure for infection or revision within 3 years of initial operation...
July 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Assem A Sultan, Nequesha Mohamed, Linsen T Samuel, Morad Chughtai, Nipun Sodhi, Viktor E Krebs, Kim L Stearns, Robert M Molloy, Michael A Mont
PURPOSE: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) typically impacts middle-aged patients who are typically more active and in whom many surgeons would try to delay performing a total hip arthroplasty (THA). This poses a clinical decision-making challenge. Therefore, several options for joint preservation have been advocated, but varying indications and success rates have led to debate on when to use the various procedures. This is due in part to the lack of a generalized system for assessing ONFH, as well as the absence of a standardized method of data collection for patient stratification...
June 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
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