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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053808/the-impact-of-supplemental-antioxidants-on-visual-function-in-nonadvanced-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-head-to-head-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, Stephen Beatty, Tunde Peto, Jim Stack, Jim Stringham, David Kelly, Irene Leung, Laura Corcoran, John M Nolan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration. Methods: In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052789/computational-analysis-of-pharyngeal-swallowing-mechanics-in-patients-with-motor-neuron-disease-a-pilot-investigation
#2
K L Garand, Ryan Schwertner, Amy Chen, William G Pearson
Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
October 20, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052530/health-impacts-of-chemical-irritants-used-for-crowd-control-a-systematic-review-of-the-injuries-and-deaths-caused-by-tear-gas-and-pepper-spray
#3
Rohini J Haar, Vincent Iacopino, Nikhil Ranadive, Sheri D Weiser, Madhavi Dandu
BACKGROUND: Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015...
October 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052037/effects-of-mirror-placement-on-sagittal-alignment-of-the-spine-during-acquisition-of-full-spine-standing-x-rays
#4
Shin Oe, Daisuke Togawa, Go Yoshida, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Yu Yamato, Tatsuya Yasuda, Tomohiro Banno, Hideyuki Arima, Yuki Mihara, Hiroki Ushirozako, Yukihiro Matsuyama
PURPOSE: The line of sight when whole-spine radiographs are taken has not been defined. In our 2012 health screening study (TOEI study), whole-spine radiographs were taken with the volunteers in the most relaxed position and with a horizontal gaze. However, in the TOEI 2014 study, a mirror was placed in front of their faces to unify their line of sight. To our knowledge, there are no reports on how the sagittal alignment changes when radiographs are taken using a mirror. The purpose of this study was to investigate how mirror placement impacted sagittal spinal alignment in whole-spine radiographs taken while standing...
October 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051552/auditory-evoked-bold-responses-in-awake-compared-to-lightly-anaesthetized-zebra-finches
#5
L Van Ruijssevelt, J Hamaide, M T Van Gurp, M Verhoye, A Van der Linden
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used in cognitive neuroscience and has become a valuable tool in the study of auditory processing in zebra finches, a well-established model of learned vocal communication. Due to its sensitivity to head motion, most fMRI studies in animals are performed in anaesthetized conditions, which might significantly impact neural activity evoked by stimuli and cognitive tasks. In this study, we (1) demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI in awake zebra finches and (2) explore how light anaesthesia regimes affect auditory-evoked BOLD responses to biologically relevant songs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050538/evaluation-of-the-head-and-neck-cancer-patient-population-and-the-incidence-of-hospitalization-at-an-academic-medical-center
#6
Lindsay A Hazelden, Matthew J Newman, Stephanie Shuey, Julie M Waldfogel, Victoria T Brown
Purpose Patients with head and neck cancer are at risk for disease- and treatment-related toxicities that may be severe enough to require hospitalization. The risk factors associated with hospitalization in these patients are not well defined. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study of patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemotherapy at an academic medical center infusion clinic in a one-year period. The primary objective was to characterize the head and neck cancer population at an academic medical center...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048990/title-site-specific-glycosylation-profile-of-influenza-a-h1n1-hemagglutinin-through-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Esteban Cruz, Joel Cain, Ben Crossett, Veysel Kayser
The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045166/driver-injury-in-near-and-far-side-impacts-update-on-the-effect-of-front-passenger-belt-use
#8
Chantal S Parenteau, David C Viano
PURPOSE: This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury and identifies the sources for severe, driver head injury. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the risk for MAIS 4+F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front-passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat...
October 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045052/a-review-of-wheat-diseases-a-field-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Melania Figueroa, Kim E Hammond-Kosack, Peter S Solomon
Wheat is one of the primary staple foods throughout the planet. Significant yield gains in wheat production over the past 40 years have resulted in a steady balance of supply versus demand. However, predicted global population growth rates and dietary changes necessitate substantial yield gains over the next several decades to meet this escalating demand. A key component to meeting this challenge is better management of fungal incited diseases, which can be responsible for 15-20% yield losses per annum. Prominent diseases of wheat that currently contribute to these losses include the rusts, the blotches and head blight/scab...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044543/investigating-the-effects-of-laryngotracheal-stenosis-on-upper-airway-aerodynamics
#10
Tracy Cheng, David Carpenter, Seth Cohen, David Witsell, Dennis O Frank-Ito
OBJECTIVE: Very little is known about the impact of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) on inspiratory airflow and resistance, especially in air hunger states. This study investigates the effect of LTS on airway resistance and volumetric flow across three different inspiratory pressures. METHODS: Head-and-neck computed tomography scans of 11 subjects from 2010 to 2016 were collected. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the upper airway from the nostrils to carina, including the oral cavity, were created for one subject with a normal airway and for 10 patients with LTS...
October 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044420/characterization-of-a-novel-role-for-the-dynamin-mechanoenzymes-in-the-regulation-of-human-sperm-acrosomal-exocytosis
#11
Wei Zhou, Amanda L Anderson, Adrian P Turner, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Adam McCluskey, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does dynamin regulate human sperm acrosomal exocytosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our studies of dynamin localization and function have implicated this family of mechanoenzymes in the regulation of progesterone-induced acrosomal exocytosis in human spermatozoa. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Completion of an acrosome reaction is a prerequisite for successful fertilization in all studied mammalian species. It follows that failure to complete this unique exocytotic event represents a common aetiology in the defective spermatozoa of male infertility patients that have failed IVF in a clinical setting...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044033/-reduction-of-shoulder-dislocation-with-the-cunningham-method
#12
Thorsteinn H Gudmundsson, Hjalti Mar Bjornsson
INTRODUCTION: The Cunningham technique has been shown to be an effective and simple method to reduce a dislocated shoulder. It is based on the theory that the humeral head remains outside the glenoid fossa due to tension in the long biceps tendon. In the beginning of 2013 doctors at the emergency department in Landspitali University Hospital (LUH) in Reykjavik were instructed in the Cunningham method for reduction of anterior dislocation without sedation. The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of its induction with regards to number of attempts, successful relocations, sedation, use of analgesics and length of stay in the ED...
September 2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043437/differences-in-the-prognosis-of-hpv16-positive-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-head-and-neck-according-to-viral-load-and-expression-of-p16
#13
Beata Biesaga, Anna Mucha-Małecka, Anna Janecka-Widła, Marta Kołodziej-Rzepa, Sława Szostek, Dorota Słonina, Aleksandra Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Halaszka, Marcin Przewoźnik
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of HPV16 load (VL-the number of virus genome copies per cell) and P16 expression on prognosis of patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of head and neck (HN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPV16 presence was assessed in the group of 109 patients with HNSCCs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). VL (assessed by qPCR) and P16 expression (evaluated by immunohistochemistry) were analysed only in the subgroup of HPV16-positive tumours...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040497/the-association-between-fall-frequency-injury-risk-and-characteristics-of-falls-in-older-residents-of-long-term-care-do-recurrent-fallers-fall-more-safely
#14
Kimberley S van Schooten, Yijian Yang, Fabio Feldman, Ming Leung, Heather McKay, Joanie Sims-Gould, Stephen N Robinovitch
Background: Although a fall is a necessary prerequisite to a fall-related injury, previous studies suggest that frequent fallers are at lower injury risk for a given fall. We tested the hypotheses that differences in protective responses or the circumstances of falls underlie differences in injury risk with fall frequency. Methods: We analyzed video footage of 897 falls experienced by 220 long-term care residents (mean age 82±9 yrs) to identify the cause of imbalance, activity leading to falling, direction of fall initiation, balance recovery and fall protective responses, and occurrence of impact to the head or hip...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037111/head-and-neck-size-and-neck-strength-predict-linear-and-rotational-acceleration-during-purposeful-soccer-heading
#15
Jaclyn B Caccese, Thomas A Buckley, Ryan T Tierney, Kristy B Arbogast, William C Rose, Joseph J Glutting, Thomas W Kaminski
There is increasing societal concern about the long-term effects of repeated impacts from soccer heading, but there is little information about ways to reduce head impact severity. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to head acceleration during soccer heading. One-hundred soccer players completed 12 controlled soccer headers. Peak linear (PLA) and rotational (PRA) accelerations were measured using a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope. Head acceleration contributing factors were grouped into 3 categories: size (head mass, neck girth), strength (sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius) and technique [kinematics (trunk, head-to-trunk range-of-motion), sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius activity]...
October 16, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037104/high-magnitude-head-impact-exposure-in-youth-football
#16
Eamon T Campolettano, Ryan A Gellner, Steven Rowson
OBJECTIVE Even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed concussion, research suggests that neurocognitive changes may develop in football players as a result of frequent head impacts that occur during football games and practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific situations in which high-magnitude impacts (accelerations exceeding 40 g) occur in youth football games and practices and to assess how representative practice activities are of games with regard to high-magnitude head impact exposure...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036215/reduction-of-in-utero-lead-exposures-in-south-african-populations-positive-impact-of-unleaded-petrol
#17
Halina B Röllin, Bukola Olutola, Kalavati Channa, Jon Ø Odland
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) has been shown to have negative and irreversible health impacts on foetal and early childhood development, affecting morbidity and mortality in adulthood. This study aimed to assess in utero Pb exposure, examine birth outcomes, and identify confounding factors in the large cohort of South African population, following the legislated removal of Pb from petrol. METHODS: Lead was measured in the maternal blood, urine and cord blood using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035813/energy-loss-and-impact-of-various-stunning-devices-used-for-the-slaughtering-of-water-buffaloes
#18
Matthieu Glardon, Barbara K Schwenk, Fabiano Riva, Adrian von Holzen, Steffen G Ross, Beat P Kneubuehl, Michael H Stoffel
Stock management of the Swiss water buffalo livestock results in the slaughtering of about 350 animals per year. As the stunning of water buffaloes still is an unresolved issue, we investigated the terminal ballistics of currently used perforating stunning devices. Cartridge fired captive bolt devices, handguns and a bullet casing gun were tested in a shooting steep by firing on bisected heads, forehead plates and soap blocks. Energy loss of captive bolts confirmed their inadequacy when used for heavy water buffaloes, notably adult males...
September 28, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035590/the-impact-of-different-competitive-environments-on-pacing-and-performance
#19
Marco J Konings, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: In real-life competitive situations, athletes are required to continuously make decisions about how and when to invest their available energy resources. This study attempted to identify how different competitive environments invite elite short-track speed skaters to modify their pacing behaviour during head-to-head competition. METHODS: Lap times of elite 500, 1000 and 1500 m short-track speed skating competitions between 2011-2016 (n=34095 races) were collected...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033121/prognostic-significance-of-extranodal-extension-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cn0-patients-with-occult-metastatic-neck-nodes
#20
Joan Lop, Antoni Rigó, Alberto Codina, Julia de Juan, Miquel Quer, Xavier León
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Extranodal extension in nodal metastases is an independent adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. However, few studies specifically address the subgroup of patients with no clinical evidence of nodal disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 348 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients without any previous treatment and lacking clinical or radiological evidence of neck node metastases during the initial workup, treated with an elective neck dissection between 1992-2014...
October 12, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
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