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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437225/neck-collar-with-mild-jugular-vein-compression-ameliorates-brain-activation-changes-during-a-working-memory-task-after-a-season-of-high-school-football
#1
Weihong Yuan, James Leach, Thomas Maloney, Mekibib Altaye, David Smith, Paul Gubanich, Kim Barber-Foss, Staci Thomas, Christopher DiCesare, Adam Kiefer, Gregory D Myer
Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurologic deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on fMRI of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through slosh mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437010/technical-note-comparison-of-peripheral-patient-dose-from-mr-guided-60-co-therapy-and-6mv-linear-accelerator-igrt
#2
Pascal Hauri, Roger A Hälg, Uwe Schneider
PURPOSE: The use of X-ray imaging in radiation therapy can give a substantial dose to the patient. A Cobalt machine combined with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced to clinical work. One positive aspect of using non-ionizing imaging devices is the reduction of the patient exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify the difference in out-of-field dose to the patient between the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatment applied with a linear accelerator with cone beam CT (CBCT) equipment and a Cobalt machine combined with an MRI...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436738/brainstem-injury-in-motor-vehicle-crashes
#3
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
OBJECTIVE: This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk for brainstem injury by crash type, belt use and crash severity (delta V). NASS-CDS electronic cases were reviewed to see if the transition from vehicles without advanced airbags and seatbelts, side airbags and curtains to vehicles with the safety technologies has influenced the risk for brainstem injury. METHODS: 1994-2013 NASS-CDS was analyzed to determine the number of brainstem injuries in non-ejected adults (15+ year old) in vehicle crashes...
March 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432841/comparison-of-pneumatic-tube-system-with-manual-transport-for-routine-chemistry-hematology-coagulation-and-blood-gas-tests
#4
Alex Pupek, Beverly Matthewson, Erin Whitman, Rachel Fullarton, Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: The pneumatic tube system (PTS) is commonly used in modern clinical laboratories to provide quick specimen delivery. However, its impact on sample integrity and laboratory testing results are still debatable. In addition, each PTS installation and configuration is unique to its institution. We sought to validate our Swisslog PTS by comparing routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas test results and sample integrity indices between duplicate samples transported either manually or by PTS...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432671/investigation-of-the-physical-effects-of-respiratory-motion-compensation-in-a-large-population-of-patients-undergoing-tc-99m-cardiac-perfusion-spect-ct-stress-imaging
#5
P Hendrik Pretorius, Karen L Johnson, Seth T Dahlberg, Michael A King
BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion can deteriorate image fidelity in cardiac perfusion SPECT. We determined the extent of respiratory motion, assessed its impact on image fidelity, and investigated the existence of gender differences, thereby examining the influence of respiratory motion in a large population of patients. METHODS: One thousand one hundred and three SPECT/CT patients underwent visual tracking of markers on their anterior surface during stress acquisition to track respiratory motion...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430715/computed-tomography-of-the-head-and-neck-region-for-tumor-staging-comparison-of-dual-source-dual-energy-and-low-kilovolt-single-energy-acquisitions
#6
Matthias Stefan May, Joscha Bruegel, Michael Brand, Marco Wiesmueller, Bernhard Krauss, Thomas Allmendinger, Michael Uder, Wolfgang Wuest
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430523/altered-expression-of-mirnas-is-related-to-larynx-cancer-tnm-stage-and-patients-smoking-status
#8
Antoni Bruzgielewicz, Ewa Osuch-Wojcikiewicz, Kazimierz Niemczyk, Olga Sieniawska-Buccella, Mateusz Siwak, Anna Walczak, Alicja Nowak, Ireneusz Majsterek
It has been reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for acquiring all the hallmarks of cancer cells, as well as have a significant impact on the clinical management of cancers at every stage, including prognosis, remission, relapse, and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the association of miR-29a-3p, miR-202-3p, miR-3713, miR-4768-3p, and miR-548aa expression with clinicopathologic features in patients suffering from laryngeal cancer (LC) and determined the potential role of studied miRNAs in the progression of LC...
April 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429139/rates-of-parasitism-but-not-allocation-of-egg-resources-vary-among-and-within-hosts-of-a-generalist-avian-brood-parasite
#9
Loren Merrill, Scott J Chiavacci, Ryan T Paitz, Thomas J Benson
Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) deposit their eggs into the nests of other birds, which then raise the cowbird chick. Female cowbirds thus have limited options for impacting their offspring's development via maternal effects compared to most other passerines. Cowbirds can impact their offspring's phenotype by choosing among potential host nests, and by adjusting egg resources based on host characteristics. To examine whether cowbirds exhibit either or both of these strategies, we investigated rates of cowbird parasitism and egg investment (egg size, yolk-to-albumen ratio, and yolk testosterone and androstenedione) among and within host species in a shrubland bird community...
April 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427480/lessons-from-a-large-trauma-center-impact-of-blunt-chest-trauma-in-polytrauma-patients-still-a-relevant-problem
#10
REVIEW
Konstantina Chrysou, Gabriel Halat, Beatrix Hoksch, Ralph A Schmid, Gregor J Kocher
BACKGROUND: Thoracic trauma is the third most common cause of death after abdominal injury and head trauma in polytrauma patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate epidemiological data, treatment and outcome of polytrauma patients with blunt chest trauma in order to help improve management, prevent complications and decrease polytrauma patients' mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective study we included all polytrauma patients with blunt chest trauma admitted to our tertiary care center emergency department for a 2-year period, from June 2012 until May 2014...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426877/knockdown-of-hnrnpk-leads-to-increased-dna-damage-after-irradiation-and-reduces-survival-of-tumor-cells
#11
Nadine Wiesmann, Judith Strozynski, Carina Beck, Nadine Zimmermann, Simone Mendler, Rita Gieringer, Irene Schmidtmann, Jürgen Brieger
Radiotherapy is an important treatment option in the therapy of multiple tumor entities among them head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the success of radiotherapy is limited by the development of radiation resistances. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) is a cofactor of p53 and represents a potential target for radio sensitization of tumor cells. In this study, we analyzed the impact of hnRNPK on the DNA damage response after gamma irradiation. By yH2AX foci analysis, we found that hnRNPK knockdown increases DNA damage levels in irradiated cells...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422945/growth-pattern-and-final-height-of-very-preterm-versus-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#12
Jonneke J Hollanders, Sylvia M van der Pal, Paula van Dommelen, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn Jj Finken
BACKGROUND: Both very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 grams) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height. METHODS: Subjects born VP and/or with VLBW from the Project On Preterm and Small-for-gestational-age infants cohort were classified as: (1) VP+/VLBW+ (n=495), (2) VP+/VLBW- (n=207) or (3) VP-/VLBW+ (n=296) infants...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421875/three-dimensional-printing-and-its-applications-in-otorhinolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery
#13
Trevor D Crafts, Susan E Ellsperman, Todd J Wannemuehler, Travis D Bellicchi, Taha Z Shipchandler, Avinash V Mantravadi
Objective Three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology is being employed in a variety of medical and surgical specialties to improve patient care and advance resident physician training. As the costs of implementing 3D printing have declined, the use of this technology has expanded, especially within surgical specialties. This article explores the types of 3D printing available, highlights the benefits and drawbacks of each methodology, provides examples of how 3D printing has been applied within the field of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, discusses future innovations, and explores the financial impact of these advances...
November 1, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420709/thermal-imprinting-modifies-adult-stress-and-innate-immune-responsiveness-in-the-teleost-sea-bream
#14
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita Costa, João C R Cardoso, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Enric Gisbert, Deborah M Power
The impact of thermal imprinting during development on the plasticity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and stress response in an adult ectotherm, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.), was assessed. Fish were reared under 4 thermal regimes and the resulting adults exposed to acute confinement stress and plasma cortisol levels and genes of the HPI axis monitored. Changes in immune function, a common result of stress, was also evaluated using histomorphometric measurements of melano-macrophages centres (MMCs) in the head kidney and by monitoring macrophage related transcripts...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419319/influence-of-concentration-nanoparticle-size-beam-energy-and-material-on-dose-enhancement-in-radiation-therapy
#15
Chulhwan Hwang, Ja Mee Kim, JungHoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the type, concentration, and nanoparticle diameter of dose enhancement materials on the dose enhancement of low- and high-energy megavoltage (MV) X-rays acquired from a medical linear accelerator using Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNPX) code, using the energy spectrum of the linear accelerator and a mathematical Snyder head phantom. A 5-cm-diameter virtual tumour was defined in the centre of the phantom...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418071/chronic-exposure-to-graphene-based-nanomaterials-induces-behavioral-deficits-and-neural-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Ping Li, Tiantian Xu, Siyu Wu, Lili Lei, Defu He
Nanomaterials of graphene and its derivatives have been widely applied in recent years, but whose impacts on the environment and health are still not well understood. In the present study, the potential adverse effects of graphite (G), graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GO) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the motor nervous system were investigated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. After being characterized using TEM, SEM, XPS and PLE, three nanomaterials were chronically exposed to C...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417146/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-female-rats-increases-lipid-peroxidation-in-neurons
#17
Nathanael J Yates, Stephen Lydiard, Brooke Fehily, Gillian Weir, Aaron Chin, Carole A Bartlett, Jacqueline Alderson, Melinda Fitzgerald
Negative outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can be exacerbated by repeated insult. Animal models of repeated closed-head mTBI provide the opportunity to define acute pathological mechanisms as the number of mTBI increases. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of mTBI impact site, and how this may affect brain function. We use a closed head, weight drop model of mTBI that allows head movement following impact, in adult female rats to determine the role of the number and location of mTBI on brain pathology and behaviour...
April 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416253/mechanical-stability-of-the-taper-connection-of-large-metal-femoral-heads-with-adapter-sleeves-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-analyzed-using-explicit-finite-element-simulations
#18
Danny Vogel, Adrian Falkenberg, Sarah Bierbaum, Christian Schulze, Rainer Bader, Daniel Kluess
BACKGROUND: Large diameter heads (LDHs) of metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty provide increased range of motion and reduced dislocation rates. However, major concerns grew over high wear rates from the modular connection between femoral stem and head, especially in combination with adapter sleeves. METHODS: A computational study on the taper connection stability of LDH (50 mm) with adapter sleeves of different lengths (S, M, L, and XL) compared with a standard femoral head (32 mm) without adapter sleeves was conducted using explicit finite element analyses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415050/free-radicals-and-polyphenols-the-redox-chemistry-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Sonia Losada-Barreiro, Carlos Bravo-Díaz
The oxidation of bioorganic materials by air and, particularly, the oxidative stress involved in the cell loss and other pathologies associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are of enormous social and economic importance. NDs generally involve free radical reactions, beginning with the formation of an initiating radical by some redox, thermal or photochemical process, causing nucleic acid, protein and lipid oxidations and the production of harmful oxidative products. Physically, persons afflicted by NDs suffer progressive loss of memory and thinking ability, mood swings, personality changes, and loss of independence...
March 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414545/modular-use-of-human-body-models-of-varying-levels-of-complexity-validation-of-head-kinematics
#20
William Decker, Bharath Koya, Matthew L Davis, F Scott Gayzik
Objective The significant computational resources required to execute detailed human body finite element models has motivated the development of faster running simplified models (e.g. GHBMC M50-OS). Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to modularly incorporate the validated GHBMC M50-O brain model into the simplified model (GHBMC M50-OS+B), which allows for localized analysis of the brain in a fraction of the computation time required for the detailed model. The objective of this study is to validate the head and neck kinematics of the GHBMC M50-O and M50-OS (detailed and simplified versions of the same model) against human volunteer test data in frontal and lateral loading...
April 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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