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Head impacts

Walter Young, Shelley Karp, Peter Bialick, Cindy Liverance, Ashley Seder, Erica Berg, Liberty Karp
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. METHODS: Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace Beth Stuzmann, Sarah Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared to single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both single and multiple concussions in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nora K Horick, Adoma Manful, Jan Lowery, Susan Domchek, Patricia Moorman, Constance Griffin, Kala Visvanathan, Claudine Isaacs, Anita Y Kinney, Dianne M Finkelstein
PURPOSE: Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. METHODS: Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Stephanie M Wolahan, Mayumi L Prins, David L McArthur, Courtney R Real, David A Hovda, Neil A Martin, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the impact of targeting tight glycemic control (4.4-6.1 mM) on endogenous ketogenesis in severely head-injured adults. METHODS: The data were prospectively collected during a randomized, within-patient crossover study comparing tight to loose glycemic control, defined as 6.7-8.3 mM. Blood was collected periodically during both tight and loose glycemic control epochs. Post hoc analysis of insulin dose and total nutritional provision was performed...
October 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Alan G McElligott
Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min)...
2016: PeerJ
Curtis A Fedorchuk, Matthew McCoy, Douglas F Lightstone, David A Bak, Jacque Moser, Brett Kubricht, John Packer, Dustin Walton, Jose Binongo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. METHODS: 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. RESULTS: Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Sanna L Lahtinen, Janne H Liisanantti, Meri M Poukkanen, Päivi A Laurila
BACKGROUND: Goal-directed fluid management using stroke volume variation (SVV) analysis is not well studied in free flap reconstruction surgery in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Patients operated due to cancer of the head and neck with free flap reconstruction during 2008-2010 and 2012-2014 in Oulu University Hospital were retrospectively evaluated to determine the impact of SVV-guided fluid management on perioperative fluid balance, postoperative complications and hospital length of stay (LOS)...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Manasi Hulyalkar, Stephen J Gleich, Rahul Kashyap, Amelia Barwise, Harsheen Kaur, Yue Dong, Lei Fan, Srinivas Murthy, Grace M Arteaga, Sandeep Tripathi
Increasing process complexity in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can lead to information overload resulting in missing pertinent information and potential errors during morning rounds. An efficient model using a novel electronic rounding tool was designed as part of a broader critical care decision support system-checklist for early recognition and treatment of acute illness and injury in pediatrics (CERTAINp). We aimed to evaluate its impact on improving the process of care during rounding. Prospective pre- and post-interventional data included: team performance baseline assessment, patient safety discussion, guideline adherence, rounding time, and a survey of Residents' and Nurses' perception using a Likert scale...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Natalie Wagner, Christine Fahim, Krista Dunn, Diane Reid, Ranil Sonnadara
BACKGROUND: Residency training programs worldwide are experiencing a shift from the traditional time-based curriculum to competency based medical education (CBME), due to changes in the healthcare system that have impacted clinical learning opportunities. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) programs are one of the first North American surgical specialties to adopt the new CBME curriculum. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the literature pertaining to CBME in OTL-HNS programs worldwide, to identify the tools that have been developed, and identify potential barriers to the implementation of CBME...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Henry W Ortega, Heidi Vander Velden, Gary A Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe grill-related injuries in pediatric patients seeking emergency treatment. METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990 through 2009 were investigated. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. United States Census Bureau data were used to calculate injury rates per 100,000 individuals. Linear regression and computation of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Mona Alilet, Julien Behr, Jean-Philippe Nueffer, Benoit Barbier-Brion, Sébastien Aubry
: The subscapularis (SSC) muscle is the most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles, and plays an important role in shoulder motion and stabilization. SSC tendon tear is quite uncommon, compared to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, and, most of the time, part of a large rupture of the rotator cuff. Various complementary imaging techniques can be used to obtain an accurate diagnosis of SSC tendon lesions, as well as their extension and muscular impact. Pre-operative diagnosis by imaging is a key issue, since a lesion of the SSC tendon impacts on treatment, surgical approach, and post-operative functional prognosis of rotator cuff injuries...
October 17, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Sarit Shimony-Kanat, Julie Benbenishty
OBJECTIVE: To characterize trauma-related falls in infants and toddlers aged 0 to 3 years over a 4-year period and develop a risk stratification model of causes of fall injuries. METHODS: Data on falls of 0 to 3 year olds from 2009 to 2012 were identified from a Jerusalem tertiary hospital trauma registry (N = 422) and the National Trauma Registry of Israel (N = 4,131). RESULTS: Almost half of falls occurred during the first year of life, and 57% of the children were Jewish...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Abdullah Alzaid, Samuel A M Martin, Daniel J Macqueen
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF-IR) is necessary for IGF signalling and has essential roles in cellular growth. In teleost fish, two distinct IGF-IR duplicates are conserved called IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb. However, while a salmonid-specific whole genome duplication (ssWGD) is known to have expanded several key genes within the IGF axis, its impact on the IGF-IR repertoire remains unresolved. Using bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches, we establish that salmonids retain two IGF-IRa paralogues from ssWGD and a single IGF-IRb copy...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Matteo Pirro, Željko Reiner, Arrigo Cicero, Gianna Ferretti, Mario Simental-Mendía, Luis E Simental-Mendía
BACKGROUND: Plasma homocysteine is an independent non-traditional risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The impact of statin therapy on plasma homocysteine is not conclusive. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of statin therapy on plasma homocysteine concentrations in a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. The secondary aim was to assess the comparative effect of statins versus fibrates on plasma homocysteine levels in head-to-head trials...
October 7, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Lauren V Fortington, Dara M Twomey, Caroline F Finch
BACKGROUND: Head injuries, particularly concussion, are a major cause of concern in many sports, particularly the football codes, driving a need to better understand injury mechanisms and potential methods of prevention. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms and follow up care of concussion injuries sustained in adult male community Australian football to identify target areas for prevention and management. METHODS: Secondary analysis of injury data collected in a cluster randomised controlled trial in community Australian football across two states of Australia in 2007 and 2008...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Mahesh Kudrimoti, Amarintha Curtis, Samar Azawi, Francis Worden, Sanford Katz, Douglas Adkins, Marcelo Bonomi, Jenna Elder, Stephen T Sonis, Richard Straube, Oreola Donini
Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, modulates the innate immune system at a key convergence point in intracellular signaling pathways and has demonstrated activity in both reducing inflammation and increasing clearance of bacterial infection. Innate immunity has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis (OM), a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Testing the hypothesis that dusquetide can mitigate the development and duration of OM, preclinical studies have been completed and correlated with interim results from a Phase 2 clinical study in patients undergoing CRT for head and neck cancer...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Alyne O Lavinsky, Kelly C Detmann, Josimar V Reis, Rodrigo T Ávila, Matheus L Sanglard, Lucas F Pereira, Lílian M V P Sanglard, Fabrício A Rodrigues, Wagner L Araújo, Fábio M DaMatta
Silicon (Si) has been recognized as a beneficial element to improve rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield. Despite some evidence suggesting that this positive effect is observed when Si is supplied along the reproductive growth stage (from panicle initiation to heading), it remains unclear whether its supplementation during distinct growth phases can differentially impact physiological aspects of rice and its yield and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of additions/removals of Si at different growth stages and their impacts on rice yield components, photosynthetic performance, and expression of genes (Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6) involved in Si distribution within rice shoots...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Halina B Röllin, Kalavati Channa, Bukola G Olutola, Jon Ø Odland
Early life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been shown to interfere with foetal and early childhood development, and is associated with morbidity and mortality in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure to As in utero, to determine the association between maternal and cord blood of As and birth outcomes in South African populations. Total arsenic was measured in maternal blood of a total cohort (n=650) and in paired cord blood and urine of a subset cohort (n=317). Overall, the geometric mean (GM) of As in maternal blood was 0...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Suresh Rana, ChihYao Cheng, Li Zhao, SungYong Park, Gary Larson, Carlos Vargas, Megan Dunn, Yuanshui Zheng
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric and radiobiological impact of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and RapidArc planning for high-risk prostate cancer with seminal vesicles. METHODS: Ten high-risk prostate cancer cases were included in this retrospective study. For each case, IMPT plans were generated using multiple field optimisation (MFO) technique (two fields) with XiO treatment planning system (TPS), whereas RapidArc plans were generated using double-arc technique (two full arcs) with Eclipse TPS...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Ryan Hakimi, Ankur Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemorrhagic stroke comprises approximately 15% to 20% of all strokes. This article provides readers with an understanding of the indications and significance of various neuroimaging techniques available for patients presenting with hemorrhagic strokes of distinct causes. RECENT FINDINGS: The most common initial neuroimaging study is a noncontrast head CT, which allows for the identification of hemorrhage. Once an intracranial hemorrhage has been identified, the pattern of blood and the patient's medical history, neurologic examination, and laboratory studies lead the practitioner to pursue further neuroimaging studies to guide the medical, surgical, and interventional management...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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