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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691347/dxa-imaging-in-nontypical-populations
#1
Dana M Black
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease involving reduced bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. The use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluating bone mass in geriatric patients is well established. However, radiologic technologists also might conduct DXA examinations on younger adults and children. This article discusses diagnosis of osteoporosis and alternative indications for clinical use of DXA.
March 2018: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690926/clinical-and-radiologic-outcomes-after-a-modified-bone-plug-technique-with-anatomical-meniscal-root-reinsertion-for-meniscal-allograft-transplantation-and-a-minimum-18-month-follow-up
#2
Shiyou Ren, Xintao Zhang, Tian You, Xiaocheng Jiang, Dadi Jin, Wentao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) using a modified bone plug technique. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 73 patients who underwent MAT between January 2007 and December 2013. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, Tegner score, visual analogue scale (VAS), and physical examinations were retrospectively reviewed to measure clinical outcomes after MAT, and questionnaires regarding activity and factors were analyzed...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690583/anatomical-and-radiographic-study-on-the-skull-and-mandible-of-the-common-opossum-didelphis-marsupialis-linnaeus-1758-in-the-caribbean
#3
Reda Mohamed
Common opossums ( Didelphis marsupialis ) are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689992/melanosternarchus-amaru-a-new-genus-and-species-of-electric-ghost-knifefish-gymnotiformes-apteronotidae-from-the-amazon-basin
#4
Maxwell J Bernt, William G R Crampton, Alexander B Orfinger, James S Albert
We describe Melanosternarchus amaru as a new genus and species of Apteronotidae from the deep channels of blackwater and clearwater tributaries of the Amazon River in Brazil and Peru. The new species superficially resembles members of the widespread "Apteronotus" bonapartii species group, from which it can be readily distinguished by expanded bones of the infraorbital laterosensory canal. It can further be distinguished from all other apteronotids by a unique combination of characters: reduced premaxillary dentition, a large gape, and an absence of scales from the entire dorsum...
February 11, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685995/animal-models-for-bone-tissue-engineering-and-modelling-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jacqui Anne McGovern, Michelle Griffin, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
Tissue engineering and its clinical application, regenerative medicine, are instructing multiple approaches to aid in replacing bone loss after defects caused by trauma or cancer. In such cases, bone formation can be guided by engineered biodegradable and nonbiodegradable scaffolds with clearly defined architectural and mechanical properties informed by evidence-based research. With the ever-increasing expansion of bone tissue engineering and the pioneering research conducted to date, preclinical models are becoming a necessity to allow the engineered products to be translated to the clinic...
April 23, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685532/percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation-in-osteoid-osteoma-tips-and-tricks-in-special-scenarios
#6
Helena Esteban Cuesta, José Martel Villagran, Angel Bueno Horcajadas, Ara Kassarjian, Gil Rodriguez Caravaca
OBJECTIVES: To define specific characteristics of osteoid osteomas treated with radiofrequency ablation, that may benefit from special technical recommendations. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all radiofrequency ablations performed by our group from January 2001 to March 2015. A descriptive study was conducted. We compared our results with the available literature to determine the most frequent special scenarios. RESULTS: 207 radiofrequency ablations were performed in 200 patients...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684411/hla-a-c-b-drb1-dqb1-and-dpb1-allele-and-haplotype-frequencies-in-4514-healthy-norwegians
#7
Asgeir Lande, Irene Andersen, Torstein Egeland, Benedicte A Lie, Marte K Viken
We report HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 allele frequencies and estimated haplotype frequencies from 4514 healthy Norwegians who volunteered to participate in the Norwegian Bone Marrow Donor Registry. HLA genotyping was conducted on a Next Generation Sequencing platform. Data were analyzed using Arlequin and Pypop software. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium were noted at any of the loci studied. We discuss the representability for the Norwegian population and argue that the presented HLA data could serve as a Norwegian reference panel...
April 20, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684268/conducting-polymers-for-tissue-engineering
#8
Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Electrically conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and their derivatives (mainly aniline oligomer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) with good biocompatibility find wide applications in biomedical fields including bioactuators, biosensors, neural implants, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering scaffolds. This review focuses on these conductive polymers for tissue engineering application. Conductive polymers exhibited promising conductivity as bioactive scaffolds for tissue regeneration and their conductive nature allows cells or tissue cultured on them to be stimulated by electrical signals...
April 23, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683101/in-vivo-evaluation-of-free-and-chelated-accelerator-produced-actinium-225-radiation-dosimetry-and-toxicity-results
#9
Zewei Jiang, Ekaterina Revskaya, Darrell R Fisher, Ekaterina Dadachova
OBJECTIVE: The demand for the alpha-emitting radionuclide Actinium-225 (225Ac) for use in radionuclide therapy is growing. Producing 225Ac using high energy linear accelerators, cyclotrons or photoinduction could increase its supply. One potential problem with accelerator produced 225Ac using Thorium-232 targets is the presence in final product of 0.1-0.3% by activity of the long-lived 227Ac impurity at the end of irradiation. It is important to comprehensively evaluate the behavior of accelerator-produced 225Ac in vivo before using it in pre-clinical and clinical applications...
April 23, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682013/traumatic-posterior-fossa-extradural-hematoma-experience-at-level-i-trauma-center
#10
Satish Kumar Verma, Sachin Anil Borkar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Vivek Tandon, Hitesh Kumar Gurjar, Sumit Sinha, Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Deepak Gupta, Deepak Agarwal, Bhawani Shankar Sharma
Introduction: Posterior fossa extradural hematoma (PFEDH) is rare among the traumatic brain injury and represent about 4-7% cases of all EDHs. This rare condition is rapidly fatal unless identified and intervened timely. Because of limited space in posterior fossa, comparatively small volume can cause clinical deterioration. Early diagnosis by cranial computed tomography and emergent evacuation is vital for a good outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Level I trauma center at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681244/orthopedic-knowledge-and-need-in-the-provincial-philippines-pilot-study-of-a-population-based-survey
#11
Christopher S Courtney, Thomas D Kirsch
IntroductionInterventions to reduce disability from acute orthopedic injuries require a primary assessment of knowledge and need. There are no previous studies to assess this need in the remote provincial islands of the Philippines, an area recurrently affected by natural disaster.ProblemA preliminary assessment of orthopedic knowledge and need was performed to be expanded for regional or national implementation. METHODS: Two independent surveys were conducted of households and mid-level providers who represent the first contact of care...
April 23, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679976/optoelectronics-and-defect-levels-in-hydroxyapatite-by-first-principles
#12
Leon A Avakyan, Ekaterina V Paramonova, José Coutinho, Sven Öberg, Vladimir S Bystrov, Lusegen A Bugaev
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an important component of mammal bones and teeth, being widely used in prosthetic implants. Despite the importance of HAp in medicine, several promising applications involving this material (e.g., in photo-catalysis) depend on how well we understand its fundamental properties. Among the ones that are either unknown or not known accurately, we have the electronic band structure and all that relates to it, including the bandgap width. We employ state-of-the-art methodologies, including density hybrid-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory within the dynamically screened single-particle Green's function approximation, to look at the optoelectronic properties of HAp...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679904/tanshinone-iia-protects-murine-chondrogenic-atdc5-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-injury-by-down-regulating-microrna-203a
#13
Luan Luan, Zhiyuan Liang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is the most common bone-joint disease in middle and older people all over the world. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the main lipophilic diterpenoid isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). This study analyzed the protective effects of Tan IIA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell inflammatory injury model. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679503/prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-hypohidrotic-ectodermal-dysplasia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Dagmar Schnabl, Ingrid Grunert, Matthias Schmuth, Ines Kapferer-Seebacher
BACKGROUND: Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) comprises a large group of inherited disorders of ectodermal structures, characterized by hypo-/anhidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypo-/oligo-/anodontia. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically assess the spectrum of prosthodontic approaches with regard to the patients' age and to provide clinical implications for practicing dentists. METHODS: An electronic and manual search was conducted in four databases (Medline, LIVIVO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679256/biomechanical-features-of-six-design-of-the-delta-external-fixator-for-treating-pilon-fracture-a-finite-element-study
#15
Muhammad Hanif Ramlee, Mohd Ayub Sulong, Evelyn Garcia-Nieto, Daniel Angure Penaranda, Antonio Ros Felip, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
Pilon fractures can be caused by high-energy vertical forces which may result in long-term patient immobilization. Many experts in orthopedic surgery recommend the use of a Delta external fixator for type III Pilon fracture treatment. This device can promote immediate healing of fractured bone, minimizing the rate of complications as well as allowing early mobilization. The characteristics of different types of the Delta frame have not been demonstrated yet. By using the finite element method, this study was conducted to determine the biomechanical characteristics of six different configurations (Model 1 until Model 6)...
April 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679212/diagnostic-performance-of-dual-energy-ct-for-the-detection-of-bone-marrow-oedema-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Chong Hyun Suh, Seong Jong Yun, Wook Jin, Sun Hwa Lee, So Young Park, Chang-Woo Ryu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy CT (DECT) for the detection of bone marrow oedema (BME). METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted. Bivariate modelling and hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic modelling were performed to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance of DECT for BME. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the assessment type (qualitative vs...
April 20, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678419/finite-element-analysis-for-transverse-carpal-ligament-tensile-strain-and-carpal-arch-area
#17
Yifei Yao, Ahmet Erdemir, Zong-Ming Li
Mechanics of carpal tunnel soft tissue, such as fat, muscle and transverse carpal ligament (TCL), around the median nerve may render the median nerve vulnerable to compression neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to understand the roles of carpal tunnel soft tissue mechanical properties and intratunnel pressure on the TCL tensile strain and carpal arch area (CAA) using finite element analysis (FEA). Manual segmentation of the thenar muscles, skin, fat, TCL, hamate bone, and trapezium bone in the transverse plane at distal carpal tunnel were obtained from B-mode ultrasound images of one cadaveric hand...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678392/skeletal-status-in-women-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-1-yr-prospective-study
#18
Aleksander Kisała, Wojciech Pluskiewicz, Piotr Adamczyk
Functional deterioration due to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may influence the bone status of the forearm and hand. The aim of this prospective study was to establish whether CTS has an impact on bone status at distal parts of the upper limb and to monitor the longitudinal changes of that status during a 1-yr follow-up after surgical treatment. Fifteen women with CTS at mean age of 55.13 ± 9.3 yr, mean weight of 79.18 ± 20.37 kg, and mean height of 157.8 ± 6.17 cm were enrolled into the study...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678325/does-hearing-in-response-to-soft-tissue-stimulation-involve-skull-vibrations-a-within-subject-comparison-between-skull-vibration-magnitudes-and-hearing-thresholds
#19
Shai Chordekar, Ronen Perez, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer, Liat Kishon-Rabin
Hearing can be elicited in response to bone as well as soft-tissue stimulation. However, the underlying mechanism of soft-tissue stimulation is under debate. It has been hypothesized that if skull vibrations were the underlying mechanism of hearing in response to soft-tissue stimulation, then skull vibrations would be associated with hearing thresholds. However, if skull vibrations were not associated with hearing thresholds, an alternative mechanism is involved. In the present study, both skull vibrations and hearing thresholds were assessed in the same participants in response to bone (mastoid) and soft-tissue (neck) stimulation...
April 3, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677309/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#20
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2005, and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 million fractures by 2025. Within 1 year of experiencing a hip fracture, many patients are unable to walk independently, more than half require assistance with activities of daily living, and 20% to 30% of patients will die...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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