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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088771/do-we-still-need-cross-sectional-studies-in-nephrology-yes-we-do
#1
Giovanni Tripepi, Graziella D'Arrigo, Kitty J Jager, Vianda S Stel, Friedo W Dekker, Carmine Zoccali
Cross-sectional studies represent the second line of evidence (after case reports) in the ladder of evidence aimed at defining disease aetiology. This study design is used to generate hypotheses about the determinants of a given disease but also to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic tests and to assess the burden of a given disease in a population. The intrinsic limitation of cross-sectional studies, when applied to generate aetiological hypotheses, is that both the exposure under investigation and the disease of interest are measured at the same point in time...
January 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088757/challenges-in-neonatal-transport-in-jamaica-a-resource-limited-setting
#2
Salome Henry, Helen Trotman
AIM: This study aimed to determine challenges associated with neonatal transport in Jamaica, a resource-limited setting. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study of neonates transported to the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) over a 15 month period. Data on the clinical status of the neonates before, during and at the end of transport, as well as on accompanying staff and equipment, were collected. Neonatal demographics, reason for transfer and outcome at 48 h and at discharge were also collected...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088681/maintenance-effects-of-working-memory-intervention-cogmed-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#3
Amanda Fuentes, Elizabeth N Kerr
PURPOSE: To extend previous research documenting the benefits of working memory (WM) intervention (Cogmed) immediately post-intervention in children with epilepsy by assessing the 3-month maintenance effects. METHODS: Participants involved in a previous randomized clinical trial (RCT) were invited to participate if they completed Cogmed within the last 3months (n=15) and additional participants (n=13) were prospectively recruited. Standardized assessments of near-transfer effects (i...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088572/bcs-class-iv-drugs-highly-notorious-candidates-for-formulation-development
#4
REVIEW
Rohan Ghadi, Neha Dand
BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#5
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088052/positive-and-negative-life-events-and-reasons-for-living-modulate-suicidal-ideation-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-history-of-suicide-attempts
#6
Camélia Laglaoui Bakhiyi, Isabelle Jaussent, Séverine Beziat, Renaud Cohen, Catherine Genty, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Marion Leboyer, Pascal Le Vaou, Sébastien Guillaume, Philippe Courtet
BACKGROUND: The influence of life events on suicidal behavior remains inconclusive, while reasons for living (RFL) may be protective. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between positive and negative life events and suicidal ideation (SI) and the interaction between life events and RFL on SI. METHOD: Patients with history of suicide attempts (n = 338) underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including SI (Beck's Suicidal Ideation scale), RFL (Reasons for Living Inventory, RFLI) and life events (family, school, student or professional, social, health and religion-related and other life events) during the last twelve months...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088049/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-disclosure-in-pediatric-epilepsy-an-italian-survey-on-to-tell-or-not-to-tell
#7
Galli Federica, Vignoli Aglaia, Canevini Maria Paola, Cerioli Gabriele, Vegni Elena
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although there has recently been significant debate regarding the importance of disclosing the risk of SUDEP, professional societies and clinical practice guidelines currently recommend that the risk of SUDEP be disclosed as part of a comprehensive epilepsy education program. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to examine whether healthcare providers treating pediatric patients with epilepsy in Italy would disclose the risk of SUDEP to the parents of children with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087782/mutation-supply-and-relative-fitness-shape-the-genotypes-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli
#8
Douglas L Huseby, Franziska Pietsch, Gerrit Brandis, Linnéa Garoff, Angelica Tegehall, Diarmaid Hughes
Ciprofloxacin is an important antibacterial drug targeting Type II topoisomerases, highly active against Gram-negatives including Escherichia coli The evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli always requires multiple genetic changes, usually including mutations affecting two different drug target genes, gyrA and parC Resistant mutants selected in vitro or in vivo can have many different mutations in target genes and efflux regulator genes that contribute to resistance. Among resistant clinical isolates the genotype, gyrA S83L D87N, parC S80I is significantly overrepresented suggesting that it has a selective advantage...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087644/u-s-fda-approval-summary-nivolumab-for-treatment-of-unresectable-or-metastatic-melanoma-following-progression-on-ipilimumab
#9
Maitreyee Hazarika, Meredith K Chuk, Marc R Theoret, Sirisha Mushti, Kun He, Shawna L Weis, Alexander H Putman, Whitney S Helms, Xianhua Cao, Hongshan Li, Hong Zhao, Liang Zhao, Joel Welch, Laurie Graham, Meredith Libeg, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Patricia Keegan, Richard Pazdur
On December 22, 2014, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to nivolumab (OPDIVO®, Bristol-Myers Squibb) for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma and disease progression following ipilimumab and, if BRAF V600 mutation-positive, a BRAF inhibitor. Approval was based on a clinically meaningful, durable objective response rate (ORR) in a non-comparative analysis of 120 patients who received nivolumab 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks with at least 6 months follow-up in an ongoing, randomized, open-label, active-controlled clinical trial...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087554/how-prepared-are-uk-medical-graduates-for-practice-a-rapid-review-of-the-literature-2009-2014
#10
Lynn V Monrouxe, Lisa Grundy, Mala Mann, Zoe John, Eleni Panagoulas, Alison Bullock, Karen Mattick
OBJECTIVE: To understand how prepared UK medical graduates are for practice and the effectiveness of workplace transition interventions. DESIGN: A rapid review of the literature (registration #CRD42013005305). DATA SOURCES: Nine major databases (and key websites) were searched in two timeframes (July-September 2013; updated May-June 2014): CINAHL, Embase, Educational Resources Information Centre, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087349/combination-of-multiple-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-and-illumina-miseq-amplicon-sequencing-for-tsc1-tsc2-gene-analyses-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#11
Nur Farrah Dila Ismail, Abdul Qawee Rani, Nik Mohd Ariff Nik Abdul Malik, Chia Boon Hock, Siti Nabilahuda Mohd Azlan, Salmi Abdul Razak, Wee Teik Keng, Lock Hock Ngu, Abdul Rashid Silawati, Nor AzniYahya, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by tumor growth in multiple organs and caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Because of their relatively large genomic sizes, absence of hotspots, and common type of mutations, mutation detection in TSC1 and TSC2 genes has been challenging. We devised a combination of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and amplicon sequencing (AS) to simplify the detection strategy, yet we come up with reasonably high detection rate...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087171/a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-of-the-impact-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-mortality-in-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-treated-with-cefepime-or-ceftazidime
#12
Angharad R Ratliff, Chris A Gentry, Riley J Williams
The United States Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recently elected not to revise ceftazidime and cefepime Pseudomonas aeruginosa minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility breakpoints but rather recommended specific dosage regimens to correspond to breakpoints. This study's objective was to examine mortality of low and high MIC P. aeruginosa isolates in bacteremic patients treated with cefepime or ceftazidime. Data were gathered through a Veterans Health Administration national administrative database for veterans with P...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087132/practice-patterns-of-thoracic-radiotherapy-for-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-survey-of-us-academic-thoracic-radiation-oncologists
#13
Carl M Post, Vivek Verma, Timur Mitin, Charles B Simone
PURPOSE: Despite the recent CREST trial demonstrating a survival benefit to thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) for patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) with response to chemotherapy, as well as endorsement by current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, TRT may not be uniformly delivered in clinical practice across all circumstances. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We surveyed US academic thoracic radiation oncologists regarding their practice patterns for TRT and assessed conditions in which withholding TRT could be warranted...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086890/feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-the-heyman-healthy-lifestyle-program-for-young-men-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Lee M Ashton, Philip J Morgan, Melinda J Hutchesson, Megan E Rollo, Clare E Collins
BACKGROUND: In young men, unhealthy lifestyle behaviours can be detrimental to their physical and/or mental health and set them on a negative health trajectory into adulthood. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence to guide development of effective health behaviour change interventions for young men. This study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the 'HEYMAN' (Harnessing Ehealth to enhance Young men's Mental health, Activity and Nutrition) healthy lifestyle program for young men...
January 13, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086844/are-risk-predicting-models-useful-for-estimating-survival-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#15
Hanna M Nurmi, Minna K Purokivi, Miia S Kärkkäinen, Hannu-Pekka Kettunen, Tuomas A Selander, Riitta L Kaarteenaho
BACKGROUND: Risk predicting models have been applied in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but still not validated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of three prediction models as well as individual lung function and demographic factors for evaluating the prognosis of RA-ILD patients. METHODS: Clinical and radiological data of 59 RA-ILD patients was re-assessed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081030/ultrasound-findings-of-young-and-traumatic-amputees-with-lower-extremity-residual-limb-pain-in-turkey
#16
Koray Aydemir, Yasin Demir, Ümüt Güzelküçük, Kutay Tezel, Bilge Yilmaz
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to document clinical and ultrasound (US) findings of patients with residual limb pain (RLP) after amputation and to investigate the relationship between these findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A chart review was performed to identify demographic and clinical data including the age (current and at the time of injury), time since amputation, gender, reason for amputation, affected limb number, side and level of limb loss, and ultrasonographic findings of young and traumatic amputees with RLP...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080301/assessing-social-cognition-age-related-changes-in-moral-reasoning-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#17
V Chiasson, E Vera-Estay, G Lalonde, J J Dooley, M H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. METHOD: To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#18
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079524/spatial-heterogeneity-in-the-time-and-frequency-properties-of-skin-perfusion
#19
Michele Sorelli, Zlatka Stoyneva, Irina Mizeva, Leonardo Bocchi
Pathological alterations of the microcirculatory system can be identified by measuring the temporal and spectral properties of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) signals acquired on the skin, and their changes following physiological stimulation. A wide range of stimulation protocols and measurement locations are observed in literature. Researchers often use non-invasive stimulation techniques, such as post-occlusive hyperaemia, cold tests, and local heating. As concerns the stimulation/recording sites, the forearm, fingers, and toes are typically selected to conduct microcirculation studies...
January 12, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079409/promoting-awareness-of-neonatal-menstruation
#20
Paola Bianchi, Giuseppe Benagiano, Ivo Brosens
Neonatal uterine bleeding (NUB) has been carefully studied in the past through case reports, small series, clinical cohort studies, pathology investigations of fetal and neonatal. Following a historical recount, this review summarizes biological mechanisms conditioning NUB, starting from the persistence till birth of an 'ontogenetic progesterone resistance' (OPR), causing decreased responsiveness of target tissues to bioavailable progesterone. Several pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, prematurity, post-maturity and even Rhesus or ABO incompatibility, influence the occurrence of NUB...
January 12, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
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