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Developmental pediatrics

Olof Kristjansdottir, Patrick J McGrath, G Allen Finley, Gudrun Kristjansdottir, Pulsuk Siripul, Sean P Mackinnon, Yoko Yoshida
There is a scarcity of work examining the relationship between culture and pain-related caregiver behaviors. Moreover, no pediatric pain studies have examined the relationship between caregiver cultural values and pain-related caregiver behaviors, specifically, if this process is mediated by caregiver parenting styles and moderated by eco-social context. Based on cross-cultural developmental theories, this study hypothesized that eco-social context would moderate the relationship between cultural values, parenting styles, and pain-related caregiver behaviors; and that parenting styles mediate the effect of cultural values on pain-related caregiver behaviors...
June 12, 2018: Pain
Katharine J O'Hearn, Dori-Ann Martin, Maryse Dagenais, Kusum Menon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of patients considered not appropriate to approach for assent within the first 24 hours of PICU admission. DESIGN: Exploratory prospective 1-month environmental scan. SETTING: Two tertiary Canadian PICUs. PATIENTS: Ninety patients age newborn to 17 years old admitted to the PICU during September 2016 (Site 1) or May 2017 (Site 2). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At PICU admission, 81% of patients were deemed not appropriate to approach for assent most commonly due to age, influence of psychotropic medications, and/or mechanical ventilation...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
L Ghesquière, V Houfflin-Debarge, P Verpillat, T Fourquet, S Joriot, C Coulon, P Vaast, C Garabedian
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) has changed fetal anemia prognosis. However, long-term neurodevelopmental outcome is altered in 5% of children. Our objective was to study the contribution of fetal MRI to diagnosis brain lesions in case of fetal anemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective monocentric descriptive study from 2005 to 2016, including all patients followed for fetal anemia requiring IUT. The indications for MRI were: hydrops fetalis and / or hemoglobin <5 g / dL and / or more than 3 IUTs and / or acute severe anemia and / or ultrasound abnormality...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mario Mastrangelo
This review offers an update on a group of inborn errors of metabolism causing severe epilepsy with the onset in pediatric age (but also other neurological manifestations such as developmental delay or movement disorders) with available effective or potentially effective treatments. The main pathogenic and clinical features and general recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic workup of the following disorders are discussed: vitamin B6 -dependent epilepsies, cerebral folate deficiency, congenital disorders of serine metabolism, biotinidase deficiency, inborn errors of creatine metabolism, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, and glucose transporter 1 deficiency...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Robert Smigiel, Gerd Landsberg, Maximilian Schilling, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Agnieszka Pollak, Anna Walczak, Anna Stodolak, Piotr Stawinski, Hanna Mierzewska, Maria M Sasiadek, Oliver J Gruss, Rafal Ploski
PTPN23 encodes a ubiquitously expressed non-receptor type, catalytically inactive protein-tyrosine phosphatase found in all cells including neurons. Recently, we have identified PTPN23 in a cellular screen for the systematic identification of novel regulators of survival motor neuron (SMN) function in the assembly of splicing factors (Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, UsnRNPs). Based on three families, recessive PTPN23 variants have been associated with human disease tentatively, without functional studies...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Jessica R Philpott, Jacob A Kurowski
Transitional care for patients with IBD focuses on efforts to successfully transfer care from pediatric to adult providers while encouraging the assumption of health care responsibility. As 25% of patients will be diagnosed with IBD before the age of 18 years, many will undergo this process. Efforts to enhance this process have included transition clinics and other means to improve patient comfort with transition and develop the skill of health care self-management. Currently, most pediatric practitioners provide transition care with informal education and emphasize independence without formal programs...
June 11, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Eric S Hall, Jennifer M McAllister, Scott L Wexelblatt
The objective was to compare diagnosis rates representing developmental outcomes and medical complications between infants with intrauterine opioid exposures who did not receive pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome at the time of birth and infants for whom no exposure to substances of abuse were detected. This retrospective, descriptive study included approximately 95% of Hamilton County, Ohio resident births in 2014 and 2015. Universal maternal drug test results, performed at the time of birth, were documented and linked to electronic health records representing pediatric primary and subspecialty follow-up care as well as urgent care, emergency care, and inpatient services provided by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center through 2017, when all children were at least 24 months old...
June 12, 2018: Population Health Management
Yuri Matsubara, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata, Ryusuke Ae, Jun Shimizu, Noriko Oguro
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalopathy causes various sequelae, including motor disabilities and intellectual delays. Previous studies reported that cognitive impairments can also occur after acute encephalitis. Although the incidence of acute encephalopathy is high in Japan, there have been few reports on its sequelae. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the neurological outcomes of pediatric patients who sought motor rehabilitation for motor dysfunction after acute encephalopathy...
June 8, 2018: Brain & Development
Jenifer Cartland, Holly S Ruch-Ross, Lauren Carr, Audrey Hall, Richard Olsen, Ellen Rosendale, Susan Ruohonen
OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of hospital design on patient and family experiences during and after hospitalization. BACKGROUND: Hospitalization can be psychologically traumatic for children. Few research studies have studied the role of the design of the hospital environment in mitigating that traumatic experience. METHODS: The study employs a two-group posttest and follow-up design to compare the impact of hospitalization on child anxiety and parent stress...
January 1, 2018: HERD
Bonnie Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
N-acetylcysteine, a precursor molecule of glutathione, is an antioxidant. Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, has been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity including modulation of monoaminergic systems in mammals and zebrafish. Here, we show that N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine's adverse effects on development and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish embryos. The effects of ketamine and N-acetylcysteine alone or in combination were measured on the heart rate, body length, brain serotonergic neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Katharine Garvey, Lori Laffel
Adolescence and young adulthood are times of multiple developmental changes, including physiological, social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral transformations. The adolescent or young adult living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes must navigate the vicissitudes of these developmental stages while managing the rigors and self-care demands of these conditions. Diabetes in children is managed by adults, mainly by parents. As the child matures, diabetes management tasks transition from parents to the developing teen...
2018: Endocrine Development
Annalise N vonderEmbse, Jamie C DeWitt
Immune-based childhood diseases and conditions, including allergic diseases and asthma, recurrent otitis media, pediatric celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes have been on the rise over the past decades. As a result, the use of developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) testing to identify potential environmental risk factors contributing to these and other diseases has become a priority for scientists across sectors. This chapter serves to provide insight into the scientific basis for DIT and determining the necessity of DIT testing and offers recommendations for DIT testing parameters to optimize sensitivity, power, and concordance among DIT assays...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cara J Kiff, Stephanie Ernestus, Araceli Gonzalez, Philip C Kendall, Anne Marie Albano, Scott N Compton, Boris Birmaher, Golda S Ginsburg, Moira Rynn, John T Walkup, James McCracken, John Piacentini
Bioecological models of developmental psychopathology underscore the role of familial experiences of adversity and children's individual-level characteristics in heightening risk for pediatric anxiety through direct, combined, and interactive effects. To date, much of the existing research dedicated to pediatric anxiety disorders has largely been examined in bioecological models of diathesis-stress using community samples. This study extends our understanding of children's differential responsiveness to familial adversity by examining the diathesis-stress interaction of cumulative risk and children's individual-level vulnerabilities (negative affectivity and coping efficacy) within a clinic-referred treatment study for pediatric anxiety disorders...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Genevieve C Kendall, Sarah Watson, Lin Xu, Collette A LaVigne, Whitney Murchison, Dinesh Rakheja, Stephen X Skapek, Franck Tirode, Olivier Delattre, James F Amatruda
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma caused by PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion oncogenes and is characterized by impaired skeletal muscle development. We developed human PAX3-FOXO1 -driven zebrafish models of tumorigenesis and found that PAX3-FOXO1 exhibits discrete cell lineage susceptibility and transformation. Tumors developed by 1.6-19 months and were primitive neuroectodermal tumors or rhabdomyosarcoma. We applied this PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish model to study how PAX3-FOXO1 leverages early developmental pathways for oncogenesis and found that her3 is a unique target...
June 5, 2018: ELife
Joske Millecam, Laura De Clerck, Elisabeth Govaert, Mathias Devreese, Elke Gasthuys, Wim Schelstraete, Dieter Deforce, Lies De Bock, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Stanislas Sys, Siska Croubels
Since the implementation of several legislations to improve pediatric drug research, more pediatric clinical trials are being performed. In order to optimize these pediatric trials, adequate preclinical data are necessary, which are usually obtained by juvenile animal models. The growing piglet has been increasingly suggested as a potential animal model due to a high degree of anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. However, physiological data in pigs on the ontogeny of major organs involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs are largely lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jennifer K Peterson
Improved survival has led to increased recognition of developmental delays in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Risk factors for developmental delays in congenital heart disease survivors may not be modifiable; therefore, it is important that lifesaving, high-technology critical care interventions be combined with nursing interventions that are also developmentally supportive. Implementing developmental care in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit requires change implementation strategies and widespread support from all levels of health care professionals...
June 2018: Critical Care Nurse
Danielle Van Damme, Heidi Flori, Tonie Owens
Physical activity in acute and critical care has been recognized as a successful method of improving patient outcomes. Challenges lie, however, in mobilizing pediatric critically ill patients and establishing consensus among health care providers about the safety and feasibility. The challenge of mobilizing pediatric patients is balancing developmental level, functional ability, and level of acuity; therefore, a mobility guideline was developed for use in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The unique population and challenges in the PICU led to the development of a PICU-specific set of medical criteria within a PICU mobility guideline...
July 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Tonie Owens, Christopher Tapley
Due to improvements in biomedical sciences and clinical expertise, childhood mortality has decreased. Pediatric patients experience similar complications from inactivity as adults, such as hospital-acquired conditions and delirium. Interdisciplinary collaboration is imperative to improve functional and developmental outcomes of children who suffers from either a chronic illnesses or an acute illness that results in a prolonged hospitalization. Pediatric nursing assessments should include gross motor function related to mobility...
July 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Nathan J Blum, Justine Shults, Elizabeth Harstad, Susan Wiley, Marilyn Augustyn, Jareen K Meinzen-Derr, Mark L Wolraich, William J Barbaresi
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of stimulants and alpha-2 agonists (A2As) for the treatment of preschool-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 2 Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network sites. METHODS: Demographic information, diagnoses, and medications prescribed by developmental-behavioral pediatricians (DBPs) were extracted from the electronic health record for all outpatient visits from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Lin-Ya Hsu, Tracy Jirikowic, Marcia A Ciol, Madisen Clark, Deborah Kartin, Sarah Westcott McCoy
AIMS: The purposes were to examine construct validity of the Motor Planning Maze Assessment (Maze) and three items from the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) that were modified for children (pediatric modified FGA, pmFGA), by comparing performance of children with DCD and age matched peers with typical development (TD); the construct validity of total scores of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and the FGA. METHODS: Twenty pairs of children with DCD and TD, age from 5 to 12 years, participated in this study...
May 31, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
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