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Antifungals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933244/bioactive-potential-of-indian-stinging-plants-leaf-extract-against-pathogenic-fungi
#1
Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Kamal Kumar, Sanjai Kumar Dwivedi, Madhu Bala
Background & methods We investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activity by agar disc diffusion assay of leaf extract of some stinging plants namely, Urtica dioica L., Tragia involucrate L., Carduus nutans L. and Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., against pathogenic fungi causing infections/diseases. Results M. pruriens (Disc 4), T. involucrate (Disc 2), U. dioica (Disc 1) showed significant antifungal activity against all tested pathogens, while C. nutans (Disc 3) showed intermediate activity against only Chaetomium globosum (Cg)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932786/current-treatment-options-for-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-caused-by-azole-resistant-candida-species
#2
J D Sobel, R Sobel
Clinicians are increasingly challenged by patients with refractory vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by azole-resistant Candida species. Fluconazole resistant C.albicans is a growing and perplexing problem following years of indiscriminate drug prescription and unnecessary drug exposure and for which there are few therapeutic alternatives. Regrettably, although the azole class of drugs has expanded, new classes of antifungal drugs have not been forthcoming, limiting effective treatment options in patients with azole resistant Candida vaginitis...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932128/transcriptomics-analysis-of-the-chinese-pear-pathotype-of-alternaria-alternata-gives-insights-into-novel-mechanisms-of-hsaf-antifungal-activities
#3
Feng He, Bingxin Li, Gan Ai, Alex Machio Kange, Yancun Zhao, Xiong Zhang, Yifan Jia, Daolong Dou, Fengquan Liu, Haiqun Cao
Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler is a lethal pear pathogen that causes leaf black spot disease of pear in Southern China. Heat-stable activity factor (HSAF) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam (PTM) produced by Lysobacter enzymogenes and many other microbes with a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against many filamentous fungi. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal effect of HSAF against A. alternata and proposed its antifungal mechanism in A. alternata . We report that HSAF inhibited the mycelial growth of A...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931739/paralogous-cyp51s-mediate-the-differential-sensitivity-of-fusarium-oxysporum-to-sterol-demethylation-inhibitors
#4
Bangxian Zheng, Leiyan Yan, Wenxing Liang, Qianqian Yang
BACKGROUND: As a soilborne fungus, Fusarium oxysporum can cause vascular wilt in numerous economically important crops. Application of antifungal drugs is the primary method for the control of F. oxysporum. Cyp51, a key enzyme of sterol biosynthesis is the main target of sterol demethylation inhibitors. RESULTS: The F. oxysporum genome contains three paralogous CYP51 genes (named FoCYP51A, -B and -C) that putatively encode sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes. Each of the three genes was able to partially complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG11 mutant...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931733/epidemiology-of-fungal-keratitis-in-queensland-australia
#5
Rusheng Chew, Marion L Woods
IMPORTANCE: Fungal keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening ocular infection. The epidemiology varies with geography, in particular climate and demography. BACKGROUND: We present descriptive epidemiology of fungal keratitis in Queensland, a large, geographically heterogenous Australian state. DESIGN: Descriptive ecological study. PARTICIPANTS: Queensland residents in the period 1996 - January 2016. METHODS: We searched the statewide pathology database for positive fungal cultures from corneal scrapings, aqueous humour, vitreous humour or contact lens specimens...
June 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931064/erg11-couples-oxidative-stress-adaptation-hyphal-elongation-and-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#6
YongQin Wu, MengYing Wu, YuanYuan Wang, YiSheng Chen, Jing Gao, ChunMei Ying
Candida albicans is a major fungal opportunistic pathogen of humans. In the treatment of C. albicans, azole drugs target the sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) encoded by ERG11 gene. Most studies have focused on the fact that the ERG11 mutant results in drug resistance, but its mechanism of action as a drug target has not been described yet. Our results showed that deletion of ERG11 reduced filamentous and invasive growth, and impaired hyphal elongation in sensing serum. Lack of ERG11 increased susceptibility to H2O2 and was defective in clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929855/impact-of-high-mic-of-fluconazole-on-outcomes-of-candida-glabrata-bloodstream-infection-a-retrospective-multicenter-cohort-study
#7
Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Dong Sik Jung, Ji Yeon Lee, Hyun Ah Kim, Seong Yeol Ryu, Sook-In Jung, Eun-Jeong Joo, Shinhye Cheon, Yeon-Sook Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
To evaluate the impacts of fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) according to primary antifungal agents on Candida glabrata bloodstream infection (BSI), a multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted in Korea, concerning the time period from January 2010 to February 2016. A total of 197 adult patients with C. glabrata BSI were included in the study, and neutropenia (P = 0.026), APACHE II score (P = 0.004), and fluconazole resistance (HR 3.960, 95% CI 1.395-11.246, P = 0.010) were associated with 30-day mortality in multivariate analysis...
June 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928941/nosocomial-outbreak-of-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto-fungemia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-china
#8
Lihua Qi, Weihong Fan, Xian Xia, Lu Yao, Lirui Liu, Haiyan Zhao, Xiangyong Kong, Jie Liu
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common agew2nt of fungemia, but few outbreaks of Candida parapsilosis infection have been reported in China. AIM: This study aimed to elaborate an outbreak of nosocomial Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungemia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a comprehensive hospital in China from July to October 2017. METHODS: Epidemics and characteristics of fungemia cases were investigated. Surveillance samples were collected...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928481/breakthrough-invasive-aspergillosis-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-serum-galactomannan-enzyme-immune-assay-during-acute-myeloid-leukemia-induction-chemotherapy-with-posaconazole-prophylaxis
#9
Claire Calmettes, Frederic Gabriel, Elodie Blanchard, Vincent Servant, Stéphane Bouchet, Nathanael Kabore, Edouard Forcade, Camille Leroyer, Audrey Bidet, Valérie Latrabe, Thibaut Leguay, Stephane Vigouroux, Reza Tabrizi, Dominique Breilh, Isabelle Accoceberry, Manuel Tunon de Lara, Arnaud Pigneux, Noel Milpied, Pierre-Yves Dumas
Posaconazole prophylaxis has demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis during prolonged neutropenia following acute myeloid leukemia induction chemotherapy. Antifungal treatment decreases serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay diagnostic accuracy that could delay the diagnosis and treatment. We retrospectively studied patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent intensive chemotherapy and antifungal prophylaxis by posaconazole oral suspension. Clinical, radiological, microbiological features and treatment response of patients with invasive aspergillosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis were analyzed...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928233/antifungal-activity-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-encapsulated-with-cymbopogon-martinii-essential-oil-on-plant-pathogenic-fungi-fusarium-graminearum
#10
Naveen K Kalagatur, Oriparambil S Nirmal Ghosh, Naveen Sundararaj, Venkataramana Mudili
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum . The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927253/nepenthe-like-indole-alkaloids-with-antimicrobial-activity-from-ervatamia-chinensis
#11
Hao-Fei Yu, Xu-Jie Qin, Cai-Feng Ding, Xin Wei, Jing Yang, Jie-Rong Luo, Lu Liu, Afsar Khan, Lan-Chun Zhang, Cheng-Feng Xia, Xiao-Dong Luo
Two monoterpenoid indole alkaloid erchinines A (1) and B (2), possessing unique 1,4-diazepine fused with oxazolidine architecture and three hemiaminals, were isolated from Ervatamia chinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of intensive spectroscopic analysis, and a plausible biosynthetic pathway from ibogaine was proposed. Both compounds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Bacillus subtilis, and their activities were comparable to the first line antifungal drug griseofulvin and antibiotic cefotaxime...
June 21, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927214/-inpatient-candiduria-etiology-susceptibility-to-antifungal-drugs-and-risk-factors
#12
G Jiménez-Guerra, I Casanovas Moreno-Torres, M Gutiérrez-Soto, F Vazquez-Alonso, A Sorlózano-Puerto, J M Navarro-Marí, J Gutiérrez-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: Candida could become the second most frequent cause of nosocomial urinary tract infection. Although Candida albicans is the most important species, others have arisen as emerging pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of candiduria in inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of Candida isolates from adult inpatient urocultures over five years, gathering and tabulating data on: the species; susceptibility to fluconazole, amphotericin B, and voriconazole (Vitek2, BioMerieux); presence of catheter; hospital department of origin; and patient age and sex...
June 20, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926876/valdecoxib-vs-borazavaldecoxib-isoxazole-bn-cc-isosterism-as-a-case-study-in-designing-and-stabilizing-boron-heterocycles
#13
Michele Boghi, Dennis G Hall
A comprehensive study on the preparation, hydrolytic stability, and the structural and spectrophotometric properties of 1,2,4,5-oxadiazaboroles is presented by way of a comparison between the NSAID drug valdecoxib (1) and its unprecedented B-N isostere, borazavaldecoxib (2). Knowledge gained from this study was employed in the design of oxadiazaborate salts, a novel class of tetrahedral boron heterocycles displaying good stability in aqueous conditions with promising antifungal and antibacterial properties.
June 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926537/identification-and-characterization-of-new-muscodor-endophytes-from-gramineous-plants-in-xishuangbanna-china
#14
Li-Juan Mao, Jia-Jie Chen, Chen-Yang Xia, Xiao-Xiao Feng, De-Dong Kong, Zhen-Yu Qi, Feng Liu, Dian Chen, Fu-Cheng Lin, Chu-Long Zhang
The endophytic fungi Muscodor spp. produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can inhibit and even kill pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. Nine endophytic fungal strains, isolated from the shoots of gramineous plants including Arthraxon hispidus, Eleusine indica, Oplismenus undulatifolius, and Oryza granulata, were identified as Muscodor through phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer. Through an SPSS K-means cluster analysis, the nine Muscodor strains were divided into four groups based on the antifungal activities of the VOCs produced by these fungi determined by a two-section confrontation test...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925805/synthesis-and-reactions-of-%C3%AE-hydroxyphosphonates
#15
REVIEW
Zita Rádai, György Keglevich
This review summarizes the main synthetic routes towards α-hydroxyphosphonates that are known as enzyme inhibitors, herbicides and antioxidants, moreover, a number of representatives express antibacterial or antifungal effect. Special attention is devoted to green chemical aspects. α-Hydroxyphosphonates are also versatile intermediates for other valuable derivatives. O -Alkylation and O -acylation are typical reactions to afford α-alkoxy-, or α-acyloxyphosphonates, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925728/peel-bond-strength-and-antifungal-activity-of-two-soft-denture-lining-materials-incorporated-with-1-chlorhexidine-diacetate
#16
Nathalia Albrecht, Tatiana Kelly DA Silva Fidalgo, Maria José Santos DE Alencar, Lucianne Cople Maia, Vanessa Migliorini Urban, Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek, Kátia Rodrigues Reis
Two soft denture lining materials (SC-Soft Confort and TS-Trusoft) were investigated with and without the addition of 1.0% of chlorhexidine diacetate (1.0% CHX). To assess peel bond strength, specimens (75×10×6 mm) were submitted to a peel test at 10 mm/min immediately and after 24 h. To evaluate Candida albicans growth inhibition, disc of specimens (10×3 mm) were immersed in a solution with 3×106 CFU/mL of C. albicans, and spectral measurements were made following immersion in MTT solution for 2, 4, and 6 days...
June 20, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925696/murine-models-of-pneumocystis-infection-recapitulate-human-primary-immune-disorders
#17
Waleed Elsegeiny, Mingquan Zheng, Taylor Eddens, Richard L Gallo, Guixiang Dai, Giraldina Trevejo-Nunez, Patricia Castillo, Kara Kracinovsky, Hillary Cleveland, William Horne, Jonathan Franks, Derek Pociask, Mark Pilarski, John F Alcorn, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls
Despite the discovery of key pattern recognition receptors and CD4+ T cell subsets in laboratory mice, there is ongoing discussion of the value of murine models to reflect human disease. Pneumocystis is an AIDS-defining illness, in which risk of infection is inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts. Due to medical advances in the control of HIV, the current epidemiology of Pneumocystis infection is predominantly due to primary human immunodeficiencies and immunosuppressive therapies. To this end, we found that every human genetic immunodeficiency associated with Pneumocystis infection that has been tested in mice recapitulated susceptibility...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924372/in-vitro-combination-of-antifungal-agents-against-malassezia-pachydermatis
#18
Karine B Schlemmer, Francielli P K de Jesus, Erico S Loreto, Julia B Farias, Sydney H Alves, Laerte Ferreiro, Janio M Santurio
The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a common commensal and occasional opportunistic pathogen of theskin microbiota of animals and humans. In this study, the susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), clotrimazole (CLZ), and miconazole (MCZ) alone and in combination with terbinafine (TRB), nystatin (NYS), and caspofungin (CSP) was evaluated in vitro based on the M27-A3 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method using Sabouraud dextrose broth with 1% tween 80 (SDB)...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924365/antifungal-activity-of-diphenyl-diselenide-alone-and-in-combination-with-itraconazole-against-sporothrix-brasiliensis
#19
Vanice Rodrigues Poester, Antonella Souza Mattei, Josiara Furtado Mendes, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Ivy Bastos Ramis, Karine Ortiz Sanchotene, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
Sporothrix brasiliensis is the main agent of feline and zoonotic sporotrichosis. Given the scarcity of options for sporotrichosis treatment and the promising activity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 against a diversity of fungal pathogens, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis to (PhSe)2 alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITC). Forty clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis were subjected to broth microdilution method to evaluate their susceptibility to (PhSe)2 in concentrations ranging between 0...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924357/galleria-mellonella-as-a-model-system-to-study-virulence-potential-of-mucormycetes-and-evaluation-of-antifungal-treatment
#20
Elisabeth Maurer, Caroline Hörtnagl, Michaela Lackner, Denise Grässle, Verena Naschberger, Patrizia Moser, Esther Segal, Margarita Semis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Ulrike Binder
Mucorales can cause cutaneous to deep-seated infections, mainly in the immunocompromised host, resulting in high mortality rates due to late and inefficient treatment. In this study, Galleria mellonella larvae were evaluated as a heterologous invertebrate host to study pathogenicity of clinically relevant mucormycetes (Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor spp., Lichtheimia spp., Mucor spp.). All tested species were able to infect G. mellonella larvae. Virulence potential was species-specific and correlated to clinical relevance...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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