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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236070/lc-ms-ms-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-analysis-of-phenolic-compounds-and-pentacyclic-triterpenes-in-antifungal-extracts-of-terminalia-brownii-fresen
#1
Enass Y A Salih, Pia Fyhrquist, Ashraf M A Abdalla, Abdelazim Y Abdelgadir, Markku Kanninen, Marketta Sipi, Olavi Luukkanen, Mustafa K M Fahmi, Mai H Elamin, Hiba A Ali
Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host...
December 13, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234758/polymorphism-of-griseofulvin-concomitant-crystallization-from-the-melt-and-a-single-crystal-structure-of-a-metastable-polymorph-with-anomalously-large-thermal-expansion
#2
Yuan Su, Jia Xu, Qin Shi, Lian Yu, Ting Cai
Griseofulvin (GSF) is a classic antifungal drug that has been in clinical use for over 50 years, but its polymorphism was recognized only recently via melt crystallization. Here we report the structure of a single crystal of GSF form II which was unusually harvested from the supercooled melt. GSF form II exhibits an anomalously large thermal expansion coefficient.
December 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234423/antifungal-activity-of-essential-oils-against-candida-albicans-strains-isolated-from-users-of-dental-prostheses
#3
Julliana Cariry Palhano Freire, José Klidenberg de Oliveira Júnior, Daniele de Figueredo Silva, Janiere Pereira de Sousa, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima
Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity of citral, selected by screening natural products, against Candida albicans isolates from subjects who use dental prostheses. Methodology: Screening of essential oils, including those from Mentha piperita L. (Briq), Origanum vulgare, and Zingiber officinale L., and the phytoconstituents citral and limonene, to select an appropriate natural product. Citral, which mediated the best antifungal response, was selected for biological assays...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234399/antimicrobial-activities-and-time-kill-kinetics-of-extracts-of-selected-ghanaian-mushrooms
#4
Theresa Appiah, Yaw Duah Boakye, Christian Agyare
The rapid rise of antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem. This has necessitated the need to search for new antimicrobial agents. Mushrooms are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of methanol extracts of Trametes gibbosa, Trametes elegans, Schizophyllum commune, and Volvariella volvacea. Agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill kinetic assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against selected test organisms...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234365/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-croton-macrostachyus-hochst-ex-delile-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton macrostachyus is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. macrostachyus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 81 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, typhoid, and wounds and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233781/synthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-2-2-ether-amino-methylene-dimedone-derivatives-as-potential-antimicrobial-agents
#6
Ali Mohd Lone, Muneer Ahmad Bhat, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Wajaht Amin Shah, Zubair Shanib Bhat, Irfan Qadir Tantry, Poonam Prakash
The study was designed with an aim to synthesize a series of 2-(((2-ether)amino)methylene)-dimedone derivatives and evaluate the synthesized compounds for antimicrobial activity. Compound library was synthesized by reaction with alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl and alicyclic bromo-compounds. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was performed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral techniques. The compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli)...
December 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232953/mitochondrial-signs-and-subcellular-imaging-imply-the-antifungal-mechanism-of-carabrone-against-gaeumannomyces-graminis-var-tritici
#7
Lanying Wang, Yunfei Zhang, Delong Wang, Mei Wang, Yong Wang, Juntao Feng
Carabrone, a botanical bicyclic sesquiterpenic lactone, has broad-spectrum antifungal activities, and is particularly efficient against the devastating phytopathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var.tritici (Ggt). The antifungal mechanism of carabrone against Ggt, however, remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the subcellular localization of carabrone in Ggt to make a better understanding of the mechanism of action. When Ggt was exposed to carabrone (EC50 value, 28.45 μg/mL) for 7 days, the decline of mitochondrial concentration, together with some obvious alternations in the mitochondrial structure including hazy outline, medullary transition, excess accumulation of unclear settlings, and vacuolar degeneration were observed, indicating that carbrone may act on the mitochondria directly...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232917/lactobacillus-plantarum-with-broad-antifungal-activity-as-a-protective-starter-culture-for-bread-production
#8
Pasquale Russo, Clara Fares, Angela Longo, Giuseppe Spano, Vittorio Capozzi
Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide on a daily basis. Fungal contamination of bread is a critical concern for producers since it is related to important economic losses and safety hazards due to the negative impact of sensorial quality and to the potential occurrence of mycotoxins. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum UFG 121, a strain with characterized broad antifungal activity, was analyzed as a potential protective culture for bread production. Six different molds belonging to Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp...
December 11, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232712/bioinformatic-analysis-reveals-new-determinants-of-antigenic-14-3-3-proteins-and-a-novel-antifungal-strategy
#9
Jenna E McGowan, Jacqueline Kratch, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Bina Joe, Heather R Conti, Ritu Chakravarti
The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 family of proteins is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. Their involvement in humoral and cellular immune responses is emerging through studies in drosophila and humans. In humans, a select group of 14-3-3 isoforms are antigenic; however the determinants of their antigenicity are not known. Here, we show that although mammalian 14-3-3 proteins are mostly conserved, subtle differences between their isoforms may give rise to their antigenicity. We observed syntenic relations among all the isoforms of 14-3-3 for mammals, but not with that of birds or amphibians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232689/a-computational-model-for-regulation-of-nanoscale-glucan-exposure-in-candida-albicans
#10
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231889/exploring-the-caste-specific-multi-layer-defense-mechanism-of-formosan-subterranean-termites-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki
#11
Abid Hussain, Ming-Yi Tian, Shuo-Yang Wen
The survival and foraging of Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki in a microbe-rich environment reflect the adaptation of an extraordinary, sophisticated defense mechanism by the nest-mates. We aimed to explore the host pathogen interaction by studying caste-specific volatile chemistry and genes encoding the antioxidant defense of winged imagoes, nymphs, soldiers and workers of Formosan subterranean termites. Qualitative analyses of C.formosanus Shiraki performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS showed considerable variations in the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their proportions among all the castes...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230923/primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-decrease-of-invasive-fungal-disease-incidence-and-reduction-of-risk-factors-in-hematological-patients-in-a-5-year-retrospective-study
#12
Yan Li, Mingjuan Liu, Bing Zhai, Xiaoli Zhao, Lijun Wang, Honghua Li, Shuhong Wang, Haiyan Zhu, Quanshun Wang, Chunji Gao, Wenrong Huang, Li Yu
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and rationality of primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) in a 5-year real life setting and choose an appropriate PAP strategy. METHODS: Clinical data of patients were retrospectively reviewed and IFD was diagnosed using the revised diagnostic criteria. The efficacy of PAP and the risk factors for IFD, especially the rationality of PAP, were evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230405/variability-of-chemical-compositions-and-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-ruta-chalepensis-leaf-essential-oils-from-three-palestinian-regions
#13
Nidal Jaradat, Lina Adwan, Shadi K'aibni, Abdel Naser Zaid, Munqez J Y Shtaya, Naser Shraim, Mohyeddin Assali
Introduction: Interest in essential oils was recently revived with their popularity increasing in medicine, pharmacy, and aromatherapy. This study was performed to identify the chemical compositions of the essential oil of Ruta chalepensis growing wildly in three regions in Palestine and to assess and compare their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods: Identification of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230232/chemosensitization-of-fusarium-graminearum-to-chemical-fungicides-using-cyclic-lipopeptides-produced-by-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-strain-jck-12
#14
Kihyun Kim, Yoonji Lee, Areum Ha, Ji-In Kim, Ae Ran Park, Nan Hee Yu, Hokyoung Son, Gyung Ja Choi, Hae Woong Park, Chul Won Lee, Theresa Lee, Yin-Won Lee, Jin-Cheol Kim
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides for controlling FHB without the negative effects of chemical management. Out of 500 bacterial strains isolated from soil, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed strong antifungal activity and was considered a potential source for control strategies to reduce FHB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229641/hyperbaric-oxygen-reduces-aspergillus-fumigatus-proliferation-in-vitro-and-influences-in-vivo-disease-outcomes
#15
Sourabh Dhingra, Jay C Buckey, Robert A Cramer
Recent estimates suggest that more than 3 million people have chronic or invasive fungal infections, causing more than 600,000 deaths every year. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with compromised immune systems and is a primary contributor to increases in human fungal infections. Thus, developing new clinical modalities as standalone or adjunctive therapy for improving IPA patient outcomes is critically needed. Here we test the in vitro and in vivo impact of hyperbaric oxygen (100% oxygen, >1 ATA) (HBO) on A...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229505/action-mechanism-of-naphthofuranquinones-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-tropicalis-strains-evidenced-by-proteomic-analysis-the-role-of-increased-endogenous-ros
#16
João Batista de Andrade Neto, Cecília Rocha da Silva, Rosana de Sousa Campos, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires do Nascimento, Letícia Serpa Sampaio, Anderson Ramos da Silva, Maria Aparecida Alexandre Josino, Manoel Odorico de Moraes, Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista Moreno, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro Moreira, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro, Eufrânio Nunes da Silva Júnior, Hemerson Iuri Ferreira Magalhães, Danilo Damasceno Rocha, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior
The increased incidence of candidemia in terciary hospitals worldwide and the cross-resistance frequency require the new therapeutic strategies development. Recently, our research group demonstrated three semi-synthetic naphthofuranquinones (NFQs) with a significant antifungal activity in a fluconazole-resistant (FLC) C. tropicalis strain. The current study aimed to investigate the action's preliminary mechanisms of NFQs by several standardized methods such as proteomic and flow cytometry analyzes, comet assay, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy evaluation...
December 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229443/immune-functions-of-insect-%C3%AE-grps-and-their-potential-application
#17
Xiang-Jun Rao, Ming-Yue Zhan, Yue-Min Pan, Su Liu, Pei-Jin Yang, Li-Ling Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Insects rely completely on the innate immune system to sense the foreign bodies and to mount the immune responses. Germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors play crucial roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Among them, β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs) and gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs) belong to the same pattern recognition receptor family, which can recognize β-1,3-glucans. Typical insect βGRPs are comprised of a tandem carbohydrate-binding module in the N-terminal and a glucanase-like domain in the C-terminal...
December 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228870/augmented-photocatalytic-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-prunosynthetic-silver-nanoparticles
#18
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has demystified the first and single step prunosynthesis of the spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of angiospermic plant, Prunus cerasifera, which has remarkable fusion of reducing cum stabilizing bioactive components (phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, organic acids, tannins and vitamins). Highly stable prunosynthetic AgNPs with 2.04 nm average crystallite size were synthesized in dark and in sunlight at optimized condition of temperature, time and P...
December 11, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228380/elderly-versus-nonelderly-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis-in-the-icu-a-comparison-and-risk-factor-analysis-for-mortality-from-the-aspicu-cohort
#19
D K Matthaiou, G Dimopoulos, F S Taccone, P Bulpa, A M Van den Abeele, B Misset, W Meersseman, H Spapen, T Cardoso, P E Charles, D Vogelaers, S Blot
Data regarding the epidemiology and diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the critically ill population are limited, with data regarding elderly patients (≥75 years old) even scarcer. We aimed to further compare the epidemiology, characteristics and outcome of elderly versus nonelderly critically ill patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) Prospective, international, multicenter observational study (AspICU) including adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients, with a culture and/or direct examination and/or histopathological sample positive for Aspergillus spp...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228372/a-novel-tomographic-imaging-probe-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-fungal-keratitis
#20
Min Hee Lee, Gregory Wiedman, Steven Park, Arkady Mustaev, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Fungal keratitis is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in developing countries. Diagnosing fungal keratitis currently relies on a comparative evaluation of corneal biopsy or scraping using a direct microscopy and culture results. These methods not only carry the risk of developing complications due to the invasive tissue sampling but also are largely limited by diagnostic speed and accuracy, making it difficult to initiate timely appropriate antifungal therapy. Therefore, rapid and noninvasive diagnostic tools are a pressing need for improved outcomes for fungal keratitis...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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