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diabetes cardio

Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hiroshi Itoh
Many hypertension guidelines have been published mainly from Western countries to standardize the management of hypertension all over the world, however, the significance of hypertension, along with other cardio-metabolic risks, such as obesity, diabetes or dyslipidemia should differ among different races. This paper compares the relevance of hypertension, one of the most important cardio-metabolic risk factors, in Asian and Western societies.1) Low target level of blood pressure control for diabetic hypertensives in JapanIn the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of Hypertension (JSH2014), the target of blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients with diabetes was set as < 130/80 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Mertens
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of diabetes with the development of incretin analogues, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and novel insulin analogues; nevertheless, there is an unmet need for additional therapeutic options. The new generation of drugs, denoted gliflozines, that specifically interfere with sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT)-2 and exhibit a favourable impact on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes are emerging as hopeful avenues. The resultant negative energy balance caused by glucosuria results in long-term weight losses, significantly reduced HbA1c levels approximating 0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Daiji Nagayama, Rena Watanabe, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Haruki Imamura, Yuta Sato, Takashi Yamaguchi, Noriko Ban, Hidetoshi Kawana, Masahiro Ohira, Atsuhito Saiki, Kohji Shirai, Ichiro Tatsuno
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). DESIGN AND METHOD: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 males and 10528 females) without past history of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes and nephritis between 20 and 74 (47.1 ± 12.5) years of age who underwent health screening during 2004 to 2006 in Japan. RESULTS: Male showed markedly higher BMI, CAVI, TG and lower HDL-C...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zaid Abassi, Jonatan Leor, Natalie Landa, Firas Younis, Kenneth Hollander, Eric Mayoux, Lea Rath-Wolfson, Talma Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension and Diabetes commonly coexist and have been implicated in deterioration of kidneys, heart and impairment of pancreas. Empagliflozin (Empa), a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, is a new agent for treatment of diabetes via enhancing glucosuria, independent of insulin resistance. This study evaluates Empa's prophylactic beneficial effect on glomerular, cardiac and pancreatic integrity, in CRDH animals. DESIGN AND METHOD: Cohen Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive rats (CRDH) were divided into 3 groups: A- Sugar diet (SD) + Empa, B-Sugar Diet + Veh, C-Regular Chow + Veh (Control)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hideo Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Keisuke Yatsu, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Satoshi Umemura
OBJECTIVE: Though both carotid bulb and aortic arch are known to play important roles in regulation of blood pressure through modulation in baroreflex function, few studies have investigated the association of carotid bulb atherosclerosis and large arterial stiffness and orthostatic blood pressure change. DESIGN AND METHOD: Patients with metabolic disorder such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus underwent measurement of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (as an index of atherosclerosis of carotid bulb), cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) (as an index for large arterial stiffness), heart rate variability (HRV) (as an index of baroreflex function) and sit-to-stand orthostatic blood pressure change (as a simple method for detecting orthostatic hypotension)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
S A Yuca, E A Cimbek, Y Şen, O Güvenç, H Vatansev, F Buğrul, F Gün, B Oran
Objective: Childhood obesity which is a predictor of adulthood obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases and subclinical inflammation. Growth differentiation factor-15, also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) is a member of the transforming growth factor- β super family and increases during inflammatory states. Adults with obesity have increased serum concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15. MIC-1/GDF15 is associated with cardio metabolic risk in adults...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Michael Laxy, Gabriella Knoll, Michaela Schunk, Christa Meisinger, Cornelia Huth, Rolf Holle
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of the quality of diabetes care in Germany. The aim of this study is to analyze time trends in patient self-management, physician-delivered care, medication, risk factor control, complications and quality of life from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Analyses are based on data from individuals with type 2 diabetes of the population-based KORA S4 (1999-2001, n = 150), F4 (2006-2008, n = 203), FF4 (2013/14, n = 212) cohort study...
2016: PloS One
M Carmen Crespo, Francesco Visioli
Some epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension. Also, high consumption of anthocyanin-rich fruit, such as berries, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this review, we briefly yet critically assess the available evidence in support of an anti-diabetic role of anthocyanins derived from berries, especially bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L., also known as European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry and blaeberry) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, native to the United States)...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kevin D Burns, Yuliya Lytvyn, Farid H Mahmud, Denis Daneman, Livia Deda, David B Dunger, John E Deanfield, R Neil Dalton, Yesmino Elia, Ronnie Har, Julie A D Van, Timothy J Bradley, Cameron Slorach, Wei Hui, Fengxia Xiao, Joseph Zimpelmann, Luc Mertens, Rahim Moineddin, Heather N Reich, Etienne B Sochett, James W Scholey, David Z I Cherney
AIMS: The relationship between the renal renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and cardiorenal pathophysiology is unclear. Our aims were to assess (1) levels of urinary RAAS components and (2) the association between RAAS components and HbA1c, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and blood pressure in otherwise healthy adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TID) vs. healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Urinary angiotensinogen and ACE2 levels, activity of ACE and ACE2, blood pressure (BP), HbA1c, ACR and eGFR were measured in 65 HC and 194 T1D from the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Nadia Lascar, Antonella Ascione, Ornella Carbonara, Luca De Nicola, Roberto Minutolo, Teresa Salvatore, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Plinio Cirillo, Giuseppe Paolisso, Raffaele Marfella
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies and metanalysis have shown the beneficial effect of statin therapy in CVD secondary prevention, there is still controversy such the use of statins for primary CVD prevention in patients with DM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of total major adverse cardio-vascular events (MACE) in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by nephropathy treated with statins, in order to verify real life effect of statin on CVD primary prevention...
October 13, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Ingrid S K Krishnadath, Jerry R Toelsie, Lenny Nahar-van Venrooij, Albert Hofman, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND: Sex-specific body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cut-off values have been validated for a limited number of ethnic groups. We aimed to derive these cut-off values for Amerindians, Creoles, Hindustani, Javanese, Maroons and Mixed living in Suriname. METHODS: Data from individuals aged 20-65, in the Suriname Health Study was used to derive optimal cut-off values for BMI and WC for the prediction of hypertension (n=4910) and cardio-metabolic risk (n=2924)...
October 6, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppa Castellino, Maciej Banach, Peter P Toth, Ekaterina Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in the pathology of several metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PPAR agonists exert multiple lipid modifying actions which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Such benefits in lipid lowering actions include improvements in atherogenic dyslipidemia that seems to be particularly expressed in individuals at higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. In addition, the favorable effects of PPAR agonists on different cardio-metabolic parameters are established in several metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and heightened systemic inflammation...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
C Le Cossec, A-L Perrine, N Beltzer, C Fuhrman, L Carcaillon-Bentata
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of pre-frailty, frailty and multimorbidity in individuals without disability in France. To describe independent determinants of each indicators. DESIGN: Two nationally representative cross-sectional French surveys. SETTINGS: Wave 2012 of the Health, Health Care and Insurance Survey (Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale, ESPS) and data from the Disability Healthcare Household section Survey (Enquête Handicap Santé - Ménages, HSM) from 2008...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Roberto Pecoits-Filho
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most frequent and dangerous complications of DM2, affecting about one-third of the patients. DKD results in increased hospitalizations and mortality rates, especially due to cardiovascular complications. This high burden of kidney disease is mainly due to the increasing complexity of in- outpatient care for patients with DM. There is a strikingly complex interaction of kidney dysfunction with many aspects of diabetes care, such as redefinition of targets of treatment, interactions of traditional and non-traditional risk factors, and pharmacological issues related to pharmacokinetic and side effects of drugs ...
October 4, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Kwame Yeboah, Daniel A Antwi, Ben Gyan, Virginia Govoni, Charlotte E Mills, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Albert G B Amoah
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and hypertension increase arterial stiffness and cardiovascular events in all societies studied so far; sub-Saharan African studies are sparse. We investigated factors affecting arterial function in Ghanaians with diabetes, hypertension, both or neither. METHOD: Testing the hypothesis that arterial stiffness would progressively increase from controls to multiply affected patients, 270 participants were stratified into those with diabetes or hypertension only, with both, or without either...
September 29, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Hong Lu, Jun Wang, Youxue Wang, Liang Qiao, Yongning Zhou
Embelia ribes Burm of Myrsinaceae family has been widely used as an herb in the traditional medicine of India. Embelin is an active component extracted from the fruits of Embelia ribes. It has a wide spectrum of biological activities and is not toxic at low dose. This review focuses on the physical-chemical properties and bioactivities of Embelin, as well as its effects on chronic diseases such as tumors, autoimmune inflammatory diseases, parasitic infections, microbial infections, diabetes, obesity, and cardio-cerebral vascular diseases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Maria Sagan, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik
Secretion of renin juxtaglomerular cells into bloodstream initiates activation of an enzymatic-hormonal cascade known as the RAAS (renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system). As a result, blood pressure is increased by the means several interrelated mechanisms. Mechanism of Zjednoczoaction of this system has been known for decades, but a few previously unknown components were recently added, such as ACE-2 and Ang(1-7), and their role often seems to be opposite to that of the conventional components. Local tissue systems also have important biological functions...
September 13, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Francesca Saccon, Mariele Gatto, Anna Ghirardello, Luca Iaccarino, Leonardo Punzi, Andrea Doria
Galectins are evolutionary conserved β-galactoside binding proteins with a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 amino acids. In mammals, 15 members of the galectin family have been identified and classified into three subtypes according to CRD organization: prototype, tandem repeat-type and chimera-type galectins. Galectin-3 (gal-3) is the only chimera type galectin in vertebrates containing one CRD linked to an unusual long N-terminal domain which displays non-lectin dependent activities...
September 23, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Michael D Gurven, Benjamin C Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Aaron D Blackwell, David E Michalik, Caleb E Finch, Hillard S Kaplan
Heart disease and type 2 diabetes are commonly believed to be rare among contemporary subsistence-level human populations, and by extension prehistoric populations. Although some caveats remain, evidence shows these diseases to be unusual among well-studied hunter-gatherers and other subsistence populations with minimal access to healthcare. Here we expand on a relatively new proposal for why these and other populations may not show major signs of these diseases. Chronic infections, especially helminths, may offer protection against heart disease and diabetes through direct and indirect pathways...
September 25, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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