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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772895/reversible-assembly-of-a-drug-peptide-into-amyloid-fibrils-a-dynamic-circular-dichroism-study
#1
Frédéric Gobeaux, Frank Wien
The common view on the amyloid fibril formation is that it is a multistep process that involves many oligomeric intermediate species, which leads to a high degree of polymorphism. This view derives from numerous kinetic studies whose vast majority was carried out with amyloid β fragments or other pathological amyloidogenic sequences. Yet, it is not clear whether the mechanisms inferred from these studies are universal and also apply to functional amyloids, in particular to peptide hormones which form reversible amyloid structures...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772564/impact-of-estrogen-and-photoperiod-on-arginine-vasotocin-and-vt3-receptor-expression-in-the-shell-gland-of-quail
#2
Rashmi Srivastava, Lawrence E Cornett, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Role of estrogen and photoperiod is well-established in avian reproduction. In addition, the distribution and the expression of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its receptor VT3 to ensure reproductive/breeding conditions in Japanese quail influenced by them has been the main focus of this review. To consider this aspect the mRNA expression of VT3 receptor and its ligand AVT in the shell gland has been emphasized. In birds, AVT performs a dual role as an anti-diuretic hormone and the functions accomplished by oxytocin in mammals...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#3
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771759/finding-treatable-genetic-obesity-strategies-for-success
#4
Kristin Dayton, Jennifer Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic obesity is responsible for up to 7% of severe childhood obesity. Although current Pediatric Endocrine Society guidelines recommend assessment of children with early-onset morbid obesity and hyperphagia for underlying genetic disorders, a vast majority of patients are not being appropriately screened for genetic obesity syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: With advances in genetic testing, more genetic causes of obesity are being identified. Treatments are likely to be individualized, depending on the cause of the obesity, and must be targeted at addressing the underlying cause...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770113/aggression-in-women-behavior-brain-and-hormones
#5
REVIEW
Thomas F Denson, Siobhan M O'Dean, Khandis R Blake, Joanne R Beames
We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors) than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769663/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-influence-the-response-to-baby-schema-in-the-female-brain
#6
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768964/effects-of-combined-spinal-epidural-analgesia-on-first-stage-of-labor-a-cohort-study
#7
Silvia Poma, Luigia Scudeller, Chiara Verga, Giorgio Mirabile, Barbara Gardella, Federica Broglia, Maria Ciceri, Marinella Fuardo, Simona Pellicori, Maddalena Gerletti, Silvia Zizzi, Elena Masserini, Maria Paola Delmonte, Giorgio Antonio Iotti
BACKGROUND: Neuraxial anesthesia is considered as the gold standard in the control labor of pain. Its variants are epidural analgesia and combined spinal-epidural analgesia. Few studies, as yet, have investigated the duration of labor as a primary outcome. Some authors have suggested that combined spinal-epidural analgesia may reduce labor duration but at the moment the benefit of shortening labor is uncertain. The main aim of this study was to compare combined spinal-epidural with epidural analgesia in terms of their effect on duration of stage I labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767278/the-hypothalamus-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-psychiatry-meets-microscopy
#8
REVIEW
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765330/glial-cells-are-involved-in-ang-ii-induced-vasopressin-release-and-sodium-intake-in-awake-rats
#9
Atalia F L Flôr, José L de Brito Alves, Maria S França-Silva, Camille M Balarini, Lucila L K Elias, Silvia G Ruginsk, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Valdir A Braga, Josiane C Cruz
It is known that circulating angiotensin II (ANG-II) acts on the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which partially lack a normal blood-brain barrier, to stimulate pressor responses, vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) secretion, as well as sodium and water intake. Although ANG-II type 1 receptors (AT1R ) are expressed in neurons and astrocytes, the involvement of CVOs glial cells in the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central ANG II remains to be further elucidated. To address this question, we performed a set of experiments combining in vitro studies in primary hypothalamic astrocyte cells (HACc) and in vivo intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjections into the lateral ventricle of awake rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763609/cervical-ripening-balloon-with-and-without-oxytocin-in-multiparas-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Alison M Bauer, Justin R Lappen, Kimberly S Gecsi, David N Hackney
BACKGROUND: The optimal method for induction of labor for multiparous women with an unfavorable cervix is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if induction of labor with simultaneous use of oxytocin and a cervical ripening balloon, compared with sequential use, increases the likelihood of delivery within 24 hours in multiparous women. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a randomized controlled trial between November 2014 and June 2017. Eligible participants were multiparous women with a vertex presenting, non-anomalous singleton gestation ≥ 34 weeks undergoing induction of labor...
May 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760054/placebo-treatment-facilitates-social-trust-and-approach-behavior
#11
Xinyuan Yan, Xue Yong, Wenhao Huang, Yina Ma
Placebo effect refers to beneficial changes induced by the use of inert treatment, such as placebo-induced relief of physical pain and attenuation of negative affect. To date, we know little about whether placebo treatment could facilitate social functioning, a crucial aspect for well-being of a social species. In the present study, we develop and validate a paradigm to induce placebo effects on social trust and approach behavior (social placebo effect), and show robust evidence that placebo treatment promotes trust in others and increases preference for a closer interpersonal distance...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756649/measuring-peripheral-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-nonhuman-primates
#12
REVIEW
Toni E Ziegler
Studying the neural and hormonal changes that modulate behavior is critical to understanding social relationships. Of particular interest is measuring oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peripherally, and preferably, non-invasively, in nonhuman primates. Due to these peptides' neural origin and their stimulation of brain areas that influence social behavior, there has been debate whether peripheral measures in blood, urine, and saliva reflect central levels in the brain. This review elucidates the challenges of OT measurement and the solutions that provide valuable data on OT's role in social behavior...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755571/plasma-oxytocin-level-and-sexual-dysfunction-in-depressed-women-treated-by-either-fluoxetine-or-citalopram-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#13
Mohammad Abbasinazari, Mona Heidari-Kord, Azadeh Mazaheri-Meybodi, Azadeh Eshraghi, Nima Bayati
Sexual dysfunction is a common cause of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) withdrawal. Various studies indicate that decreased oxytocin is involved as a mechanism of delayed ejaculation induced by SSRIs. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate and compare sexual dysfunction and oxytocin levels in women being treated with either fluoxetine or citalopram. Thirty-nine women with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder were enrolled in the study. A baseline blood sample was collected and each participant was given either fluoxetine 20 mg/d or citalopram 20 mg/d...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754970/cessation-of-breastfeeding-in-association-with-oxytocin-administration-and-type-of-birth-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Aurora Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Modesto Durán Duque, Ana B Hernández López, Cristina Muriel Miguel, Pilar Pérez Riveiro, Angel Salcedo Mariña, Ana Royuela Vicente, María L Casillas Santana, Miguel A Marín Gabriel
BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested an association between synthetic oxytocin administration and type of birth with the initiation and consolidation of breastfeeding. AIM: This study aimed to test whether oxytocin administration and type of birth are associated with cessation of exclusive breastfeeding at different periods. A second objective was to investigate whether the administered oxytocin dose is associated with cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study (n=529) in a tertiary hospital...
May 10, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753568/severe-delayed-postpartum-hemorrhage-after-cesarean-section
#15
Nirav Patel, Michael Radeos
BACKGROUND: Severe secondary or delayed postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is rare and affects 0.23-3% of all pregnancies. It happens between 24 hours to 12 weeks postdelivery. These PPHs occur more often during normal vaginal delivery; only a small subset of these PPHs occur after cesarean section. The top differential diagnoses of both primary and secondary PPH are different, and as a result, the management may be different. Although uterine atony causes 80% of primary PPHs, extensive literature review exposed the rarity of it in the setting of secondary PPH...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753459/infant-handling-in-bonobos-pan-paniscus-exploring-functional-hypotheses-and-the-relationship-to-oxytocin
#16
Klaree Boose, Frances White, Colin Brand, Audra Meinelt, Josh Snodgrass
Infant handling describes interactions between infants and non-maternal group members and is widespread across mammalian taxa. The expression of infant handling behaviors, defined as any affiliative or agonistic interaction between a group member and an infant, varies considerably among primate species. Several functional hypotheses may explain the adaptive value of infant handling including the Kin Selection hypothesis, which describes handling as a mechanism through which indirect fitness is increased and predicts a bias in handling behaviors directed toward related (genetic) infants; the Alliance Formation hypothesis, which describes handling as a social commodity and predicts females with infants will support handlers during conflict; and the Learning-to-Mother hypothesis, which describes handling as a mechanism through which handlers learn species-specific maternal behaviors and predicts that handling will occur most frequently in immature and nulliparous females...
May 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752983/orexin-b-modulates-spontaneous-excitatory-and-inhibitory-transmission-in-lamina-ii-neurons-of-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#17
Chong Wang, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
Cellular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive properties of orexins, a group of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus, in the spinal dorsal horn have not been thoroughly investigated. We examined how orexin B affects spontaneous synaptic transmission in lamina II neurons, which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission, by applying a whole-cell patch-clamp technique to lamina II neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. In 66% of neurons tested, bath-applied orexin B concentration-dependently produced an inward current at -70 mV and/or increased the frequency of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) without changing its amplitude, in a manner resistant to the voltage-gated Na+ -channel blocker tetrodotoxin...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750971/saliva-oxytocin-measures-do-not-reflect-peripheral-plasma-concentrations-after-intranasal-oxytocin-administration-in-men
#18
Daniel S Quintana, Lars T Westlye, Knut T Smerud, Ramy A Mahmoud, Ole A Andreassen, Per G Djupesland
Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of the approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men...
May 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745275/animal-models-of-social-stress-the-dark-side-of-social-interactions
#19
Marianela Masis-Calvo, Anna K Schmidtner, Vinícius E de Moura Oliveira, Cindy P Grossmann, Trynke R de Jong, Inga D Neumann
Social stress occurs in all social species, including humans, and shape both mental health and future interactions with conspecifics. Animal models of social stress are used to unravel the precise role of the main stress system - the HPA axis - on the one hand, and the social behavior network on the other, as these are intricately interwoven. The present review aims to summarize the insights gained from three highly useful and clinically relevant animal models of psychosocial stress: the resident-intruder (RI) test, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), and the social fear conditioning (SFC)...
May 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744758/erratum-to-oxytocin-signaling-in-pain-cellular-circuit-system-and-behavioral-levels
#20
Pierrick Poisbeau, Valery Grinevich, Alexandre Charlet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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