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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695985/intrastriatal-administration-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-normalizes-striatal-d2-r-binding-and-reduces-striatal-d1-r-binding-in-male-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#1
Franziska Wedekind, Angela Oskamp, Markus Lang, Alexander Hawlitschka, Karl Zilles, Andreas Wree, Andreas Bauer
Cerebral administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) has been shown to improve disease-specific motor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson disease (PD). Since the dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia fundamentally contributes to motor function, we investigated the impact of BoNT-A on striatal dopamine receptor expression using in vitro and in vivo imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and quantitative autoradiography, respectively). Seventeen male Wistar rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and assigned to two treatment groups 7 weeks later: 10 rats were treated ipsilaterally with an intrastriatal injection of 1 ng BoNT-A, while the others received vehicle (n = 7)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685616/cerebral-serotonin-release-correlates-with-11-c-az10419369-pet-measures-of-5-ht1b-receptor-binding-in-the-pig-brain
#2
Louise M Jørgensen, Pia Weikop, Claus Svarer, Ling Feng, Sune H Keller, Gitte M Knudsen
Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively capture temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We here evaluate the 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]AZ10419369, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral serotonin levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain serotonin levels, we compared the [(11)C]AZ10419369 PET signal in the pig brain to simultaneous measurements of extracellular serotonin levels with microdialysis after various acute interventions (saline, escitalopram, fenfluramine)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666837/operant-responding-for-optogenetic-excitation-of-ldtg-inputs-to-the-vta-requires-d1-and-d2-dopamine-receptor-activation-in-the-nacc
#3
Stephan Steidl, Shannon O'Sullivan, Dustin Pilat, Nancy Bubula, Jason Brown, Paul Vezina
Behavioral studies in rats and mice indicate that laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) importantly contribute to reward function. Further evidence from anesthetized rat and mouse preparations suggests that these LTDg inputs may exert this effect by regulating mesolimbic dopamine (DA) signaling. Direct evidence supporting this possibility remains lacking however. To address this lack, rat LDTg neurons were transfected with adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 and eYFP (ChR2) or eYFP alone (eYFP) and rats were subsequently trained to lever press for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the inputs of these neurons to the VTA...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656313/dopamine-attenuates-ethanol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-retina-via-the-camp-pka-pathway
#4
Junde Han, Lingqi Gao, Jing Dong, Yingtian Wang, Mazhong Zhang, Jijian Zheng
Apoptosis has been identified as the primary cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and the development of methods to prevent and treat FASD have been based on the mechanisms of alcohol-induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to explore the effects of dopamine on alcohol‑induced neuronal apoptosis using whole‑mount cultures of rat retinas (postnatal day 7). Retinas were initially incubated with ethanol (100, 200 or 500 mM), and in subsequent analyses retinas were co‑incubated with ethanol (200 mM) and dopamine (10 µM)...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643800/striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-varies-across-smoking-status
#5
Corinde E Wiers, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Şükrü B Demiral, Sung Won Kim, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
To assess how tobacco smoking status affects baseline dopamine D2/D3 (D2R) receptor availability and methylphenidate-induced dopamine (DA) release, we retrospectively analyzed D2R availability measures of 8 current smokers, 10 ex-smokers, and 18 non-smokers who were scanned with Positron Emission Tomography and [(11)C]raclopride, after administration of an injection of placebo or 0.5 mg/kg iv methylphenidate. There was a significant effect of smoking status on baseline striatal D2R availability; with current smokers showing lower striatal D2R availability compared to non-smokers (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) and to ex-smokers (caudate and putamen)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583881/altered-adenosine-2a-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-availability-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-treated-rats-with-and-without-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#6
X Zhou, J Doorduin, P H Elsinga, R A J O Dierckx, E F J de Vries, C Casteels
Several lines of evidence imply alterations in adenosine signaling in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated cerebral changes in adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) availability in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats with and without levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) using positron-emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]preladenant. In parallel dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) imaging with [(11)C]raclopride PET and behavioral tests for motor and cognitive function were performed. METHODS: Parametric A2AR and D2R binding potential (BPND) images were reconstructed using reference tissue models with midbrain and cerebellum as reference tissue, respectively...
June 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572059/linking-dopaminergic-reward-signals-to-the-development-of-attentional-bias-a-positron-emission-tomographic-study
#7
Brian A Anderson, Hiroto Kuwabara, Dean F Wong, Joshua Roberts, Arman Rahmim, James R Brašić, Susan M Courtney
The attention system is shaped by reward history, such that learned reward cues involuntarily draw attention. Recent research has begun to uncover the neural mechanisms by which learned reward cues compete for attention, implicating dopamine (DA) signaling within the dorsal striatum. How these elevated priority signals develop in the brain during the course of learning is less well understood, as is the relationship between value-based attention and the experience of reward during learning. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the striatal DA response to reward during learning contributes to the development of a learned attentional bias towards the cue that predicted it, and examined this hypothesis using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride...
May 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-is-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#8
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or to carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#9
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493519/neurotransmitters-behind-pain-relief-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-positron-emission-tomography-evidence-for-release-of-endogenous-opioids
#10
S Lamusuo, J Hirvonen, P Lindholm, I K Martikainen, N Hagelberg, R Parkkola, T Taiminen, J Hietala, S Helin, A Virtanen, A Pertovaara, S K Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at M1/S1 cortex has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible neurobiological correlates of cortical neurostimulation for the pain relief. METHODS: We studied the effects of M1/S1 rTMS on nociception, brain dopamine D2 and μ-opioid receptors using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded crossover study design and 3D-positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490029/altered-dopamine-responses-to-monetary-rewards-in-female-fibromyalgia-patients-with-and-without-depression-a-11c-raclopride-bolus-plus-infusion-pet-study
#11
Katharina Ledermann, Josef Jenewein, Haiko Sprott, Gregor Hasler, Ulrich Schnyder, Geoffrey Warnock, Anass Johayem, Spyridon Kollias, Alfred Buck, Chantal Martin-Soelch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443614/cocaine-cue-induced-dopamine-release-in-recreational-cocaine-users
#12
Sylvia M L Cox, Yvonne Yau, Kevin Larcher, France Durand, Theodore Kolivakis, J Scott Delaney, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
It has been proposed that the acquisition of drug seeking is related to the development of conditioned dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. As drug use continues and becomes habit-like, conditioned responses have been shown to shift to the dorsal striatum. Here, using the PET [(11)C]raclopride method and highly personalized cocaine cues, we report the first evidence in humans of the dorsal dopamine response prior to the onset of addiction.
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440810/naltrexone-modulates-dopamine-release-following-chronic-but-not-acute-amphetamine-administration-a-translational-study
#13
N Jayaram-Lindström, J Guterstam, J Häggkvist, M Ericson, T Malmlöf, B Schilström, C Halldin, S Cervenka, T Saijo, A-L Nordström, J Franck
The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been shown to attenuate the subjective effects of amphetamine. However, the mechanisms behind this modulatory effect are currently unknown. We hypothesized that naltrexone would diminish the striatal dopamine release induced by amphetamine, which is considered an important mechanism behind many of its stimulant properties. We used positron emission tomography and the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [(11)C]raclopride in healthy subjects to study the dopaminergic effects of an amphetamine injection after pretreatment with naltrexone or placebo...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#14
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 [major alleles: L- (eight repeats) and H- (nine repeats)] on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407307/adenosine-a1-receptors-measured-with-11-c-mpdx-pet-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Masahiro Mishina, Kenji Ishii, Yuichi Kimura, Masahiko Suzuki, Shin Kitamura, Kenji Ishibashi, Muneyuki Sakata, Keiichi Oda, Shiro Kobayashi, Kazumi Kimura, Kiichi Ishiwata
Adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) interact negatively with dopamine D1 receptors (D1 Rs) in neurons of the basal ganglia's direct pathway, while adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) negatively interact with dopamine D2 receptors (D2 Rs) in indirect-pathway neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral density of A1 Rs in Parkinson's disease (PD) in its early stages, using PET scans with the radioligand 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-(11) C-methyl-3-propylxanthine ((11) C-MPDX). We studied 10 drug-naïve patients with early PD...
August 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365375/preclinical-molecular-imaging-of-glutamatergic-and-dopaminergic-neuroreceptor-kinetics-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
S Servaes, D Glorie, J Verhaeghe, S Stroobants, S Staelens
BACKGROUND: Molecular neuroimaging was applied in the quinpirole rat model for compulsive checking in OCD to visualize the D2- and mGluR5-receptor occupancy with Raclopride and ABP-688 microPET/CT. METHODS: Animals (n=48) were exposed to either saline (CTRL; 1mL/kg) or quinpirole (QP; dopamine D2-agonist, 0.5mg/kg) in a single injection (RAC and ABP acute groups) or twice-weekly during 7weeks (chronic group). Animals underwent PET/CT after the 1st injection (acute) or before initial exposure and following the 10th injection in week 5 (chronic)...
March 30, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356473/density-of-available-striatal-dopamine-receptors-predicts-trait-impulsiveness-during-performance-of-an-attention-demanding-task
#17
Brian A Anderson, Hiroto Kuwabara, Dean F Wong, Susan M Courtney
The density (measured at binding potential) of available striatal D2/D3 receptors has been shown to predict trait impulsiveness. This relationship is highly robust and well replicated. In each case, however, the availability of dopamine receptors was measured at rest. More broadly, the extent to which relationships between dopamine receptor availability and behavioral traits hold when participants perform a cognitive task is unclear. Furthermore, the performance of a cognitive task engages fundamentally different neural networks than are maximally engaged during the resting state...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356463/dopamine-d2-d3-imbalance-during-migraine-attack-and-allodynia-in-vivo
#18
Alexandre F DaSilva, Thiago D Nascimento, Hassan Jassar, Joseph Heffernan, Rebecca L Toback, Sarah Lucas, Marcos F DosSantos, Emily L Bellile, Philip S Boonstra, Jeremy M G Taylor, Kenneth L Casey, Robert A Koeppe, Yolanda R Smith, Jon-Kar Zubieta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vivo the dynamics of endogenous dopamine (DA) neurotransmission during migraine ictus with allodynia. METHODS: We examined 8 episodic migraineurs and 8 healthy controls (HC) using PET with [(11)C]raclopride. The uptake measure of [(11)C]raclopride, nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND), would increase when there was a reduction in endogenous DA release. The opposite is true for a decrease in [(11)C]raclopride BPND. Patients were scanned twice: one PET session was during a spontaneous migraine ictus at rest, followed by a sustained thermal pain threshold (STPT) challenge on the trigeminal region, eliciting an allodynia experience; another was during interictal phase...
April 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350401/systemic-inflammation-enhances-stimulant-induced-striatal-dopamine-elevation
#19
J R Petrulli, B Kalish, N B Nabulsi, Y Huang, J Hannestad, E D Morris
Changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is often comorbid with such conditions and affects similar areas of the brain. The goal of this study was to use positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 antagonist tracer, (11)C-raclopride, to explore the effect of acute immune activation on striatal DA levels. DA transmission was modulated by an oral methylphenidate (MP) challenge in order to reliably elicit DA elevation...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346539/is-there-a-relation-between-novelty-seeking-striatal-dopamine-release-and-frontal-cortical-thickness
#20
Natalia Jaworska, Sylvia M Cox, Kevin F Casey, Isabelle Boileau, Mariya Cherkasova, Kevin Larcher, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
BACKGROUND: Novelty-seeking (NS) and impulsive personality traits have been proposed to reflect an interplay between fronto-cortical and limbic systems, including the limbic striatum (LS). Although neuroimaging studies have provided some evidence for this, most are comprised of small samples and many report surprisingly large effects given the challenges of trying to relate a snapshot of brain function or structure to an entity as complex as personality. The current work tested a priori hypotheses about associations between striatal dopamine (DA) release, cortical thickness (CT), and NS in a large sample of healthy adults...
2017: PloS One
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