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"Resting state" AND animal

Afonso C Silva
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, due in great part for its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
G L Poirier, W Huang, K Tam, J R DiFranza, Jean A King
Brain mechanisms underpinning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are incompletely understood. The adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied preclinical model that expresses several of the key behavioral features associated with ADHD. Yet, little is known about large-scale functional connectivity patterns in the SHR, and their potential similarity to those of humans with ADHD. Using an approach comparable to human studies, magnetic resonance imaging in the awake animal was performed to identify whole-brain intrinsic neural connectivity patterns...
September 28, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Aileen Schroeter, Joanes Grandjean, Felix Schlegel, Bechara J Saab, Markus Rudin
Previously, we reported widespread bilateral increases in stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in mouse brain to unilateral sensory paw stimulation. We attributed the pattern to arousal-related cardiovascular changes overruling cerebral autoregulation thereby masking specific signal changes elicited by local neuronal activity. To rule out the possibility that interhemispheric neuronal communication might contribute to bilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging responses, we compared stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to unilateral hindpaw stimulation in acallosal I/LnJ, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Zhe Charles Zhou, Andrew P Salzwedel, Susanne Radtke-Schuller, Yuhui Li, Kristin K Sellers, John H Gilmore, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Flavio Fröhlich, Wei Gao
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has emerged as a versatile tool for non-invasive measurement of functional connectivity patterns in the brain. RsfMRI brain dynamics in rodents, non-human primates, and humans share similar properties; however, little is known about the resting state functional connectivity patterns in the ferret, an animal model with high potential for developmental and cognitive translational study. To address this knowledge-gap, we performed rsfMRI on anesthetized ferrets using a 9...
September 2, 2016: NeuroImage
Benjamin C Nephew, Wei Huang, Guillaume L Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Jean A King
The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Julia K Brynildsen, Li-Ming Hsu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
Anesthetics are commonly used in preclinical functional MRI studies. It is well-appreciated that proper choice of anesthetics is of critical importance for maintaining a physiologically normal range of autonomic functioning. A recent study, using a low dose of dexmedetomidine (active isomer of medetomidine) in combination with a low dose of isoflurane, suggested stable measurements across repeated fMRI experiments in individual animals with each session lasting up to several hours. The rat default mode network has been successfully identified using this preparation, indicating that this protocol minimally disturbs brain network functions...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Takuya Miyagawa, Toshinori Fujie, Ferdinandus Ferdinandus, Tat Thang Vo Doan, Hirotaka Sato, Shinji Takeoka
In this paper, a micro-thermography, temperature mapping with high spatial resolution, was established using luminescent molecules embedded ultra-thin polymeric films (nanosheets), and demonstrated in a small living animal to map out and visualize temperature shift due to animal's muscular activity. Herein, we report super flexible and self-adhesive (no need of glue) nano-thermosensor consisting of stacked two different polymeric nanosheets with thermo-sensitive (Eu-tris (dinaphthoylmethane)-bis-trioctylphosphine oxide: EuDT) and insensitive (Rhodamine 800) dyes being embedded...
August 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luke J Hearne, Jason B Mattingley, Luca Cocchi
Intelligence is a fundamental ability that sets humans apart from other animal species. Despite its importance in defining human behaviour, the neural networks responsible for intelligence are not well understood. The dominant view from neuroimaging work suggests that intelligent performance on a range of tasks is underpinned by segregated interactions in a fronto-parietal network of brain regions. Here we asked whether fronto-parietal interactions associated with intelligence are ubiquitous, or emerge from more widespread associations in a task-free context...
2016: Scientific Reports
Cathrin Rohleder, Dirk Wiedermann, Bernd Neumaier, Alexander Drzezga, Lars Timmermann, Rudolf Graf, F Markus Leweke, Heike Endepols
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a neuropsychological process during which a weak sensory stimulus ("prepulse") attenuates the motor response ("startle reaction") to a subsequent strong startling stimulus. It is measured as a surrogate marker of sensorimotor gating in patients suffering from neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia, as well as in corresponding animal models. A variety of studies has shown that PPI of the acoustical startle reaction comprises three brain circuitries for: (i) startle mediation, (ii) PPI mediation, and (iii) modulation of PPI mediation...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C Katnik, A Garcia, A A Behensky, I E Yasny, A M Shuster, S B Seredenin, A V Petrov, J Cuevas
Activation of sigma receptors at delayed time points has been shown to decrease injury following ischemic stroke. The mixed σ1/σ2 receptor agonist, afobazole, provides superior long-term outcomes compared to other σ ligands in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. Experiments using the MCAO model were carried out to determine the molecular mechanism involved in the beneficial effects of afobazole. Administration of afobazole (3 mg/kg) at delayed time points post-stroke significantly increased the number of microglia and astrocytes detected in the ipsilateral hemisphere at 96 hrs post-surgery...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jeffry R Alger, Benjamin M Ellingson, Cody Ashe-McNalley, Davis C Woodworth, Jennifer S Labus, Melissa Farmer, Lejian Huang, A Vania Apkarian, Kevin A Johnson, Sean C Mackey, Timothy J Ness, Georg Deutsch, Richard E Harris, Daniel J Clauw, Gary H Glover, Todd B Parrish, Jan den Hollander, John W Kusek, Chris Mullins, Emeran A Mayer
The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network is an ongoing multi-center collaborative research group established to conduct integrated studies in participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS). The goal of these investigations is to provide new insights into the etiology, natural history, clinical, demographic and behavioral characteristics, search for new and evaluate candidate biomarkers, systematically test for contributions of infectious agents to symptoms, and conduct animal studies to understand underlying mechanisms for UCPPS...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
N Kunath, N C J Müller, M Tonon, B N Konrad, M Pawlowski, A Kopczak, I Elbau, M Uhr, S Kühn, D Repantis, K Ohla, T D Müller, G Fernández, M Tschöp, M Czisch, A Steiger, M Dresler
Ghrelin regulates energy homeostasis in various species and enhances memory in rodent models. In humans, the role of ghrelin in cognitive processes has yet to be characterized. Here we show in a double-blind randomized crossover design that acute administration of ghrelin alters encoding-related brain activity, however does not enhance memory formation in humans. Twenty-one healthy young male participants had to memorize food- and non-food-related words presented on a background of a virtual navigational route while undergoing fMRI recordings...
July 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Zhiwei Ma, Pablo Perez, Zilu Ma, Yikang Liu, Christina Hamilton, Zhifeng Liang, Nanyin Zhang
Connectivity-based parcellation approaches present an innovative method to segregate the brain into functionally specialized regions. These approaches have significantly advanced our understanding of the human brain organization. However, parallel progress in animal research is sparse. Using resting-state fMRI data and a novel, data-driven parcellation method, we have obtained robust functional parcellations of the rat brain. These functional parcellations reveal the regional specialization of the rat brain, which exhibited high within-parcel homogeneity and high reproducibility across animals...
July 5, 2016: NeuroImage
Franck Verdonk, Pascal Roux, Patricia Flamant, Laurence Fiette, Fernando A Bozza, Sébastien Simard, Marc Lemaire, Benoit Plaud, Spencer L Shorte, Tarek Sharshar, Fabrice Chrétien, Anne Danckaert
BACKGROUND: Microglial cells are tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system. They are extremely dynamic, sensitive to their microenvironment and present a characteristic complex and heterogeneous morphology and distribution within the brain tissue. Many experimental clues highlight a strong link between their morphology and their function in response to aggression. However, due to their complex "dendritic-like" aspect that constitutes the major pool of murine microglial cells and their dense network, precise and powerful morphological studies are not easy to realize and complicate correlation with molecular or clinical parameters...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Samer Al-Samir, Yong Wang, Joachim D Meissner, Gerolf Gros, Volker Endeward
We have studied cardiac and respiratory functions of aquaporin-1-deficient mice by the Pressure-Volume-loop technique and by blood gas analysis. In addition, the morphological properties of the animals' hearts were analyzed. In anesthesia under maximal dobutamine stimulation, the mice exhibit a moderately elevated heart rate of < 600 min(-1) and an O2 consumption of ~0.6 ml/min/g, which is about twice the basal rate. In this state, which is similar to the resting state of the conscious animal, all cardiac functions including stroke volume and cardiac output exhibited resting values and were identical between deficient and wildtype animals...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Jeremy I Borjon, Daniel Y Takahashi, Diego C Cervantes, Asif A Ghazanfar
Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
R P Lawson, C L Nord, B Seymour, D L Thomas, P Dayan, S Pilling, J P Roiser
The habenula is a small, evolutionarily conserved brain structure that plays a central role in aversive processing and is hypothesised to be hyperactive in depression, contributing to the generation of symptoms such as anhedonia. However, habenula responses during aversive processing have yet to be reported in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Unmedicated and currently depressed MDD patients (N=25, aged 18-52 years) and healthy volunteers (N=25, aged 19-52 years) completed a passive (Pavlovian) conditioning task with appetitive (monetary gain) and aversive (monetary loss and electric shock) outcomes during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging; data were analysed using computational modelling...
May 31, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Meral Tunc-Ozdemir, Daisuke Urano, Dinesh Kumar Jaiswal, Steven D Clouse, Alan M Jones
Plants and some protists have heterotrimeric G protein complexes that activate spontaneously without canonical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In Arabidopsis, the sole 7-transmembrane regulator of G protein signaling 1 (AtRGS1) modulates the G protein complex by keeping it in the resting state (GDP-bound). However, it remains unknown how a myriad of biological responses is achieved with a single G protein modulator. We propose that in complete contrast to G protein activation in animals, plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs), not GPCRs, provide this discrimination through phosphorylation of AtRGS1 in a ligand-dependent manner...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gerd Wagner, Alexander Gussew, Stefanie Köhler, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefan Smesny, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Animal and human studies suggest differing anatomical and functional connectivity patterns of the anterior and posterior hippocampus. The biochemical underpinnings of the hippocampal resting state connectivity along this anterior-posterior axis remain unclear. We investigated twenty-five healthy male subjects in a multimodal study. We aimed to examine the relationship between resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the left and right hippocampus separated along the anterior-posterior axis and the corresponding glutamatergic function assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the glutamate-glutamine (Glx) complex...
August 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Tawfik Moher Alsady, Esther M Blessing, Florian Beissner
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely used technique for investigating functional connectivity (fc) in functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Masked independent component analysis (mICA), that is, ICA restricted to a defined region of interest, has been shown to detect local fc networks in particular brain regions, including the cerebellum, brainstem, posterior cingulate cortex, operculo-insular cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord. Here, we present the mICA toolbox, an open-source GUI toolbox based on FSL command line tools that performs mICA and related analyses in an integrated way...
October 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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