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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622627/changes-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-function-following-chronic-alcohol-consumption-in-previously-na%C3%A3-ve-animals
#2
Jared A Rowland, Jennifer R Stapleton-Kotloski, Greg E Alberto, April T Davenport, Robert J Kotloski, David P Friedman, Dwayne W Godwin, James B Daunais
INTRODUCTION: Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with neurophysiological changes in brain activity; however, these changes are not well localized in humans. Non-human primate models of alcohol abuse enable control over many potential confounding variables associated with human studies. The present study utilized high-resolution magnetoencephalography (MEG) to quantify the effects of chronic EtOH self-administration on resting state (RS) brain function in vervet monkeys. METHODS: Adolescent male vervet monkeys were trained to self-administer ethanol (n=7) or an isocaloric malto-dextrin solution (n=3)...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604786/tinnitus-alters-resting-state-functional-connectivity-rsfc-in-human-auditory-and-non-auditory-brain-regions-as-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs
#3
Juan San Juan, Xiao-Su Hu, Mohamad Issa, Silvia Bisconti, Ioulia Kovelman, Paul Kileny, Gregory Basura
Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596724/recent-advances-in-translational-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-animal-models-of-stress-and-depression
#4
REVIEW
Allison L McIntosh, Shane Gormley, Leonardo Tozzi, Thomas Frodl, Andrew Harkin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable translational tool that can be used to investigate alterations in brain structure and function in both patients and animal models of disease. Regional changes in brain structure, functional connectivity, and metabolite concentrations have been reported in depressed patients, giving insight into the networks and brain regions involved, however preclinical models are less well characterized. The development of more effective treatments depends upon animal models that best translate to the human condition and animal models may be exploited to assess the molecular and cellular alterations that accompany neuroimaging changes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560240/mesoscale-brain-explorer-a-flexible-python-based-image-analysis-and-visualization-tool
#5
Dirk Haupt, Matthieu P Vanni, Federico Bolanos, Catalin Mitelut, Jeffrey M LeDue, Tim H Murphy
Imaging of mesoscale brain activity is used to map interactions between brain regions. This work has benefited from the pioneering studies of Grinvald et al., who employed optical methods to image brain function by exploiting the properties of intrinsic optical signals and small molecule voltage-sensitive dyes. Mesoscale interareal brain imaging techniques have been advanced by cell targeted and selective recombinant indicators of neuronal activity. Spontaneous resting state activity is often collected during mesoscale imaging to provide the basis for mapping of connectivity relationships using correlation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539914/functional-connectivity-mapping-in-the-animal-model-principles-and-applications-of-resting-state-fmri
#6
REVIEW
Martin Gorges, Francesco Roselli, Hans-Peter Müller, Albert C Ludolph, Volker Rasche, Jan Kassubek
"Resting-state" fMRI has substantially contributed to the understanding of human and non-human functional brain organization by the analysis of correlated patterns in spontaneous activity within dedicated brain systems. Spontaneous neural activity is indirectly measured from the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal as acquired by echo planar imaging, when subjects quietly "resting" in the scanner. Animal models including disease or knockout models allow a broad spectrum of experimental manipulations not applicable in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532450/lps-induced-systemic-inflammation-reveals-an-immunomodulatory-role-for-the-prion-protein-at-the-blood-brain-interface
#7
Ø Salvesen, M R Reiten, A Espenes, M K Bakkebø, M A Tranulis, C Ersdal
BACKGROUND: The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is an evolutionary conserved protein abundantly expressed not only in the central nervous system but also peripherally including the immune system. A line of Norwegian dairy goats naturally devoid of PrP(C) (PRNP (Ter/Ter)) provides a novel model for studying PrP(C) physiology. METHODS: In order to explore putative roles for PrP(C) in acute inflammatory responses, we performed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli O26:B6) challenge of 16 goats (8 PRNP (+/+) and 8 PRNP (Ter/Ter)) and included 10 saline-treated controls (5 of each PRNP genotype)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499395/time-course-of-blood-lactate-levels-inflammation-and-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-sepsis
#8
Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Adriano José Pereira, Sebastian Brandt, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Siamak Djafarzadeh, Jukka Takala, Stephan Mathias Jakob
BACKGROUND: A decrease in blood lactate levels (Lac) >10% during the first hours of resuscitation in sepsis is associated with better outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the time course of Lac, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial respiration during experimental sepsis. METHODS: Original data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed. In cohort 1, pigs were randomized to be resuscitated for 48 h starting at 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively, after fecal peritonitis induction (n = 8 each)...
May 12, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462586/infraslow-electroencephalographic-and-dynamic-resting-state-network-activity
#9
Joshua K Grooms, Garth J Thompson, Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Eric H Schumacher, Charles M Epstein, Shella D Keilholz
A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (<1 Hz) has been little studied. Previously, work in rodents showed that infraslow local field potentials play a role in functional connectivity, particularly in the dynamic organization of large-scale networks. To examine the relationship between infraslow activity and network dynamics in humans, direct current (DC) EEG and resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461059/high-resolution-functional-mri-identified-distinct-global-intrinsic-functional-networks-of-nociceptive-posterior-insula-and-s2-regions-in-squirrel-monkey-brain
#10
Ruiqi Wu, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457421/later-evaluation-of-ischemia-and-reperfusion-by-the-pringle-maneuver-in-wistar-rats-demonstrating-that-hepatic-lesions-can-be-reversible
#11
G de Lourdes Jorge, R Dos Reis Tártaro, C A Fazzio Escanhoela, I F S F Boin
OBJECTIVE: There has been much research on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion by means of short or longer interruption of the portal triad. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mitochondrial respiratory activity and liver histology at 2 different times after the Pringle maneuver. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats, weighing ∼308 g, with histologic and mitochondrial study: immediate ischemic group (IIG; 40 minutes; 9 animals) and late ischemic group (LIG; 28 days; 9 animals)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369458/the-healthy-brain-network-serial-scanning-initiative-a-resource-for-evaluating-inter-individual-differences-and-their-reliabilities-across-scan-conditions-and-sessions
#12
David O'Connor, Natan Vega Potler, Meagan Kovacs, Ting Xu, Lei Ai, John Pellman, Tamara Vanderwal, Lucas C Parra, Samantha Cohen, Satrajit Ghosh, Jasmine Escalera, Natalie Grant-Villegas, Yael Osman, Anastasia Bui, R Cameron Craddock, Michael P Milham
Background: Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established...
February 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363836/multi-echo-fmri-a-review-of-applications-in-fmri-denoising-and-analysis-of-bold-signals
#13
Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon, Priti Balchandani, Michael V Lombardo, Benedikt A Poser, Peter Bandettini
In recent years the field of fMRI research has enjoyed expanded technical abilities related to resolution, as well as use across many fields of brain research. At the same time, the field has also dealt with uncertainty related to many known and unknown effects of artifact in fMRI data. In this review we discuss an emerging fMRI technology, called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI, which focuses on improving the fidelity and interpretability of fMRI. Where the essential problem of standard single-echo fMRI is the indeterminacy of sources of signals, whether BOLD or artifact, this is not the case for ME-fMRI...
March 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320670/bci-use-and-its-relation-to-adaptation-in-cortical-networks
#14
Kaitlyn Casimo, Kurt E Weaver, Jeremiah Wander, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) carry great potential in the treatment of motor impairments. As a new motor output, BCIs interface with the native motor system, but acquisition of BCI proficiency requires a degree of learning to integrate this new function. In this review, we discuss how BCI designs often take advantage of the brain's motor system infrastructure as sources of command signals. We highlight a growing body of literature examining how this approach leads to changes in activity across cortex, including beyond motor regions, as a result of learning the new skill of BCI control...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315455/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-facilitates-the-action-exercise-to-restore-plasticity-and-functionality-implications-for-early-brain-trauma-recovery
#15
Gokul Krishna, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Zhe Ying, Afshin Paydar, Neil G Harris, Luiz Fernando F Royes, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction accompanying traumatic brain injury (TBI) severely impairs the ability of injured neurons to comply with functional demands. This limits the success of rehabilitative strategies by compromising brain plasticity and function, and highlights the need for early interventions to promote energy homeostasis. We sought to examine whether the TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) normalizes brain energy deficits and reestablishes more normal patterns of functional connectivity, while enhancing the effects of exercise during post-TBI period...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249008/characterization-of-the-resting-state-brain-network-topology-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Robert Westphal, Camilla Simmons, Michel B Mesquita, Tobias C Wood, Steve C R Williams, Anthony C Vernon, Diana Cash
Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is an imaging technology that has recently gained attention for its ability to detect disruptions in functional brain networks in humans, including in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), revealing early and widespread brain network abnormalities. This methodology is now readily applicable to experimental animals offering new possibilities for cross-species translational imaging. In this context, we herein describe the application of rsfMRI to the unilaterally-lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat, a robust experimental model of the dopamine depletion implicated in PD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#17
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word 'e-motion' derives from the Latin word 'ex-moveo' which literally means 'moving away from something/somebody'. Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223957/eeg-brain-activity-in-dynamic-health-qigong-training-same-effects-for-mental-practice-and-physical-training
#18
Diana Henz, Wolfgang I Schöllhorn
In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220789/stim1-activates-crac-channels-through-rotation-of-the-pore-helix-to-open-a-hydrophobic-gate
#19
Megumi Yamashita, Priscilla S-W Yeung, Christopher E Ing, Beth A McNally, Régis Pomès, Murali Prakriya
Store-operated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels constitute a major pathway for Ca(2+) influx and mediate many essential signalling functions in animal cells, yet how they open remains elusive. Here, we investigate the gating mechanism of the human CRAC channel Orai1 by its activator, stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). We find that two rings of pore-lining residues, V102 and F99, work together to form a hydrophobic gate. Mutations of these residues to polar amino acids produce channels with leaky gates that conduct ions in the resting state...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#20
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
May 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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