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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032008/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-resting-state-fmri-signals-and-functional-connectivity-within-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-monkeys
#1
Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, John C Gore, Li Min Chen
INTRODUCTION: Correlated low-frequency fluctuations of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used for inferring intrinsic brain functional connectivity (FC). In animal studies, accurate estimate of anesthetic effects on rsfMRI signals is demanded for reliable interpretations of FC changes. We have previously shown that inter-regional FC can reliably delineate local millimeter-scale circuits within digit representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) subregions (areas 3a, 3b, and 1) in monkeys under isoflurane anesthesia...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025131/glutamatergic-stimulation-of-the-left-dentate-gyrus-abolishes-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rat-learned-helplessness-paradigm
#2
Jeho Seo, Hojin Cho, Gun Tae Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Dong Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: Episodic experiences of stress have been identified as the leading cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). The occurrence of MDD is profoundly influenced by the individual's coping strategy, rather than the severity of the stress itself. Resting brain activity has been shown to alter in several mental disorders. However, the functional relationship between resting brain activity and coping strategies has not yet been studied. In the present study, we observed different patterns of resting brain activity in rats that had determined either positive (resilient to stress) or negative (vulnerable to stress) coping strategies, and examined whether modulation of the preset resting brain activity could influence the behavioral phenotype associated with negative coping strategy (i...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002383/stress-induced-parasympathetic-control-and-its-association-with-inflammatory-reactivity
#3
Alex Woody, Wilson S Figueroa, Fabian Benencia, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that the inflammatory cytokine system is regulated through the vagus nerve, where vagal activation inhibits release of inflammatory cytokines and, therefore, inflammation. Thus, loss of vagal activation (i.e., reduced high-frequency heart rate variability [HF-HRV]) should result in greater inflammation. Evidence to date for this relationship has relied on animal models and resting states in humans. The present study used a psychosocial stressor to test whether stress-induced decreases in HF-HRV predict increases in circulating inflammatory markers...
December 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974609/resting-state-hemodynamics-are-spatiotemporally-coupled-to-synchronized-and-symmetric-neural-activity-in-excitatory-neurons
#4
Ying Ma, Mohammed A Shaik, Mariel G Kozberg, Sharon H Kim, Jacob P Portes, Dmitriy Timerman, Elizabeth M C Hillman
Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956209/methods-for-cleaning-the-bold-fmri-signal
#5
César Caballero-Gaudes, Richard C Reynolds
Blood oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) has rapidly become a popular technique for the investigation of brain function in healthy individuals, patients as well as in animal studies. However, the BOLD signal arises from a complex mixture of neuronal, metabolic and vascular processes, being therefore an indirect measure of neuronal activity, which is further severely corrupted by multiple non-neuronal fluctuations of instrumental, physiological or subject-specific origin...
December 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922640/brain-network-reorganization-differs-in-response-to-stress-in-rats-genetically-predisposed-to-depression-and-stress-resilient-rats
#6
N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, W Weber-Fahr, C Clemm von Hohenberg, B Vollmayr, A Sartorius
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the specificity of the involved brain circuits. The rat strain bred for negative cognitive state (NC) represents a genetic animal model of TRD with high face, construct and predictive validity. Vice versa, the positive cognitive state (PC) strain represents a stress-resilient phenotype. Although NC rats show depressive-like behavior, some symptoms such as anhedonia require an external trigger, i...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908788/time-to-wake-up-studying-neurovascular-coupling-and-brain-wide-circuit-function-in-the-un-anesthetized-animal
#7
REVIEW
Yu-Rong Gao, Yuncong Ma, Qingguang Zhang, Aaron T Winder, Zhifeng Liang, Lilith Antinori, Patrick J Drew, Nanyin Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the noninvasive study of task-based and resting-state brain dynamics in humans by inferring neural activity from blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes. An accurate interpretation of the hemodynamic changes that underlie fMRI signals depends on the understanding of the quantitative relationship between changes in neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and volume. While there has been extensive study of neurovascular coupling in anesthetized animal models, anesthesia causes large disruptions of brain metabolism, neural responsiveness and cardiovascular function...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862478/reductions-in-cortical-alpha-activity-enhancements-in-neural-responses-and-impaired-gap-detection-caused-by-sodium-salicylate-in-awake-guinea-pigs
#8
Joel I Berger, Ben Coomber, Mark N Wallace, Alan R Palmer
Tinnitus chronically affects between 10-15% of the population but despite its prevalence, the underlying mechanisms are still not properly understood. One experimental model involves administration of high doses of sodium salicylate, as this is known to reliably induce tinnitus in both humans and animals. Guinea pigs were implanted with chronic electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays, with silver ball electrodes placed on the dura over left and right auditory cortex. Two more electrodes were positioned over the cerebellum to monitor auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#9
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791017/functional-connectivity-with-the-retrosplenial-cortex-predicts-cognitive-aging-in-rats
#10
Jessica A Ash, Hanbing Lu, Lisa R Taxier, Jeffrey M Long, Yihong Yang, Elliot A Stein, Peter R Rapp
Changes in the functional connectivity (FC) of large-scale brain networks are a prominent feature of brain aging, but defining their relationship to variability along the continuum of normal and pathological cognitive outcomes has proved challenging. Here we took advantage of a well-characterized rat model that displays substantial individual differences in hippocampal memory during aging, uncontaminated by slowly progressive, spontaneous neurodegenerative disease. By this approach, we aimed to interrogate the underlying neural network substrates that mediate aging as a uniquely permissive condition and the primary risk for neurodegeneration...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780778/resting-state-connectivity-of-the-human-habenula-at-ultra-high-field
#11
Salvatore Torrisi, Camilla L Nord, Nicholas L Balderston, Jonathan P Roiser, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The habenula, a portion of the epithalamus, is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevent standard human imaging from delineating its structure and connectivity with confidence. Resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping connections across the brain from a seed region of interest. The present study takes advantage of 7 T fMRI to map, for the first time, the habenula resting state network with very high spatial resolution in 32 healthy human participants...
October 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706916/anatomical-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-awake-behaving-marmosets
#12
Afonso C Silva
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, not only because of its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680743/awake-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-the-adolescent-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-feature-visual-streams-and-striatal-networks
#13
G L Poirier, W Huang, K Tam, J R DiFranza, Jean A King
Brain mechanisms underpinning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are incompletely understood. The adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied preclinical model that expresses several of the key behavioral features associated with ADHD. Yet, little is known about large-scale functional connectivity patterns in the SHR, and their potential similarity to those of humans with ADHD. Using an approach comparable to human studies, magnetic resonance imaging in the awake animal was performed to identify whole-brain intrinsic neural connectivity patterns...
September 28, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596833/contributions-of-structural-connectivity-and-cerebrovascular-parameters-to-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-signals-in-mice-at-rest-and-during-sensory-paw-stimulation
#14
Aileen Schroeter, Joanes Grandjean, Felix Schlegel, Bechara J Saab, Markus Rudin
Previously, we reported widespread bilateral increases in stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in mouse brain to unilateral sensory paw stimulation. We attributed the pattern to arousal-related cardiovascular changes overruling cerebral autoregulation thereby masking specific signal changes elicited by local neuronal activity. To rule out the possibility that interhemispheric neuronal communication might contribute to bilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging responses, we compared stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to unilateral hindpaw stimulation in acallosal I/LnJ, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596024/resting-state-network-topology-of-the-ferret-brain
#15
Zhe Charles Zhou, Andrew P Salzwedel, Susanne Radtke-Schuller, Yuhui Li, Kristin K Sellers, John H Gilmore, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Flavio Fröhlich, Wei Gao
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has emerged as a versatile tool for non-invasive measurement of functional connectivity patterns in the brain. RsfMRI brain dynamics in rodents, non-human primates, and humans share similar properties; however, little is known about the resting state functional connectivity patterns in the ferret, an animal model with high potential for developmental and cognitive translational study. To address this knowledge-gap, we performed rsfMRI on anesthetized ferrets using a 9...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594665/altered-neural-connectivity-in-adult-female-rats-exposed-to-early-life-social-stress
#16
Benjamin C Nephew, Wei Huang, Guillaume L Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Jean A King
The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580522/physiological-characterization-of-a-robust-survival-rodent-fmri-method
#17
Julia K Brynildsen, Li-Ming Hsu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
Anesthetics are commonly used in preclinical functional MRI studies. It is well-appreciated that proper choice of anesthetics is of critical importance for maintaining a physiologically normal range of autonomic functioning. A recent study, using a low dose of dexmedetomidine (active isomer of medetomidine) in combination with a low dose of isoflurane, suggested stable measurements across repeated fMRI experiments in individual animals with each session lasting up to several hours. The rat default mode network has been successfully identified using this preparation, indicating that this protocol minimally disturbs brain network functions...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571245/glue-free-stacked-luminescent-nanosheets-enable-high-resolution-ratiometric-temperature-mapping-in-living-small-animals
#18
Takuya Miyagawa, Toshinori Fujie, Ferdinandus, Tat Thang Vo Doan, Hirotaka Sato, Shinji Takeoka
In this paper, a microthermograph, temperature mapping with high spatial resolution, was established using luminescent molecules embedded ultrathin polymeric films (nanosheets), and demonstrated in a living small animal to map out and visualize temperature shift due to animal's muscular activity. Herein, we report super flexible and self-adhesive (no need of glue) nanothermosensor consisting of stacked two different polymeric nanosheets with thermosensitive (Eu-tris (dinaphthoylmethane)-bis-trioctylphosphine oxide: EuDT) and insensitive (Rhodamine 800) dyes being embedded...
December 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561736/functional-brain-networks-related-to-individual-differences-in-human-intelligence-at-rest
#19
Luke J Hearne, Jason B Mattingley, Luca Cocchi
Intelligence is a fundamental ability that sets humans apart from other animal species. Despite its importance in defining human behaviour, the neural networks responsible for intelligence are not well understood. The dominant view from neuroimaging work suggests that intelligent performance on a range of tasks is underpinned by segregated interactions in a fronto-parietal network of brain regions. Here we asked whether fronto-parietal interactions associated with intelligence are ubiquitous, or emerge from more widespread associations in a task-free context...
August 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493627/the-functional-networks-of-prepulse-inhibition-neuronal-connectivity-analysis-based-on-fdg-pet-in-awake-and-unrestrained-rats
#20
Cathrin Rohleder, Dirk Wiedermann, Bernd Neumaier, Alexander Drzezga, Lars Timmermann, Rudolf Graf, F Markus Leweke, Heike Endepols
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a neuropsychological process during which a weak sensory stimulus ("prepulse") attenuates the motor response ("startle reaction") to a subsequent strong startling stimulus. It is measured as a surrogate marker of sensorimotor gating in patients suffering from neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia, as well as in corresponding animal models. A variety of studies has shown that PPI of the acoustical startle reaction comprises three brain circuitries for: (i) startle mediation, (ii) PPI mediation, and (iii) modulation of PPI mediation...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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