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"Resting state" AND animal

Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Xin Wang, António Pinto-Duarte, M Margarita Behrens, Xianjin Zhou, Terrence J Sejnowski
Reduced expression of Sp4, the murine homolog of human SP4, a risk gene of multiple psychiatric disorders, led to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) hypofunction in mice, producing behavioral phenotypes reminiscent of schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to ketamine. As accumulating evidence on molecular mechanisms and behavioral phenotypes established Sp4 hypomorphism as a promising animal model, systems-level neural circuit mechanisms of Sp4 hypomorphism, especially network dynamics underlying cognitive functions, remain poorly understood...
2018: PloS One
Stavros Stivaros, Shruti Garg, Maria Tziraki, Ying Cai, Owen Thomas, Joseph Mellor, Andrew A Morris, Carly Jim, Karolina Szumanska-Ryt, Laura M Parkes, Hamied A Haroon, Daniela Montaldi, Nicholas Webb, John Keane, Francisco X Castellanos, Alcino J Silva, Sue Huson, Stephen Williams, D Gareth Evans, Richard Emsley, Jonathan Green
Background: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a monogenic model for syndromic autism. Statins rescue the social and cognitive phenotype in animal knockout models, but translational trials with subjects > 8 years using cognition/behaviour outcomes have shown mixed results. This trial breaks new ground by studying statin effects for the first time in younger children with NF1 and co-morbid autism and by using multiparametric imaging outcomes. Methods: A single-site triple-blind RCT of simvastatin vs...
2018: Molecular Autism
Frances K Johnson, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Garth J Thompson, Lan Wei, Jin Hao, Peter Herman, Fahmeed Hyder, Arie Kaffman
Childhood maltreatment is associated with a wide range of psychopathologies including anxiety that emerge in childhood and in many cases persist in adulthood. Increased amygdala activation in response to threat and abnormal amygdala connectivity with frontolimbic brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, are some of the most consistent findings seen in individuals exposed to childhood maltreatment. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these changes are difficult to study in humans but can be elucidated using animal models of early-life stress...
February 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Sreekanth Kura, Hongyu Xie, Buyin Fu, Cenk Ayata, David A Boas, Sava Sakadzic
OBJECTIVE: Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) allows the study of functional organization in normal and diseased brain by measuring the spontaneous brain activity generated under resting conditions. Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) based on multiple illumination wavelengths has been used successfully to compute RSFC maps in animal studies. The IOSI setup complexity would be greatly reduced if only a single wavelength can be used to obtain comparable RSFC maps. APPROACH: We used anesthetized mice and performed various comparisons between the RSFC maps based on single wavelength as well as oxy-, deoxy- and total hemoglobin concentration changes...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Julia Neitzel, Rachel Nuttall, Christian Sorg
Previous animal research suggests that the spread of pathological agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD) follows the direction of signaling pathways. Specifically, tau pathology has been suggested to propagate in an infection-like mode along axons, from transentorhinal cortices to medial temporal lobe cortices and consequently to other cortical regions, while amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology seems to spread in an activity-dependent manner among and from isocortical regions into limbic and then subcortical regions. These directed connectivity-based spread models, however, have not been tested directly in AD patients due to the lack of an in vivo method to identify directed connectivity in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Raúl Tudela, Xavier López-Gil, Guadalupe Soria
BACKGROUND: Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain connectivity at an early stage (5 months of age) before a significant concentration of β-amyloid plaques is present...
February 7, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Jaakko Paasonen, Petteri Stenroos, Raimo A Salo, Vesa Kiviniemi, Olli Gröhn
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is a translational imaging method with great potential in several neurobiologic applications. Most preclinical rsfMRI studies are performed in anesthetized animals, but the confounding effects of anesthesia on the measured functional connectivity (FC) are poorly understood. Therefore, we measured FC under six commonly used anesthesia protocols and compared the findings with data obtained from awake rats. The results demonstrated that each anesthesia protocol uniquely modulated FC...
January 27, 2018: NeuroImage
Rui Costa, David Costa, José Pestana
Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women) reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only) and International Index of Erectile Function (men only)...
October 2017: Sleep Science
Jonathan Rochus Reinwald, Robert Becker, Anne Stephanie Mallien, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Markus Sack, Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Urs Braun, Alejandro Cosa Linan, Natalia Gass, Andrei-Nicolae Vasilescu, Fabian Tollens, Philipp Lebhardt, Natascha Pfeiffer, Dragos Inta, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Peter Gass, Alexander Sartorius, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: To explore the domain-general risk factor of early-life social stress in mental illness, rearing rodents in persistent postweaning social isolation has been established as a widely used animal model with translational relevance for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Although changes in resting-state brain connectivity are a transdiagnostic key finding in neurodevelopmental diseases, a characterization of imaging correlates elicited by early-life social stress is lacking...
December 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Neda Kaboodvand, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Alireza Salami
The default mode network (DMN) involves interacting cortical areas, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and subcortical areas, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The degree of functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN, particularly between MTL and medial-parietal subsystems, relates to episodic memory (EM) processes. However, past resting-state studies investigating the link between posterior DMN-MTL FC and EM performance yielded inconsistent results, possibly reflecting heterogeneity in the degree of connectivity between MTL and specific cortical DMN regions...
January 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Juan J Ortiz, Wendy Portillo, Raul G Paredes, Larry J Young, Sarael Alcauter
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin C Nephew, Marcelo Febo, Wei Huang, Luis M Colon-Perez, Laurellee Payne, Guillaume L Poirier, Owen Greene, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Continued development and refinement of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) fMRI techniques in both animal and clinical studies has enhanced our comprehension of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. The objective of the current study was to assess both maternal behavior and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes in these animals when they were dams caring for their own young. It was hypothesized that ECSS exposed dams would express depressed maternal care and exhibit similar (same networks), yet different specific changes in RSFC (different individual nuclei) than reported when they were adult females...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Matthew C Murphy, Kevin C Chan, Seong-Gi Kim, Alberto L Vazquez
Functional imaging of spontaneous activity continues to play an important role in the field of connectomics. The most common imaging signal used for these experiments is the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signal, but how this signal relates to spontaneous neuronal activity remains incompletely understood. Genetically encoded calcium indicators represent a promising tool to study this problem, as they can provide brain-wide measurements of neuronal activity compared to point measurements afforded by electrophysiological recordings...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
Guotao Chen, Baibing Yang, Jianhuai Chen, Leilei Zhu, Hesong Jiang, Wen Yu, Fengchao Zang, Yun Chen, Yutian Dai
BACKGROUND: Non-organic erectile dysfunction (noED) at functional imaging has been related to abnormal brain activity and requires animal models for further research on the associated molecular mechanisms. AIM: To develop a noED animal model based on chronic mild stress and investigate brain activity changes. METHODS: We used 6 weeks of chronic mild stress to induce depression. The sucrose consumption test was used to assess the hedonic state...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Laurentius Huber, Daniel A Handwerker, David C Jangraw, Gang Chen, Andrew Hall, Carsten Stüber, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Dimo Ivanov, Sean Marrett, Maria Guidi, Jozien Goense, Benedikt A Poser, Peter A Bandettini
Layer-dependent fMRI allows measurements of information flow in cortical circuits, as afferent and efferent connections terminate in different cortical layers. However, it is unknown to what level human fMRI is specific and sensitive enough to reveal directional functional activity across layers. To answer this question, we developed acquisition and analysis methods for blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV)-based laminar fMRI and used these to discriminate four different tasks in the human motor cortex (M1)...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
Qiang Li, Gang Li, Dan Wu, Hanbing Lu, Zhipeng Hou, Christopher A Ross, Yihong Yang, Jiangyang Zhang, Wenzhen Duan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder, and no cure is available currently. Treatment of HD is likely to be most beneficial in the early, possibly pre-manifestation stage. The challenge is to determine the best time for intervention and evaluate putative efficacy in the absence of clinical symptoms. Resting-state functional MRI may represent a promising tool to develop biomarker reflecting early neuronal dysfunction in HD brain, because it can examine multiple brain networks without confounding effects of cognitive ability, which makes the resting-state fMRI promising as a translational bridge between preclinical study in animal models and clinical findings in HD patients...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Emily P Mills, Flavia Di Pietro, Zeynab Alshelh, Chris C Peck, Greg M Murray, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Preclinical investigations have suggested that altered functioning of brainstem pain-modulation circuits may be crucial for the maintenance of some chronic pain conditions. While some human psychophysical studies show that patients with chronic pain display altered pain-modulation efficacy, it remains unknown whether brainstem pain-modulation circuits are altered in individuals with chronic pain. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether, in humans, chronic pain following nerve injury is associated with altered ongoing functioning of the brainstem descending modulation systems...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs
Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from fMRI data (causal discovery). We outline a research program for investigating human emotion with these new tools, and provide initial findings from two large resting-state datasets as well as case studies in neurosurgical patients with electrical stimulation of the amygdala...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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