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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146466/causal-mapping-of-emotion-networks-in-the-human-brain-framework-and-initial-findings
#1
Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs
Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from fMRI data (causal discovery). We outline a research program for investigating human emotion with these new tools, and provide initial findings from two large resting-state datasets as well as case studies in neurosurgical patients with electrical stimulation of the amygdala...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141185/increased-cross-bridge-recruitment-contributes-to-transient-increase-in-force-generation-beyond-maximal-capacity-in-human-myocardium
#2
Nima Milani-Nejad, Jae-Hoon Chung, Benjamin D Canan, Vadim V Fedorov, Bryan A Whitson, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen
Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (ktr) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch ktr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136125/effective-connectivity-measured-using-optogenetically-evoked-hemodynamic-signals-exhibits-topography-distinct-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#3
Adam Q Bauer, Andrew W Kraft, Grant A Baxter, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Jasmine J Park, Michael R Bruchas, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
Brain connectomics has expanded from histological assessment of axonal projection connectivity (APC) to encompass resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC). RS-FC analyses are efficient for whole-brain mapping, but attempts to explain aspects of RS-FC (e.g., interhemispheric RS-FC) based on APC have been only partially successful. Neuroimaging with hemoglobin alone lacks specificity for determining how activity in a population of cells contributes to RS-FC. Wide-field mapping of optogenetically defined connectivity could provide insights into the brain's structure-function relationship...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128294/behavioral-depression-is-associated-with-increased-vagally-mediated-heart-rate-variability-in-adult-female-cynomolgus-monkeys-macaca-fascicularis
#4
Marc N Jarczok, Julian Koenig, Carol A Shively, Julian F Thayer
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms (DS) in humans are associated with decreased resting state vagal activity, but sex seems to moderate this association. Recently, in human females DS have been associated with greater or similar cardiac vagal activity compared to men in both, clinical and non-clinical samples. A previously validated animal model of behavioral depression was used in the present study to investigate the association of DS and cardiac vagal activity in non-human primates. METHODS: The root mean square of successive differences between adjacent heart beats (RMSSD) was used as an indicator of vagally-mediated heart rate variability in 24h heart rate recordings collected via telemetry in 42 adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108871/effects-of-the-cannabinoid-cb1-agonist-acea-on-salicylate-ototoxicity-hyperacusis-and-tinnitus-in-guinea-pigs
#5
Joel I Berger, Ben Coomber, Samantha Hill, Steve P H Alexander, William Owen, Alan R Palmer, Mark N Wallace
Cannabinoids have been suggested as a therapeutic target for a variety of brain disorders. Despite the presence of their receptors throughout the auditory system, little is known about how cannabinoids affect auditory function. We sought to determine whether administration of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a highly-selective CB1 agonist, could attenuate a variety of auditory effects caused by prior administration of salicylate, and potentially treat tinnitus. We recorded cortical resting-state activity, auditory-evoked cortical activity and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), from chronically-implanted awake guinea pigs, before and after salicylate + ACEA...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104073/acute-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-duloxetine-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-awake-rat
#6
Pablo D Pérez, Zhiwei Ma, Christina Hamilton, Connie Sánchez, Arne Mørk, Alan L Pehrson, Christoffer Bundgaard, Nanyin Zhang
The antidepressant vortioxetine exerts its effects via modulation of several serotonin (5-HT) receptors and inhibition of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Additionally, vortioxetine has beneficial effects on aspects of cognitive dysfunction in depressed patients. However, a global examination of the drug effect on brain network connectivity is still missing. Here we compared the effects of vortioxetine and a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine, on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) across the whole brain in awake rats using a combination of pharmacological and awake animal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) techniques...
November 2, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097597/multimodal-imaging-in-rat-model-recapitulates-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-abnormalities
#7
Maxime J Parent, Eduardo R Zimmer, Monica Shin, Min Su Kang, Vladimir S Fonov, Axel Mathieu, Antonio Aliaga, Alexey Kostikov, Sonia Do Carmo, Doris Dea, Judes Poirier, Jean-Paul Soucy, Serge Gauthier, A Claudio Cuello, Pedro Rosa-Neto
Imaging biomarkers are frequently proposed as endpoints for clinical trials targeting brain amyloidosis in Alzheimer's Disease (AD); however, the specific impact of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation on biomarker abnormalities remains elusive in AD. Using the McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat as a model of selective Aβ pathology, we characterized the longitudinal progression of abnormalities in biomarkers commonly used in AD research. Middle-aged (9-11 months) transgenic animals (both male and female) displayed mild spatial memory impairments and disrupted cingulate network connectivity measured by resting-state fMRI, even in the absence of hypometabolism (measured with PET [(18)F]FDG) or detectable fibrillary amyloidosis (measured with PET [(18)F]NAV4694)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060533/brain-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-excessive-alcohol-drinking-a-resting-state-network-analysis
#8
Ursula Perez-Ramirez, Antonio Diaz-Parra, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Santiago Canals, David Moratal
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a major public health concern. Understanding the brain network alterations is of the utmost importance to diagnose and develop treatment strategies. Employing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we have performed a longitudinal study in a rat model of chronic excessive alcohol consumption, to identify functional alterations in brain networks triggered by alcohol drinking. Two time points were considered: 1) before alcohol consumption (control condition) and 2) after 30 days of alcohol drinking (alcohol condition)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059927/evaluating-network-brain-connectivity-in-alcohol-postdependent-state-using-network-based-statistic
#9
Antonio Diaz-Parra, Ursula Perez-Ramirez, Jesus Pacheco-Torres, Simone Pfarr, Wolfgang H Sommer, David Moratal, Santiago Canals
The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals has become an indispensable tool to investigate how brain regions interact and form long-range networks. Statistical dependency measures between brain regions obtained from BOLD signals can inform about brain functional states in longitudinal studies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, its non-invasive nature allows comparable measurements in clinical and animal studies, providing excellent translational capabilities...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017039/sleep-origins-restful-jellyfish-are-sleeping-jellyfish
#10
John A Lesku, Linh M T Ly
What is the 'simplest' animal that sleeps? When did sleep first evolve? Do all animals sleep? Tantalizing hints to answers come from new research showing that jellyfish, one of the earliest evolving groups of animals, have a sleep-like restful state.
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988830/effects-of-neonatal-deafness-on-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity
#11
Daniel Stolzberg, Blake E Butler, Stephen G Lomber
Normal brain development depends on early sensory experience. Behavioral consequences of brain maturation in the absence of sensory input early in life are well documented. For example, experiments with mature, neonatally deaf human or animal subjects have revealed improved peripheral visual motion detection and spatial localization abilities. Such supranormal behavioral abilities in the nondeprived sensory modality are evidence of compensatory plasticity occurring in deprived brain regions at some point or throughout development...
October 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899017/cortical-functional-hyperconnectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression-and-selective-network-effects-of-ketamine
#12
Alexander McGirr, Jeffrey LeDue, Allen W Chan, Yicheng Xie, Timothy H Murphy
See Huang and Liston (doi:10.1093/awx166) for a scientific commentary on this article.Human depression is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction and alterations in resting state network activity. However, the indirect nature of human in vivo glutamate and activity assessments obscures mechanistic details. Using the chronic social defeat mouse model of depression, we determine how mesoscale glutamatergic networks are altered after chronic stress, and in response to the rapid acting antidepressant, ketamine...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886474/functional-connectivity-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-thalamocortical-circuitry-in-an-animal-model-of-absence-seizures
#13
Seyed Reza Mousavi, Justin A Arcaro, L Stan Leung, Jeffrey R Tenney, Seyed M Mirsattari
OBJECTIVE: Using the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) rat model of absence seizures, this study investigated the functional connectivity of the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex before and during absence seizures. METHODS: Functional connectivity between the hippocampus, thalamus and sensory and motor cortecies, were examined by the temporal correlations of the resting state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Functional connectivity between these regions was calculated at baseline, 5min after saline injection, and at 5, 20 and 52min after GBL injection...
August 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860104/valsalva-induced-elevation-of-intracranial-pressure-selectively-decouples-deoxygenated-hemoglobin-concentration-from-neuronal-activation-and-functional-brain-imaging-capability
#14
Martin Knauth, Marcus Heldmann, Thomas F Münte, Georg Royl
During neuronal activation, neurovascular coupling leads to a local decrease of deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (deoxy-Hb) and thus forms the basis of many functional brain mapping methods. In animals, an elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) can attenuate or even reverse this deoxy-Hb signaling. To study the effect of an elevated ICP on functional brain imaging in humans, we used different breathing tasks to modify ICP and analyzed the resulting effect on neurovascular coupling in the motor cortex. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was performed on 45 subjects during alternating conditions of finger tapping and resting state combined with four different breathing maneuvers (normal breathing (NB), breath holding without Valsalva maneuver (BH), Valsalva maneuver with 15 mm Hg forced expiratory pressure against resistance (V15) and Valsalva maneuver with 35 mm Hg forced expiratory pressure against resistance (V35)) in randomized order...
August 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855682/how-spontaneous-brain-activity-and-narcissistic-features-shape-social-interaction
#15
Andrea Scalabrini, Zirui Huang, Clara Mucci, Mauro Gianni Perrucci, Antonio Ferretti, Andrea Fossati, Gian Luca Romani, Georg Northoff, Sjoerd J H Ebisch
There is an increasing interest in how ongoing spontaneous brain activity and personality provide a predisposition for the processing of environmental demands. It further has been suggested that the brain has an inherent sensitivity to the social environment. Here we tested in healthy volunteers if spontaneous brain activity contributes to a predisposition for social behavior and how this is modulated by narcissistic personality features associated with poor interpersonal functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging included a resting state and an experimental paradigm focusing on the anticipation of actively touching an animate (human hand) versus an inanimate target (mannequin hand)...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831764/motor-impairment-and-compensation-in-a-hemiparkinsonian-rat-model-correlation-between-dopamine-depletion-severity-cerebral-metabolism-and-gait-patterns
#16
Elena Kordys, Nadine Apetz, Katharina Schneider, Eilidh Duncan, Beatriz Büschbell, Cathrin Rohleder, Michael Sué, Alexander Drzezga, Bernd Neumaier, Lars Timmermann, Heike Endepols
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), cerebral dopamine depletion is associated with PD subtype-specific metabolic patterns of hypo- and hypermetabolism. It has been hypothesised that hypometabolism reflects impairment, while hypermetabolism may indicate compensatory activity. In order to associate metabolic patterns with pathophysiological and compensatory mechanisms, we combined resting state [(18)F]FDG-PET (to demonstrate brain metabolism in awake animals), [(18)F]FDOPA-PET (dopamine depletion severity) and gait analysis in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model...
August 23, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819676/granger-causality-supports-abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-beta-oscillations-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-and-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#17
Qiang Wang, Min Li, Zhengyuan Xie, Junbin Cai, Nanxiang Li, Hu Xiao, Ning Wang, Jinyan Wang, Fei Luo, Wangming Zhang
Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been reported in the basal ganglia (BG) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and PD animal models. The coherent abnormal oscillatory activities in the dorsolateral striatum (dStr) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that accompany parkinsonian states have not been resolved. In this study, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in the dStr and SNr of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopamine (DA)-lesioned rats in an awake, resting state...
November 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754515/maternal-systemic-interleukin-6-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-newborn-amygdala-phenotypes-and-subsequent-behavior-at-2-years-of-age
#18
Alice M Graham, Jerod M Rasmussen, Marc D Rudolph, Christine M Heim, John H Gilmore, Martin Styner, Steven G Potkin, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa, Damien A Fair, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Maternal inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for offspring psychiatric disorders and other adverse long-term health outcomes. The influence of inflammation on the developing fetal brain is hypothesized as one potential mechanism but has not been examined in humans. METHODS: Participants were adult women (N = 86) who were recruited during early pregnancy and whose offspring were born after 34 weeks' gestation. A biological indicator of maternal inflammation (interleukin-6) that has been shown to influence fetal brain development in animal models was quantified serially in early, mid-, and late pregnancy...
June 19, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739162/refining-forelimb-asymmetry-analysis-correlation-with-montoya-staircase-contralateral-function-post-stroke
#19
Moner Ragas, Devipriyanka Nagarajan, Adrian M Corbett
BACKGROUND: Forelimb Asymmetry Test is a simple test of motor function, using exploration behavior of a rat in a novel environment and counting the number of times that a rat touches the wall with either forepaw. Our lab has noticed, however, that there appears to be an increased number of fingertip touches to the wall following a stroke in the impaired forelimb. NEW METHOD: We counted the number of times that the animal either laid its palm flat against the wall of the chamber or touched the wall with only its fingertips, for both the left and right forepaws...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739119/structural-and-functional-empirical-and-modeled-connectivity-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-the-rat
#20
Antonio Díaz-Parra, Zachary Osborn, Santiago Canals, David Moratal, Olaf Sporns
Connectomics data from animal models provide an invaluable opportunity to reveal the complex interplay between structure and function in the mammalian brain. In this work, we investigate the relationship between structural and functional connectivity in the rat brain cortex using a directed anatomical network generated from a carefully curated meta-analysis of published tracing data, along with resting-state functional MRI data obtained from a group of 14 anesthetized Wistar rats. We found a high correspondence between the strength of functional connections, measured as blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal correlations between cortical regions, and the weight of the corresponding anatomical links in the connectome graph (maximum Spearman rank-order correlation ρ=0...
July 21, 2017: NeuroImage
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