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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922640/brain-network-reorganization-differs-in-response-to-stress-in-rats-genetically-predisposed-to-depression-and-stress-resilient-rats
#1
N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, W Weber-Fahr, C Clemm von Hohenberg, B Vollmayr, A Sartorius
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the specificity of the involved brain circuits. The rat strain bred for negative cognitive state (NC) represents a genetic animal model of TRD with high face, construct and predictive validity. Vice versa, the positive cognitive state (PC) strain represents a stress-resilient phenotype. Although NC rats show depressive-like behavior, some symptoms such as anhedonia require an external trigger, i...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908788/time-to-wake-up-studying-neurovascular-coupling-and-brain-wide-circuit-function-in-the-un-anesthetized-animal
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Rong Gao, Yuncong Ma, Qingguang Zhang, Aaron T Winder, Zhifeng Liang, Lilith Antinori, Patrick J Drew, Nanyin Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the noninvasive study of task-based and resting-state brain dynamics in humans by inferring neural activity from blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes. An accurate interpretation of the hemodynamic changes that underlie fMRI signals depends on the understanding of the quantitative relationship between changes in neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and volume. While there has been extensive study of neurovascular coupling in anesthetized animal models, anesthesia causes large disruptions of brain metabolism, neural responsiveness and cardiovascular function...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862478/reductions-in-cortical-alpha-activity-enhancements-in-neural-responses-and-impaired-gap-detection-caused-by-sodium-salicylate-in-awake-guinea-pigs
#3
Joel I Berger, Ben Coomber, Mark N Wallace, Alan R Palmer
Tinnitus chronically affects between 10-15% of the population but despite its prevalence, the underlying mechanisms are still not properly understood. One experimental model involves administration of high doses of sodium salicylate, as this is known to reliably induce tinnitus in both humans and animals. Guinea pigs were implanted with chronic electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays, with silver ball electrodes placed on the dura over left and right auditory cortex. Two more electrodes were positioned over the cerebellum to monitor auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#4
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791017/functional-connectivity-with-the-retrosplenial-cortex-predicts-cognitive-aging-in-rats
#5
Jessica A Ash, Hanbing Lu, Lisa R Taxier, Jeffrey M Long, Yihong Yang, Elliot A Stein, Peter R Rapp
Changes in the functional connectivity (FC) of large-scale brain networks are a prominent feature of brain aging, but defining their relationship to variability along the continuum of normal and pathological cognitive outcomes has proved challenging. Here we took advantage of a well-characterized rat model that displays substantial individual differences in hippocampal memory during aging, uncontaminated by slowly progressive, spontaneous neurodegenerative disease. By this approach, we aimed to interrogate the underlying neural network substrates that mediate aging as a uniquely permissive condition and the primary risk for neurodegeneration...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780778/resting-state-connectivity-of-the-human-habenula-at-ultra-high-field
#6
Salvatore Torrisi, Camilla L Nord, Nicholas L Balderston, Jonathan P Roiser, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The habenula, a portion of the epithalamus, is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevent standard human imaging from delineating its structure and connectivity with confidence. Resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping connections across the brain from a seed region of interest. The present study takes advantage of 7 T fMRI to map, for the first time, the habenula resting state network with very high spatial resolution in 32 healthy human participants...
October 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706916/anatomical-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-awake-behaving-marmosets
#7
Afonso C Silva
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, not only because of its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680743/awake-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-the-adolescent-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-feature-visual-streams-and-striatal-networks
#8
G L Poirier, W Huang, K Tam, J R DiFranza, Jean A King
Brain mechanisms underpinning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are incompletely understood. The adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied preclinical model that expresses several of the key behavioral features associated with ADHD. Yet, little is known about large-scale functional connectivity patterns in the SHR, and their potential similarity to those of humans with ADHD. Using an approach comparable to human studies, magnetic resonance imaging in the awake animal was performed to identify whole-brain intrinsic neural connectivity patterns...
September 28, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596833/contributions-of-structural-connectivity-and-cerebrovascular-parameters-to-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-signals-in-mice-at-rest-and-during-sensory-paw-stimulation
#9
Aileen Schroeter, Joanes Grandjean, Felix Schlegel, Bechara J Saab, Markus Rudin
Previously, we reported widespread bilateral increases in stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in mouse brain to unilateral sensory paw stimulation. We attributed the pattern to arousal-related cardiovascular changes overruling cerebral autoregulation thereby masking specific signal changes elicited by local neuronal activity. To rule out the possibility that interhemispheric neuronal communication might contribute to bilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging responses, we compared stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to unilateral hindpaw stimulation in acallosal I/LnJ, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596024/resting-state-network-topology-of-the-ferret-brain
#10
Zhe Charles Zhou, Andrew P Salzwedel, Susanne Radtke-Schuller, Yuhui Li, Kristin K Sellers, John H Gilmore, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Flavio Fröhlich, Wei Gao
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has emerged as a versatile tool for non-invasive measurement of functional connectivity patterns in the brain. RsfMRI brain dynamics in rodents, non-human primates, and humans share similar properties; however, little is known about the resting state functional connectivity patterns in the ferret, an animal model with high potential for developmental and cognitive translational study. To address this knowledge-gap, we performed rsfMRI on anesthetized ferrets using a 9...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594665/altered-neural-connectivity-in-adult-female-rats-exposed-to-early-life-social-stress
#11
Benjamin C Nephew, Wei Huang, Guillaume L Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Jean A King
The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580522/physiological-characterization-of-a-robust-survival-rodent-fmri-method
#12
Julia K Brynildsen, Li-Ming Hsu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
Anesthetics are commonly used in preclinical functional MRI studies. It is well-appreciated that proper choice of anesthetics is of critical importance for maintaining a physiologically normal range of autonomic functioning. A recent study, using a low dose of dexmedetomidine (active isomer of medetomidine) in combination with a low dose of isoflurane, suggested stable measurements across repeated fMRI experiments in individual animals with each session lasting up to several hours. The rat default mode network has been successfully identified using this preparation, indicating that this protocol minimally disturbs brain network functions...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571245/glue-free-stacked-luminescent-nanosheets-enable-high-resolution-ratiometric-temperature-mapping-in-living-small-animals
#13
Takuya Miyagawa, Toshinori Fujie, Ferdinandus Ferdinandus, Tat Thang Vo Doan, Hirotaka Sato, Shinji Takeoka
In this paper, a micro-thermography, temperature mapping with high spatial resolution, was established using luminescent molecules embedded ultra-thin polymeric films (nanosheets), and demonstrated in a small living animal to map out and visualize temperature shift due to animal's muscular activity. Herein, we report super flexible and self-adhesive (no need of glue) nano-thermosensor consisting of stacked two different polymeric nanosheets with thermo-sensitive (Eu-tris (dinaphthoylmethane)-bis-trioctylphosphine oxide: EuDT) and insensitive (Rhodamine 800) dyes being embedded...
August 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561736/functional-brain-networks-related-to-individual-differences-in-human-intelligence-at-rest
#14
Luke J Hearne, Jason B Mattingley, Luca Cocchi
Intelligence is a fundamental ability that sets humans apart from other animal species. Despite its importance in defining human behaviour, the neural networks responsible for intelligence are not well understood. The dominant view from neuroimaging work suggests that intelligent performance on a range of tasks is underpinned by segregated interactions in a fronto-parietal network of brain regions. Here we asked whether fronto-parietal interactions associated with intelligence are ubiquitous, or emerge from more widespread associations in a task-free context...
August 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493627/the-functional-networks-of-prepulse-inhibition-neuronal-connectivity-analysis-based-on-fdg-pet-in-awake-and-unrestrained-rats
#15
Cathrin Rohleder, Dirk Wiedermann, Bernd Neumaier, Alexander Drzezga, Lars Timmermann, Rudolf Graf, F Markus Leweke, Heike Endepols
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a neuropsychological process during which a weak sensory stimulus ("prepulse") attenuates the motor response ("startle reaction") to a subsequent strong startling stimulus. It is measured as a surrogate marker of sensorimotor gating in patients suffering from neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia, as well as in corresponding animal models. A variety of studies has shown that PPI of the acoustical startle reaction comprises three brain circuitries for: (i) startle mediation, (ii) PPI mediation, and (iii) modulation of PPI mediation...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488244/activation-of-%C3%AF-1-and-%C3%AF-2-receptors-by-afobazole-increases-glial-cell-survival-and-prevents-glial-cell-activation-and-nitrosative-stress-after-ischemic-stroke
#16
C Katnik, A Garcia, A A Behensky, I E Yasny, A M Shuster, S B Seredenin, A V Petrov, J Cuevas
Activation of sigma receptors at delayed time points has been shown to decrease injury following ischemic stroke. The mixed σ1/σ2 receptor agonist, afobazole, provides superior long-term outcomes compared to other σ ligands in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. Experiments using the MCAO model were carried out to determine the molecular mechanism involved in the beneficial effects of afobazole. Administration of afobazole (3 mg/kg) at delayed time points post-stroke significantly increased the number of microglia and astrocytes detected in the ipsilateral hemisphere at 96 hrs post-surgery...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408791/multisite-multimodal-neuroimaging-of-chronic-urological-pelvic-pain-methodology-of-the-mapp-research-network
#17
Jeffry R Alger, Benjamin M Ellingson, Cody Ashe-McNalley, Davis C Woodworth, Jennifer S Labus, Melissa Farmer, Lejian Huang, A Vania Apkarian, Kevin A Johnson, Sean C Mackey, Timothy J Ness, Georg Deutsch, Richard E Harris, Daniel J Clauw, Gary H Glover, Todd B Parrish, Jan den Hollander, John W Kusek, Chris Mullins, Emeran A Mayer
The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network is an ongoing multi-center collaborative research group established to conduct integrated studies in participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS). The goal of these investigations is to provide new insights into the etiology, natural history, clinical, demographic and behavioral characteristics, search for new and evaluate candidate biomarkers, systematically test for contributions of infectious agents to symptoms, and conduct animal studies to understand underlying mechanisms for UCPPS...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402596/ghrelin-modulates-encoding-related-brain-function-without-enhancing-memory-formation-in-humans
#18
N Kunath, N C J Müller, M Tonon, B N Konrad, M Pawlowski, A Kopczak, I Elbau, M Uhr, S Kühn, D Repantis, K Ohla, T D Müller, G Fernández, M Tschöp, M Czisch, A Steiger, M Dresler
Ghrelin regulates energy homeostasis in various species and enhances memory in rodent models. In humans, the role of ghrelin in cognitive processes has yet to be characterized. Here we show in a double-blind randomized crossover design that acute administration of ghrelin alters encoding-related brain activity, however does not enhance memory formation in humans. Twenty-one healthy young male participants had to memorize food- and non-food-related words presented on a background of a virtual navigational route while undergoing fMRI recordings...
July 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393420/functional-atlas-of-the-awake-rat-brain-a-neuroimaging-study-of-rat-brain-specialization-and-integration
#19
Zhiwei Ma, Pablo Perez, Zilu Ma, Yikang Liu, Christina Hamilton, Zhifeng Liang, Nanyin Zhang
Connectivity-based parcellation approaches present an innovative method to segregate the brain into functionally specialized regions. These approaches have significantly advanced our understanding of the human brain organization. However, parallel progress in animal research is sparse. Using resting-state fMRI data and a novel, data-driven parcellation method, we have obtained robust functional parcellations of the rat brain. These functional parcellations reveal the regional specialization of the rat brain, which exhibited high within-parcel homogeneity and high reproducibility across animals...
July 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317566/phenotypic-clustering-a-novel-method-for-microglial-morphology-analysis
#20
Franck Verdonk, Pascal Roux, Patricia Flamant, Laurence Fiette, Fernando A Bozza, Sébastien Simard, Marc Lemaire, Benoit Plaud, Spencer L Shorte, Tarek Sharshar, Fabrice Chrétien, Anne Danckaert
BACKGROUND: Microglial cells are tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system. They are extremely dynamic, sensitive to their microenvironment and present a characteristic complex and heterogeneous morphology and distribution within the brain tissue. Many experimental clues highlight a strong link between their morphology and their function in response to aggression. However, due to their complex "dendritic-like" aspect that constitutes the major pool of murine microglial cells and their dense network, precise and powerful morphological studies are not easy to realize and complicate correlation with molecular or clinical parameters...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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