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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700674/effects-of-taurine-on-resting-state-fmri-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Li-Jeng Chen, Hong-Chun Chou, Jun-Cheng Weng, Bor-Show Tzang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699831/motivated-malleability-frontal-cortical-asymmetry-predicts-the-susceptibility-to-social-influence
#2
Robert Schnuerch, Stefan Pfattheicher
Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction-that is, approach versus avoidance orientation-is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1)...
July 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691248/adolescent-alcohol-exposure-decreases-frontostriatal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-adulthood
#3
Margaret A Broadwater, Sung-Ho Lee, Yang Yu, Hongtu Zhu, Fulton T Crews, Donita L Robinson, Yen-Yu Ian Shih
Connectivity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) matures through adolescence, coinciding with emergence of adult executive function and top-down inhibitory control over behavior. Alcohol exposure during this critical period of brain maturation may affect development of PFC and frontolimbic connectivity. Adult rats exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg ethanol, 25 percent v/v in water, intragastrically, 2-day-on, 2-day-off, postnatal day 25-54) or water control underwent resting-state functional MRI to test the hypothesis that AIE induces persistent changes in frontolimbic functional connectivity under baseline and acute alcohol conditions (2 g/kg ethanol or saline, intraperitoneally administered during scanning)...
July 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651013/loss-of-prion-protein-induces-a-primed-state-of-type-i-interferon-responsive-genes
#4
Giulia Malachin, Malin R Reiten, Øyvind Salvesen, Håvard Aanes, Jorke H Kamstra, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter M H Heegaard, Cecilie Ersdal, Arild Espenes, Michael A Tranulis, Maren K Bakkebø
The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been extensively studied because of its pivotal role in prion diseases; however, its functions remain incompletely understood. A unique line of goats has been identified that carries a nonsense mutation that abolishes synthesis of PrPC. In these animals, the PrP-encoding mRNA is rapidly degraded. Goats without PrPC are valuable in re-addressing loss-of-function phenotypes observed in Prnp knockout mice. As PrPC has been ascribed various roles in immune cells, we analyzed transcriptomic responses to loss of PrPC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal goat kids (n = 8, PRNP+/+) and goat kids without PrPC (n = 8, PRNPTer/Ter) by mRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622627/changes-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-function-following-chronic-alcohol-consumption-in-previously-na%C3%A3-ve-animals
#6
Jared A Rowland, Jennifer R Stapleton-Kotloski, Greg E Alberto, April T Davenport, Robert J Kotloski, David P Friedman, Dwayne W Godwin, James B Daunais
INTRODUCTION: Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with neurophysiological changes in brain activity; however, these changes are not well localized in humans. Non-human primate models of alcohol abuse enable control over many potential confounding variables associated with human studies. The present study utilized high-resolution magnetoencephalography (MEG) to quantify the effects of chronic EtOH self-administration on resting state (RS) brain function in vervet monkeys. METHODS: Adolescent male vervet monkeys were trained to self-administer ethanol (n=7) or an isocaloric malto-dextrin solution (n=3)...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604786/tinnitus-alters-resting-state-functional-connectivity-rsfc-in-human-auditory-and-non-auditory-brain-regions-as-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs
#7
Juan San Juan, Xiao-Su Hu, Mohamad Issa, Silvia Bisconti, Ioulia Kovelman, Paul Kileny, Gregory Basura
Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596724/recent-advances-in-translational-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-animal-models-of-stress-and-depression
#8
REVIEW
Allison L McIntosh, Shane Gormley, Leonardo Tozzi, Thomas Frodl, Andrew Harkin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable translational tool that can be used to investigate alterations in brain structure and function in both patients and animal models of disease. Regional changes in brain structure, functional connectivity, and metabolite concentrations have been reported in depressed patients, giving insight into the networks and brain regions involved, however preclinical models are less well characterized. The development of more effective treatments depends upon animal models that best translate to the human condition and animal models may be exploited to assess the molecular and cellular alterations that accompany neuroimaging changes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560240/mesoscale-brain-explorer-a-flexible-python-based-image-analysis-and-visualization-tool
#9
Dirk Haupt, Matthieu P Vanni, Federico Bolanos, Catalin Mitelut, Jeffrey M LeDue, Tim H Murphy
Imaging of mesoscale brain activity is used to map interactions between brain regions. This work has benefited from the pioneering studies of Grinvald et al., who employed optical methods to image brain function by exploiting the properties of intrinsic optical signals and small molecule voltage-sensitive dyes. Mesoscale interareal brain imaging techniques have been advanced by cell targeted and selective recombinant indicators of neuronal activity. Spontaneous resting state activity is often collected during mesoscale imaging to provide the basis for mapping of connectivity relationships using correlation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539914/functional-connectivity-mapping-in-the-animal-model-principles-and-applications-of-resting-state-fmri
#10
REVIEW
Martin Gorges, Francesco Roselli, Hans-Peter Müller, Albert C Ludolph, Volker Rasche, Jan Kassubek
"Resting-state" fMRI has substantially contributed to the understanding of human and non-human functional brain organization by the analysis of correlated patterns in spontaneous activity within dedicated brain systems. Spontaneous neural activity is indirectly measured from the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal as acquired by echo planar imaging, when subjects quietly "resting" in the scanner. Animal models including disease or knockout models allow a broad spectrum of experimental manipulations not applicable in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532450/lps-induced-systemic-inflammation-reveals-an-immunomodulatory-role-for-the-prion-protein-at-the-blood-brain-interface
#11
Ø Salvesen, M R Reiten, A Espenes, M K Bakkebø, M A Tranulis, C Ersdal
BACKGROUND: The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is an evolutionary conserved protein abundantly expressed not only in the central nervous system but also peripherally including the immune system. A line of Norwegian dairy goats naturally devoid of PrP(C) (PRNP (Ter/Ter)) provides a novel model for studying PrP(C) physiology. METHODS: In order to explore putative roles for PrP(C) in acute inflammatory responses, we performed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli O26:B6) challenge of 16 goats (8 PRNP (+/+) and 8 PRNP (Ter/Ter)) and included 10 saline-treated controls (5 of each PRNP genotype)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499395/time-course-of-blood-lactate-levels-inflammation-and-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-sepsis
#12
Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Adriano José Pereira, Sebastian Brandt, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Siamak Djafarzadeh, Jukka Takala, Stephan Mathias Jakob
BACKGROUND: A decrease in blood lactate levels (Lac) >10% during the first hours of resuscitation in sepsis is associated with better outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the time course of Lac, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial respiration during experimental sepsis. METHODS: Original data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed. In cohort 1, pigs were randomized to be resuscitated for 48 h starting at 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively, after fecal peritonitis induction (n = 8 each)...
May 12, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462586/infraslow-electroencephalographic-and-dynamic-resting-state-network-activity
#13
Joshua K Grooms, Garth J Thompson, Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Eric H Schumacher, Charles M Epstein, Shella D Keilholz
A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (<1 Hz) has been little studied. Previously, work in rodents showed that infraslow local field potentials play a role in functional connectivity, particularly in the dynamic organization of large-scale networks. To examine the relationship between infraslow activity and network dynamics in humans, direct current (DC) EEG and resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461059/high-resolution-functional-mri-identified-distinct-global-intrinsic-functional-networks-of-nociceptive-posterior-insula-and-s2-regions-in-squirrel-monkey-brain
#14
Ruiqi Wu, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457421/later-evaluation-of-ischemia-and-reperfusion-by-the-pringle-maneuver-in-wistar-rats-demonstrating-that-hepatic-lesions-can-be-reversible
#15
G de Lourdes Jorge, R Dos Reis Tártaro, C A Fazzio Escanhoela, I F S F Boin
OBJECTIVE: There has been much research on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion by means of short or longer interruption of the portal triad. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mitochondrial respiratory activity and liver histology at 2 different times after the Pringle maneuver. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats, weighing ∼308 g, with histologic and mitochondrial study: immediate ischemic group (IIG; 40 minutes; 9 animals) and late ischemic group (LIG; 28 days; 9 animals)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369458/the-healthy-brain-network-serial-scanning-initiative-a-resource-for-evaluating-inter-individual-differences-and-their-reliabilities-across-scan-conditions-and-sessions
#16
David O'Connor, Natan Vega Potler, Meagan Kovacs, Ting Xu, Lei Ai, John Pellman, Tamara Vanderwal, Lucas C Parra, Samantha Cohen, Satrajit Ghosh, Jasmine Escalera, Natalie Grant-Villegas, Yael Osman, Anastasia Bui, R Cameron Craddock, Michael P Milham
Background: Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established...
February 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363836/multi-echo-fmri-a-review-of-applications-in-fmri-denoising-and-analysis-of-bold-signals
#17
Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon, Priti Balchandani, Michael V Lombardo, Benedikt A Poser, Peter A Bandettini
In recent years the field of fMRI research has enjoyed expanded technical abilities related to resolution, as well as use across many fields of brain research. At the same time, the field has also dealt with uncertainty related to many known and unknown effects of artifact in fMRI data. In this review we discuss an emerging fMRI technology, called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI, which focuses on improving the fidelity and interpretability of fMRI. Where the essential problem of standard single-echo fMRI is the indeterminacy of sources of signals, whether BOLD or artifact, this is not the case for ME-fMRI...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320670/bci-use-and-its-relation-to-adaptation-in-cortical-networks
#18
Kaitlyn Casimo, Kurt E Weaver, Jeremiah Wander, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) carry great potential in the treatment of motor impairments. As a new motor output, BCIs interface with the native motor system, but acquisition of BCI proficiency requires a degree of learning to integrate this new function. In this review, we discuss how BCI designs often take advantage of the brain's motor system infrastructure as sources of command signals. We highlight a growing body of literature examining how this approach leads to changes in activity across cortex, including beyond motor regions, as a result of learning the new skill of BCI control...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315455/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-facilitates-the-action-exercise-to-restore-plasticity-and-functionality-implications-for-early-brain-trauma-recovery
#19
Gokul Krishna, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Zhe Ying, Afshin Paydar, Neil G Harris, Luiz Fernando F Royes, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction accompanying traumatic brain injury (TBI) severely impairs the ability of injured neurons to comply with functional demands. This limits the success of rehabilitative strategies by compromising brain plasticity and function, and highlights the need for early interventions to promote energy homeostasis. We sought to examine whether the TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) normalizes brain energy deficits and reestablishes more normal patterns of functional connectivity, while enhancing the effects of exercise during post-TBI period...
June 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249008/characterization-of-the-resting-state-brain-network-topology-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Robert Westphal, Camilla Simmons, Michel B Mesquita, Tobias C Wood, Steve C R Williams, Anthony C Vernon, Diana Cash
Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is an imaging technology that has recently gained attention for its ability to detect disruptions in functional brain networks in humans, including in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), revealing early and widespread brain network abnormalities. This methodology is now readily applicable to experimental animals offering new possibilities for cross-species translational imaging. In this context, we herein describe the application of rsfMRI to the unilaterally-lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat, a robust experimental model of the dopamine depletion implicated in PD...
2017: PloS One
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