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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922791/targeting-hypoxia-to-improve-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-outcome
#1
Ahmed Salem, Marie-Claude Asselin, Bart Reymen, Alan Jackson, Philippe Lambin, Catharine M L West, James P B O'Connor, Corinne Faivre-Finn
Oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important factor in treatment resistance and poor survival. Hypoxia is an attractive therapeutic target, particularly in the context of radiotherapy, which is delivered to more than half of NSCLC patients. However, NSCLC hypoxia-targeted therapy trials have not yet translated into patient benefit. Recently, early termination of promising evofosfamide and tarloxotinib bromide studies due to futility highlighted the need for a paradigm shift in our approach to avoid disappointments in future trials...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922141/towards-an-in-plane-methodology-to-track-breast-lesions-by-using-mammograms-and-patient-specific-finite-element-simulations
#2
Andres Lapuebla-Ferri, Jose Cegoñino-Banzo, Antonio-Jose Jimenez-Mocholi, Amaya Perez Del Palomar
In breast cancer screening or diagnosis, it is usual to combine different images in order to locate a lesion as accurately as possible. These images are generated by using a single or several imaging techniques. As X-ray based mammography is used widespread, a breast lesion is located in the same plane of the image (mammogram), but tracking of a breast lesion across mammograms corresponding to different views is a daring task for medical physicians. According to this, simulation tools and methodologies that use patient-specific numerical models can facilitate the task of fusing information from different images...
September 18, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921635/prediction-of-phosphorylation-sites-based-on-krawtchouk-image-moments
#3
Xue Wang, Min Li Xu, Bao Qiong Li, Hong Lin Zhai, Jin Jin Liu, Shuyan Li
Protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications and regulates diverse cellular processes in organisms. Under the catalysis of protein kinases, protein phosphorylation usually occurred in the residues serine (S), threonine (T) or tyrosine (Y). In this contribution, we proposed a novel scheme (named KMPhos) for the theoretical prediction of protein phosphorylation sites. First, the numerical matrix was obtained from a protein sequence fragment by replacing the characters of the residues with the chemical descriptors of amino acid molecules to approximately describe the chemical environment of the protein fragment, which was turned to the grayscale image...
September 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921609/biomarkers-for-equine-joint-injury-and-osteoarthritis
#4
REVIEW
C Wayne McIlwraith, Christopher E Kawcak, David D Frisbie, Christopher B Little, Peter D Clegg, Mandy J Peffers, Morten A Karsdal, Stina Ekman, Sheila Laverty, Richard A Slayden, Linda J Sandell, L Stefan Lohmander, Virginia B Kraus
We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919846/a-methylidene-group-in-the-phosphonic-acid-analogue-of-phenylalanine-reverses-the-enantiopreference-of-binding-to-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyases
#5
Zsófia Bata, Renzhe Qian, Alexander Roller, Jeannie Horak, László Csaba Bencze, Csaba Paizs, Friedrich Hammerschmidt, Beáta G Vértessy, László Poppe
Aromatic amino acid ammonia-lyases and aromatic amino acid 2,3-aminomutases contain the post-translationally formed prosthetic 3,5-dihydro-4-methylidene-5H-imidazol-5-one (MIO) group. MIO enzymes catalyze the stereoselective synthesis of α- or β-amino acid enantiomers, making these chemical processes environmentally friendly and affordable. Characterization of novel inhibitors enables structural understanding of enzyme mechanism and recognizes promising herbicide candidates as well. The present study found that both enantiomers of the aminophosphonic acid analogue of the natural substrate phenylalanine and a novel derivative bearing a methylidene at the β-position inhibited phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL), representing MIO enzymes...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918257/pathways-of-the-inferior-frontal-occipital-fasciculus-in-overt-speech-and-reading
#6
Claire Rollans, Kulpreet Cheema, George K Georgiou, Jacqueline Cummine
In this study, we examined the relationship between tractography-based measures of white matter integrity (ex. fractional anisotropy [FA]) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and five reading-related tasks, including rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters, digits, and objects, and reading of real words and nonwords. Twenty university students with no reported history of reading difficulties were tested on all five tasks and their performance was correlated with diffusion measures extracted through DTI tractography...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917501/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-i-clinical-and-network-analysis-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Felix Rosenow, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Sebastian Bauer
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917498/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-ii-experimental-and-translational-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Sebastian Bauer, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Felix Rosenow
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917122/structure-determination-based-on-continuous-diffraction-from-macromolecular-crystals
#9
REVIEW
Henry N Chapman, Petra Fromme
Bright and coherent X-ray sources, such free-electron lasers, have spurred large activities in developing new methods to obtain the structures of biological macromolecules. In particular, single-molecule diffraction is highly desired, as it would abolish the need for crystallization. It provides considerably more diffraction intensity information than needed to solve a structure, unlike crystal diffraction, which is usually insufficient for direct phasing. To overcome the challenge of weak scattering signals of single molecules, the direct phasing approaches in coherent diffractive imaging have been combined with crystals in several imaginative ways...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916806/rewiring-of-neuronal-networks-during-synaptic-silencing
#10
Jana Katharina Wrosch, Vicky von Einem, Katharina Breininger, Marc Dahlmanns, Andreas Maier, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja Wolfgang Groemer
Analyzing the connectivity of neuronal networks, based on functional brain imaging data, has yielded new insight into brain circuitry, bringing functional and effective networks into the focus of interest for understanding complex neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the analysis of network changes, based on the activity of individual neurons, is hindered by the lack of suitable meaningful and reproducible methodologies. Here, we used calcium imaging, statistical spike time analysis and a powerful classification model to reconstruct effective networks of primary rat hippocampal neurons in vitro...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913897/studying-the-progression-of-amyloid-pathology-and-its-therapy-using-translational-longitudinal-model-of-accumulation-and-distribution-of-amyloid-beta
#11
Tatiana Karelina, O Demin, Oleg Demin, Sridhar Duvvuri, Timothy Nicholas
Long term effects of amyloid targeted therapy can be studied using a mechanistic translational model of Aβ distribution and aggregation calibrated on published data in mouse and human species. AD pathology is modelled utilizing age-dependent pathological evolution for rate constants and several variants of explicit functions for Aβ toxicity influencing cognitive outcomes (Adas-cog). Preventive Aβ targeted therapies were simulated to minimize the Aβ difference from healthy physiological levels. Therapeutic targeted simulations provided similar predictions for mouse and human...
September 15, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912896/investigation-of-the-safety-of-focused-ultrasound-induced-blood-brain-barrier-opening-in-a-natural-canine-model-of-aging
#12
Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen
Rationale: Ultrasound-mediated opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier(BBB) has shown exciting potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Studies in transgenic mouse models have shown that this approach can reduce plaque pathology and improve spatial memory. Before clinical translation can occur the safety of the method needs to be tested in a larger brain that allows lower frequencies be used to treat larger tissue volumes, simulating clinical situations. Here we investigate the safety of opening the BBB in half of the brain in a large aged animal model with naturally occurring amyloid deposits...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912884/towards-translational-immunopet-mr-imaging-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-the-humanised-monoclonal-antibody-jf5-detects-aspergillus-lung-infections-in-vivo
#13
Genna Davies, Anna-Maria Rolle, Andreas Maurer, Philipp R Spycher, Claudia Schillinger, Djamschid Solouk-Saran, Mike Hasenberg, Juliane Weski, Jesper Fonslet, Adrien Dubois, Frederic Boschetti, Franck Denat, Matthias Gunzer, Martin Eichner, Lauren S Ryder, Mikael Jensen, Roger Schibli, Bernd J Pichler, Stefan Wiehr, Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of hematological malignancy or bone marrow transplant patients caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Current diagnostic tests for the disease lack sensitivity as well as specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy, considered the gold standard for IPA detection, is slow and often not possible in critically ill patients. In a previous study, we reported the development of a novel non-invasive procedure for IPA diagnosis based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI) using a [(64)Cu]DOTA-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), mJF5, specific to Aspergillus...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905408/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-cervical-spinal-cord-at-9-4-t
#14
Tung-Lin Wu, Feng Wang, Arabinda Mishra, George H Wilson, Nellie Byun, Li Min Chen, John C Gore
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have adopted resting-state functional MRI methods to infer functional connectivity between cortical regions, but very few have translated them to the spinal cord, despite its critical role in the central nervous system. Resting-state functional connectivity between gray matter horns of the spinal cord has previously been shown to be detectable in humans and nonhuman primates, but it has not been reported previously in rodents. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI of the cervical spinal cord of live anesthetized rats was performed at 9...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904233/hemorrhagic-transformation-after-large-cerebral-infarction-in-rats-pretreated-with-dabigatran-or-warfarin
#15
Il Kwon, Sunho An, Jayoung Kim, Seung-Hee Yang, Joonsang Yoo, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Hyun-Jung Choi, Ji Hoe Heo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is uncertain whether hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after large cerebral infarction is less frequent in dabigatran users than warfarin users. We compared the occurrence of HT after large cerebral infarction among rats pretreated with dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo. METHODS: This was a triple-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled experiment. After treatment with warfarin (0.2 mg/kg), dabigatran (20 mg/kg), or saline for 7 days, Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
September 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903010/effect-of-loading-on-in-vivo-tibiofemoral-and-patellofemoral-kinematics-of-healthy-and-acl-reconstructed-knees
#16
Jarred M Kaiser, Michael F Vignos, Richard Kijowski, Geoffrey Baer, Darryl G Thelen
BACKGROUND: Although knees that have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often exhibit normal laxity on clinical examination, abnormal kinematic patterns have been observed when the joint is dynamically loaded during whole body activity. This study investigated whether abnormal knee kinematics arise with loading under isolated dynamic movements. HYPOTHESIS: Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics of ACLR knees will be similar to those of the contralateral uninjured control knee during passive flexion-extension, with bilateral differences emerging when an inertial load is applied...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901442/the-uptake-exploration-of-68ga-labeled-ngr-in-well-differentiated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-xenografts-indication-for-the-new-clinical-translational-of-a-tracer-based-on-ngr
#17
Yongheng Gao, Zhengjie Wang, Xiaowei Ma, Wenhui Ma, Mingxuan Zhao, Tianming Fu, Guoquan Li, Shengjun Wang, Zhe Wang, Weidong Yang, Fei Kang, Jing Wang
18F-FDG has low uptake and poor diagnostic efficiency in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly in well-differentiated HCC. The NGR peptide selectively targets CD13, which is overexpressed in many types of tumor cells as well as neovasculature cells. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing 68Ga-NGR to image CD13-positive well-differentiated HCC xenografts. The in vitro cellular uptake, in vivo micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies of 68Ga-NGR and 18F-FDG were quantitatively compared in SMMC-7721-based well‑differentiated HCC xenografts...
August 31, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901055/phantom-based-image-quality-test-methods-for-photoacoustic-imaging-systems
#18
William C Vogt, Congxian Jia, Keith A Wear, Brian S Garra, T Joshua Pfefer
As photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technologies advance and applications arise, there is increasing need for standardized approaches to provide objective, quantitative performance assessment at various stages of the product development and clinical translation process. We have developed a set of performance test methods for PAI systems based on breast-mimicking tissue phantoms containing embedded inclusions. Performance standards for mature imaging modalities [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound] were used to guide selection of critical PAI image quality characteristics and experimental methods...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900563/cadaveric-evaluation-of-the-lateral-anterior-drawer-test-for-examining-posterior-cruciate-ligament-integrity
#19
Gesine H Seeber, Marc P Wilhelm, Gunther Windisch, Hans-Joachim Appell Coriolano, Omer C Matthijs, Philip S Sizer
BACKGROUND: Common clinical tests often fail to identify posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) ruptures, leading to undetected tears and potential degenerative changes in the knee. The lateral-anterior drawer (LAD) test has been proposed but not yet evaluated regarding its effectiveness for diagnosing PCL-ruptures. HYPOTHESIS: The LAD will show greater tibial translation values in lateral-anterior direction in a PCL-Cut condition compared to a PCL-Intact condition, thus serving as a useful test for clinical diagnosis of PCL integrity...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900516/sensitive-in-vivo-visualization-of-breast-cancer-using-ratiometric-protease-activatable-fluorescent-imaging-agent-avb-620
#20
Marcel Miampamba, Junjie Liu, Alec Harootunian, Andrew J Gale, Stephen Baird, Steven L Chen, Quyen T Nguyen, Roger Y Tsien, Jesús E González
With the goal of improving intraoperative cancer visualization, we have developed AVB-620, a novel intravenously administered, in vivo fluorescent peptide dye conjugate that highlights malignant tissue and is optimized for human use. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) hydrolyze AVB-620 triggering tissue retention and a ratiometric fluorescence color change which is visualized using camera systems capable of imaging fluorescence and white light simultaneously. AVB-620 imaging visualizes primary tumors and demonstrated high in vivo diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (both >95%) for identifying breast cancer metastases to lymph nodes in two immunocompetent syngeneic mouse models...
2017: Theranostics
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