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Translational AND imaging

Shanyuanye Guan, Hans A Gray, Anthony G Schache, Julian Feller, Richard de Steiger, Marcus G Pandy
No data are available to describe six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) knee-joint kinematics for one complete cycle of overground walking subsequent to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aims of this study were firstly, to measure 6-DOF knee-joint kinematics and condylar motion for overground walking following TKA; and secondly, to determine whether such data differed between overground and treadmill gait when participants walked at the same speed during both tasks. A unique mobile biplane X-ray imaging system enabled accurate measurement of 6-DOF TKA knee kinematics during overground walking by simultaneously tracking and imaging the joint...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Stephan Wilke, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Steffen Fischer, Marianne Patt, Andreas Schildan, Jörg Patt, René Smits, Alexander Hoepping, Jörg Steinbach, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust
BACKGROUND: Both enantiomers of [(18)F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+)-[(18)F]flubatine compared to (-)-[(18)F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+)-[(18)F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (-)-[(18)F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Arin M Ellingson, Joseph D Mozingo, Dixon J Magnuson, Mark W Pagnano, Kristin D Zhao
Fluoroscopic imaging has become increasingly popular to investigate total knee arthroplasty kinematics non-invasively - 3D implant models are aligned with 2D image projections, and optimized via an edge-contour alignment technique. Previous studies have quantified the accuracy of this approach, however they do not always adequately address the impact of image collection parameters. A particularly sensitive parameter is the pulse width, or exposure time per frame. At longer pulse widths, more motion is captured in a single frame; this can lead to image blur and subsequent degradation to image edge quality...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
In K Cho, Silun Wang, Hui Mao, Anthony Ws Chan
Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy, and genome editing technologies (i.e. CRISPR-Cas 9) have sparked great interest in in vivo cell monitoring. Molecular imaging promises a unique approach to noninvasively monitor cellular and molecular phenomena, including cell survival, migration, proliferation, and even differentiation at the whole organismal level. Several imaging modalities and strategies have been explored for monitoring cell grafts in vivo. We begin this review with an introduction describing the progress in stem cell technology, with a perspective toward cell replacement therapy...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Teresa Delgado-Goni, Maria Falck Miniotis, Slawomir Wantuch, Harold G Parkes, Richard Marais, Paul Workman, Martin O Leach, Mounia Beloueche-Babari
Understanding the impact of BRAF signaling inhibition in human melanoma on key disease mechanisms is important for developing biomarkers of therapeutic response and combination strategies to improve long term disease control. This work investigates the downstream metabolic consequences of BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib, the molecular and biochemical processes that underpin them, their significance for antineoplastic activity and potential as non-invasive imaging response biomarkers.(1)H NMR spectroscopy showed that vemurafenib decreases the glycolytic activity of BRAF mutant (WM266...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Karen Peynshaert, Stefaan J Soenen, Bella B Manshian, Shareen H Doak, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
: In the last decade the interest in autophagy got an incredible boost and the phenomenon quickly turned into an extensive research field. Interestingly, dysfunction of this cytoplasmic clearance system has been proposed to lie at the root of multiple diseases including cancer. We therefore consider it crucial from a toxicological point of view to investigate if nanomaterials that are developed for biomedical applications interfere with this cellular process. Here, we study the highly promising 'gradient alloyed' quantum dots (QDs) that differ from conventional ones by their gradient core composition which allows for better fluorescent properties...
October 17, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Jelle Hendrix, Tomas Dekens, Waldemar Schrimpf, Don C Lamb
Combining imaging with correlation spectroscopy, as in raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), makes it possible to extract molecular translational diffusion constants and absolute concentrations, and determine intermolecular interactions from single-channel or multicolor confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) images. Region-specific RICS analysis remains very challenging because correlations are always calculated in a square region-of-interest (ROI). In this study, we describe a generalized image correlation spectroscopy algorithm that accepts arbitrarily shaped ROIs...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Haisheng He, Jian Zhang, Yunchang Xie, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Ejaj Ahmad, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
One of the biggest challenges in bioimaging of nanoparticles is how to identify integral particles from bulk signals of probes. Signals of free probes are always mistakenly counted into total signals of particles. In this study, in vivo fate of intravenous polymeric micelles (PMs, mPEG2.5k-PDLLA2.5k) was explored using a highly sensitive near-infrared environment-responsive fluorescent probe. This probe is able to emit fluorescence when embedded in nanocarriers but quench spontaneously and absolutely upon release into water, based on the aggregation-caused quenching effect, which means that the interference generated by free probes can be completely diminished...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
A Skalec, P Przyborowska-Zhalniarovich, I Janus, K Kirstein, M Mieszkowska, Z Adamiak, A Chrószcz, M Janeczek
In spite of recent advances in treatment protocols, tendinopathies continue to challenge orthopaedists and surgeons. Due to the complexity of both tendon injuries and the healing processes, animal models are essential for addressing fundamental questions in tendinopathy research. Diagnostic imaging could contribute to the evaluation of animal models, thus providing information, which could be translated to human tendinopathies. The objective of our study was to evaluate in situ appearance of the rabbit common calcanean tendon with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Jorge Mejia, Ana Claudia Camargo Miranda, Ana Claudia Ranucci Durante, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de Barboza, Katerin Taboada Rosell, Daniele Pereira Jardim, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Marilia Alves Dos Reis, Marcela Forli Catanoso, Orfa Yineth Galvis-Alonso, Francisco Romero Cabral
Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein...
July 2016: Einstein
Mario A Cepeda, Jacob J H Pelling, Caitlin L Evered, Karla C Williams, Zoey Freedman, Ioana Stan, Jessica A Willson, Hon S Leong, Sashko Damjanovski
BACKGROUND: Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components and allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by MT1-MMP, suggesting that our understanding of the role of MT1-MMP in cancer progression is incomplete...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Cancer
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Carla R Scanzello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory changes in joint tissues can be detected by modern imaging techniques in osteoarthritis patients, but may be clinically subtle compared with many other types of arthritis. These changes associate with disease progression and clinical severity, and many inflammatory mediators may have biomarker utility. Moreover, a number of inflammatory mechanisms play a role in animal models of disease, but it is still not clear which mechanisms predominate and might be therapeutically manipulated most effectively...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Yuanyuan Shi, Alexander Kamasah, Arthur G Suits
We report a crossed molecular beam study of the reaction dynamics of fluorine atom with 1-propanol, 1-butene and 1-hexene. The product alkoxy and alkenyl radicals were detected via dc slice imaging by 157nm single photon ionization at collision energies around 10 kcal.mol-1. The analyzed data is interpreted with the aid of theoretical investigation of the relevant potential energy surfaces. The translational energy distribution and center-of-mass angular distribution of F + 1-propanol is quite similar to our previous results for F + n-butane, albeit with an increased fraction of the available energy in translation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Abib Agbetoba, Amber Luong, Jin Keat Siow, Brent Senior, Claudio Callejas, Kornel Szczygielski, Martin J Citardi
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery represents a cornerstone in the professional development of otorhinolaryngology trainees. Mastery of these surgical skills requires an understanding of paranasal sinus and skull-base anatomy. The frontal sinus is associated with a wide range of variation and complex anatomical configuration, and thus represents an important challenge for all trainees performing endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS: Forty-five otorhinolaryngology trainees and 20 medical school students from 5 academic institutions were enrolled and randomized into 1 of 2 groups...
October 18, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Anna Dominiczak
Human primary or essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic trait with some 50% contribution from genes and environment. Richard Lifton and colleagues provided elegant dissection of several rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, exemplified by the glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and Liddle's syndrome. These discoveries illustrate that a single gene mutation can explain the entire pathogenesis of severe, early onset hypertension as well as dictating the best treatment.The dissection of the much more common polygenic hypertension has proven much more difficult...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tristram A Lett, Henrik Walter, Eva J Brandl
Genetic variation underlies both the response to antidepressant treatment and the occurrence of side effects. Over the past two decades, a number of pharmacogenetic variants, among these the SCL6A4, BDNF, FKBP5, GNB3, GRIK4, and ABCB1 genes, have come to the forefront in this regard. However, small effects sizes, mixed results in independent samples, and conflicting meta-analyses results led to inherent difficulties in the field of pharmacogenetics translating these findings into clinical practice. Nearly all antidepressant pharmacogenetic variants have potentially pleiotropic effects in which they are associated with major depressive disorder, intermediate phenotypes involved in emotional processes, and brain areas affected by antidepressant treatment...
October 17, 2016: CNS Drugs
Xinyang Liu, Sukryool Kang, William Plishker, George Zaki, Timothy D Kane, Raj Shekhar
The purpose of this work was to develop a clinically viable laparoscopic augmented reality (AR) system employing stereoscopic (3-D) vision, laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS), and electromagnetic (EM) tracking to achieve image registration. We investigated clinically feasible solutions to mount the EM sensors on the 3-D laparoscope and the LUS probe. This led to a solution of integrating an externally attached EM sensor near the imaging tip of the LUS probe, only slightly increasing the overall diameter of the probe...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
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