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"Positron emission tomography"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640707/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-clinical-trials
#1
Patrick Y Wen, Susan M Chang, Martin J Van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, David R Macdonald, Eudocia Q Lee
Development of novel therapies for CNS tumors requires reliable assessment of response and progression. This requirement has been particularly challenging in neuro-oncology for which contrast enhancement serves as an imperfect surrogate for tumor volume and is influenced by agents that affect vascular permeability, such as antiangiogenic therapies. In addition, most tumors have a nonenhancing component that can be difficult to accurately quantify. To improve the response assessment in neuro-oncology and to standardize the criteria that are used for different CNS tumors, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group was established...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640699/brain-tumor-imaging
#2
Kevin M Brindle, José L Izquierdo-García, David Y Lewis, Richard J Mair, Alan J Wright
Modern imaging techniques, particularly functional imaging techniques that interrogate some specific aspect of underlying tumor biology, have enormous potential in neuro-oncology for disease detection, grading, and tumor delineation to guide biopsy and resection; monitoring treatment response; and targeting radiotherapy. This brief review considers the role of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography in these areas and discusses the factors that limit translation of new techniques to the clinic, in particular, the cost and difficulties associated with validation in multicenter clinical trials...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640595/detection-and-characterization-of-small-molecule-interactions-with-fibrillar-protein-aggregates-using-microscale-thermophoresis
#3
Emily Fisher, Yanyan Zhao, Robert Richardson, Malgorzata Janik, Alexander K Buell, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Gergely Toth
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease share the pathological hallmark of fibrillar protein aggregates. The specific detection of these protein aggregates by positron emission tomography (PET) in the patient brain can yield valuable information for diagnosis and disease progression. However, the identification of novel small compounds that bind fibrillar protein aggregates has been a challenge. In this study, microscale thermophoresis (MST) was applied to assess the binding affinity of known small molecule ligands of α-synuclein fibrils, which were also tested in parallel in a Thioflavin T fluorescence competition assay for further validation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636995/experimental-study-on-the-therapeutic-effect-and-underlining-mechanisms-of-positron-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#4
Ying Wang, Ming Li, Rao Diao, Brian Tung, Dalong Zhang, Yaming Li
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential therapeutic effect of positrons emitted by 18F-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) on pancreatic cancer cells and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Pancreatic cancer cells were incubated with different radioactive concentrations of 18F-FDG and evaluated for anti-cancer properties and underlining mechanisms. In addition, three groups of tumor-bearing mice were treated with different doses of 18F-FDG weekly, the tumor growth rate was calculated, and the mice were imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG before and after treatment...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636732/positron-emission-tomography-enhancement-after-vocal-fold-injection-medialization
#5
Nazaneen Grant, Richard J Wong, Dennis H Kraus, Heiko Schoder, Ryan C Branski
The potential for the misinterpretation of positron-emission tomography (PET) scans in the context of a possible malignancy has been confirmed in a case report showing increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake after unilateral vocal fold augmentation medialization. We sought to expand these findings by investigating FDG uptake in a larger cohort of patients via a retrospective chart review. We examined the records of 15 adults-8 men and 7 women-who had undergone vocal fold augmentation for unilateral vocal fold paralysis and at least one subsequent PET scan...
June 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635336/new-advances-in-focal-therapy-for-early-stage-prostate-cancer
#7
Kae Jack Tay, Ariel A Schulman, Christina Sze, Efrat Tsivian, Thomas J Polascik
Prostate focal therapy offers men the opportunity to achieve oncological control while preserving sexual and urinary function. The prerequisites for successful focal therapy are to accurately identify, localize and completely ablate the clinically significant cancer(s) within the prostate. We aim to evaluate the evidence for current and upcoming technologies that could shape the future of prostate cancer focal therapy in the next five years. Areas Covered: Current literature on advances in patient selection using imaging, biopsy and biomarkers, ablation techniques and adjuvant treatments for focal therapy are summarized...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634836/test-retest-reproducibility-of-11-c-l-deprenyl-d2-binding-to-mao-b-in-the-human-brain
#8
Ryosuke Arakawa, Per Stenkrona, Akihiro Takano, Sangram Nag, Rafael S Maior, Christer Halldin
BACKGROUND: [(11)C]-L-deprenyl-D2 is a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for measurement of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity in vivo brain. The estimation of the test-retest reproducibility is important for accurate interpretation of PET studies. RESULTS: We performed two [(11)C]-L-deprenyl-D2 scans for six healthy subjects and evaluated the test-retest variability of this radioligand. MAO-B binding was quantified by two tissue compartment model (2TCM) with three rate constants (K 1, k 2, k 3) using metabolite-corrected plasma radioactivity...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634684/heterogeneity-index-evaluated-by-slope-of-linear-regression-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-predicting-tumor-recurrence-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#9
Yong-Il Kim, Yong Joong Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Gi Jeong Cheon, Dong Soo Lee, June-Key Chung, Keon Wook Kang
PURPOSE: (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been investigated as a method to predict pancreatic cancer recurrence after pancreatic surgery. We evaluated the recently introduced heterogeneity indices of (18)F-FDG PET/CT used for predicting pancreatic cancer recurrence after surgery and compared them with current clinicopathologic and (18)F-FDG PET/CT parameters. METHODS: A total of 93 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients (M:F = 60:33, mean age = 64...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634451/berberine-ameliorates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-through-modulation-of-aberrant-inflammation-response-and-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-dm-rats
#10
Qingjie Chen, Ran Mo, Ninghua Wu, Xin Zou, Cai Shi, Jing Gong, Jingbin Li, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Deshen Yang, Kaifu Wang, Juan Chen
Background: Memory-impairment was one of the common characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus. The release of chronic inflammation mediators and insulin resistance in diabetic brain gave rise to the generation of toxic factor Aβ42 which was the marker of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the impairment of memory in diabetes mellitus was also correlated predominantly with uptake/metabolism of glucose in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Previously, anti-inflammation and hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBr) have been described in peripheral tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632523/frontotemporal-dementia-presenting-as-gambling-disorder-when-a-psychiatric-condition-is-the-clue-to-a-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
Giacomo Tondo, Fabiola De Marchi, Emanuela Terazzi, Marta Sacchetti, Roberto Cantello
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, the most common form of frontotemporal dementia, is characterized by executive dysfunction and changes in personality and behavior, sometimes with associated psychiatric disorders. We report a man who suddenly developed a gambling disorder when he was 55 years old. A year later he developed personality changes of agitation, euphoria, and disinhibition, along with binge eating and dysthymia. He did not improve on paroxetine 40 mg/day. Two years after the onset of his symptoms, he came to our clinic for evaluation...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632402/3-benzyloxy-1-5-18-f-fluoropentyl-5-nitro-1h-indazole-a-pet-radiotracer-to-measure-acetylcholinesterase-in-brain
#12
Soledad Fernández, Javier Giglio, Ana Laura Reyes, Andrés Damián, Concepción Pérez, Daniel I Pérez, Mercedes González, Patricia Oliver, Ana Rey, Henry Engler, Hugo Cerecetto
AIM: Noninvasive studies of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) level in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients can contribute to a better understanding of the disease and its therapeutic. We propose 3-(benzyloxy)-1-(5-[(18)F]fluoropentyl)-5-nitro-1H-indazole, [(18)F]-IND1, structurally related to the AChE-inhibitor CP126,998, as a new positron emission tomography-radiotracer. EXPERIMENTAL: Radiosynthesis, with 18F, stability, lipophilicity and protein binding of [18F]-IND1 were studied...
June 20, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631142/parametric-imaging-of-11-c-flumazenil-binding-in-the-rat-brain
#13
Isadora Lopes Alves, David Vállez Vállez García, Andrea Parente, Janine Doorduin, Ana Maria Marques da Silva, Michel Koole, Rudi Dierckx, Antoon Willemsen, Ronald Boellaard
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the performance of several parametric methods for assessing [(11)C]flumazenil binding distribution in the rat brain. PROCEDURES: Dynamic (60 min) positron emission tomography data with metabolite-corrected plasma input function were retrospectively analyzed (male Wistar rats, n = 10). Distribution volume (V T) images were generated from basis function method (BFM), Logan graphical analysis (Logan), and spectral analysis (SA). Using the pons as pseudo-reference tissue, binding potential (BP ND and DVR-1) images were obtained from receptor parametric imaging algorithms (RPM and SRTM2) and reference Logan (RLogan)...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631080/comparison-of-volumetric-and-functional-parameters-in-simultaneous-cardiac-pet-mr-feasibility-of-volumetric-assessment-with-residual-activity-from-prior-pet-ct
#14
C Lücke, B Oppolzer, P Werner, B Foldyna, P Lurz, T Jochimsen, B Brenneis, L Lehmkuhl, B Sattler, M Grothoff, H Barthel, O Sabri, M Gutberlet
OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiac left ventricular (LV) parameters in simultaneously acquired hybrid fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F] FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) in patients with residual tracer activity of upstream PET/CT. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (23 men, age 58±17 years) underwent cardiac PET/MRI either directly after a non-cardiac PET/CT with homogenous cardiac [18F] FDG uptake (n=20) or for viability assessment (n=9)...
June 19, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630234/multiparametric-model-for-penumbral-flow-prediction-in-acute-stroke
#15
Michelle Livne, Tabea Kossen, Vince I Madai, Olivier Zaro-Weber, Walter Moeller-Hartmann, Kim Mouridsen, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Jan Sobesky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identification of salvageable penumbra tissue by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable tool for acute stroke patient stratification for treatment. However, prior studies have not attempted to combine the different perfusion maps into a predictive model. In this study, we established a multiparametric perfusion imaging model and cross-validated it using positron emission tomography perfusion for detection of penumbral flow. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of 17 subacute stroke patients with consecutive magnetic resonance imaging and H2O15 positron emission tomography scans, perfusion maps of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, time-to-maximum, and time-to-peak were constructed and combined using a generalized linear model (GLM)...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629563/positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-undergoing-liver-transplantation-useful-necessary-or-irrelevant
#16
REVIEW
Pedro Antonio Cascales-Campos, Pablo Ramírez Romero, Marcel André Schneider, Victor Lopez-Lopez, José Luis Navarro, Laura Frutos, Jose Antonio Pons Miñano, Pascual Parrilla Paricio
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor entity, with the only curative options being surgical resection or orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The presence of one single tumor nodule of less than 5 centimeters diameter or a maximum of 3 nodules, with the largest of these not exceeding 3 centimeters (Milan criteria) constitute the clinical situation in which the best results for OLT in patients with HCC have been achieved. The survival of patients fulfilling the Milan criteria after transplantation is comparable to patients with similar tumor stages without cirrhosis, undergoing hepatic resection...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629432/imaging-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-expression-in-experimental-myocardial-ischemia-with-68-ga-nodaga-rgd-positron-emission-tomography
#17
Maria Grönman, Miikka Tarkia, Tuomas Kiviniemi, Paavo Halonen, Antti Kuivanen, Timo Savunen, Tuula Tolvanen, Jarmo Teuho, Meeri Käkelä, Olli Metsälä, Mikko Pietilä, Pekka Saukko, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Juhani Knuuti, Anne Roivainen, Antti Saraste
BACKGROUND: Radiolabeled RGD peptides detect αvβ3 integrin expression associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling after myocardial infarction. We studied whether cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) with [(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD detects increased αvβ3 integrin expression after induction of flow-limiting coronary stenosis in pigs, and whether αvβ3 integrin is expressed in viable ischemic or injured myocardium. METHODS: We studied 8 Finnish landrace pigs 13 ± 4 days after percutaneous implantation of a bottleneck stent in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627960/lack-of-functional-normalisation-of-tumour-vessels-following-anti-angiogenic-therapy-in-glioblastoma
#18
Nina Obad, Heidi Espedal, Radovan Jirik, Per Oystein Sakariassen, Cecilie Brekke Rygh, Morten Lund-Johansen, Torfinn Taxt, Simone P Niclou, Rolf Bjerkvig, Olivier Keunen
Neo-angiogenesis represents an important factor for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to a growing tumour, and is considered to be one of the main pathodiagnostic features of glioblastomas (GBM). Anti-angiogenic therapy by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blocking agents has been shown to lead to morphological vascular normalisation resulting in a reduction of contrast enhancement as seen by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Yet the functional consequences of this normalisation and its potential for improved delivery of cytotoxic agents to the tumour are not known...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627323/perspective-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-imaging-for-clinical-management-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-and-its-precursor-lesions
#19
Katja Steiger, Anna-Melissa Schlitter, Wilko Weichert, Irene Esposito, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Johannes Notni
ß6-integrin immunohistochemistry analysis of a large number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, 383 primary tumors, 7 lymph node, and 8 distant metastases) and 34 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) specimens revealed a high prevalence of αvß6-integrin expression in PDAC primaries (88%) and in almost all metastases, as well as in PanIN (57%). These findings underscore the high potential of a novel αvß6-integrin targeting positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical, Ga-68-Avebehexin, for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626950/myxoid-variant-of-primary-cutaneous-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-first-two-cases
#20
Angel Fernandez-Flores, Ariana Eginli, David S Cassarino
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a CD30+ T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with two main clinical presentations: primary cutaneous (pcALCL) and systemic (sALCL). While rare cases of myxoid sALCL have been reported, there are no previous cases of myxoid pcALCL reported. We present two unusual cases of pcALCL showing prominent collections of dermal mucin closely intermingling with the anaplastic lymphocytes. Patient 1 was a 30-year-old woman who presented with ulcerated nodules on her neck, abdomen, chest, and shoulders...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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