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"Positron emission tomography"

Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Andrés Retamal C, Giancarlo Schiappacasse F, Lizbet Pérez M, Pablo Alvayay Q, Isabel Schild W
Pediatric cancer is the second cause of death in children older than 5 years in our country, after trauma. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a hybrid technique that involves radiation, which has been used for some time in adults and is being progressively imple mented in children. This technique allows morphological and functional assessments of the body with applications in neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. Its main role in oncology is in the evaluation and control of lymphomas, sarcomas and neuroblastomas, among others...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Santosh R Alluri, Patrick J Riss
A variety of substituted non-racemic aziridine-2-carboxylates equivalent to amino acids were prepared and subjected to ring opening reaction by [18F/19F]fluoride. The regio and stereospecific ring opening depends on the substituents on the nitrogen as well as both the carbons of aziridines. The applicability of the methods to afford access to 3-[18F/19F]fluoro amino acids are illustrated.
March 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Mikael Tiger, Katarina Varnäs, Yoshiro Okubo, Johan Lundberg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The serotonin hypothesis may be the model of MDD pathophysiology with the most support. The majority of antidepressants enhance synaptic serotonin levels quickly, while it usually takes weeks to discern MDD treatment effect. It has been hypothesized that the time lag between serotonin increase and reduction of MDD symptoms is due to downregulation of inhibitory receptors such as the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). The research on 5-HT1BR has previously been hampered by a lack of selective ligands for the receptor...
March 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Filip Čtvrtlík, Pavel Koranda, Jan Schovánek, Jozef Škarda, Igor Hartmann, Zbyněk Tüdös
The topic of pheochromocytomas is becoming increasingly popular as a result of major advances in different medical fields, including laboratory diagnosis, genetics, therapy, and particularly in novel advances in imaging techniques. The present review article discusses current clinical, biochemical, genetic and histopathological aspects of the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and planning of pre-surgical preparation and subsequent surgical treatment options. The main part of the paper is focused on the role of morphological imaging methods (primarily computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional imaging (scintigraphy and positron emission tomography) in the diagnosis and staging of pheochromocytomas...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Feng Feng, Fulin Qiang, Aijun Shen, Donghui Shi, Aiyan Fu, Haiming Li, Mingzhu Zhang, Ganlin Xia, Peng Cao
Objective: To prospectively compare the discriminative capacity of dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with that of18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the differentiation of malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Methods: Forty-nine patients with SPNs were included in this prospective study. Thirty-two of the patients had malignant SPNs, while the other 17 had benign SPNs...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marc A Bjurlin, Baris Turkbey, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Sonia Gaur, Peter L Choyke, Samir S Taneja
Imaging is critically important for the diagnosis, staging, and management of men with high-risk prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities, including computed tomography and radionuclide bone scan have been employed for local and metastatic staging, but their performance has generally been poor. Sodium fluoride positron emission tomography is recommended when there is high suspicion for bone metastases despite a negative or indeterminate bone scan. Magnetic resonance imaging has advantages in local staging but its value depends on the extent of disease...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Morten Schmidt, Michael Maeng, Morten Madsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen
The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary interventions, 60,000 cardiac computed tomographies, 40,000 cardiac operations, and 2,000 transcatheter aortic valve replacements. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are soon to be added...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, James Kelly, Shashikanth Ponnala, Yogindra Vedvyas, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Clarence Williams, Moonsoo M Jin, J David Warren, John W Babich
INTRODUCTION: CXCR4 specific [18 F]-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are needed which would enable general distribution of the radiotracer for clinical investigation. We sought to synthesize, radiolabel and evaluate [18 F]RPS-544, a novel non-peptide CXCR4 antagonist as a CXCR4 specific probe. We compared [18 F]RPS-544 with the previously published [18 F]-3 ([18 F]RPS-510 in this paper) in a bi-lateral tumor model of differential CXCR4 expression for its ability to selectively target CXCR4 expression...
January 31, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Granville James Matheson, Petter Gustavsson, Per Stenkrona, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde, Simon Cervenka
BACKGROUND: Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R), finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation...
2018: PloS One
Basmah Safdar, Gail D'Onofrio, James Dziura, Raymond R Russell, Caitlin Johnson, Albert J Sinusas
AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is common in patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries but has not been described in low-risk symptomatic patients. We therefore assessed the prevalence and characteristics of CMD in low to moderate risk patients with chest pain in an emergency department. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used three-dimensional Rb82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography to diagnose coronary artery disease (known or new regional defect, any coronary calcification) and CMD (low coronary flow reserve without coronary artery disease) in chest pain patients after being ruled out for acute myocardial infarction...
March 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Marc Pretze, Andreas Hien, Matthias Raedle, Ralf Schirrmacher, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have widely been used for 70 years in cancer treatment, but only in the last 15 years the focus has been on specific AuNPs with homogeneous size and shape for various areas in science. They constitute a perfect platform for multi-functionalization and therefore enable the enhancement of target affinity. Here we report on the development of tumor specific AuNPs as diagnostic tools intended for the detection of prostate cancer via fluorescence imaging and positron emission tomography (PET)...
March 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Glen M Blake, Tanuj Puri, Musib Siddique, Michelle L Frost, Amelia E B Moore, Ignac Fogelman
Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride ([18 F]NaF) allows the quantitative assessment of regional bone formation by measuring the plasma clearance of fluoride to bone at any site in the skeleton. Today, hybrid PET and computed tomography (CT) dual-modality systems (PET/CT) are widely available, and [18 F]NaF PET/CT offers a convenient non-invasive method of studying bone formation at the important osteoporotic fracture sites at the hip and spine, as well as sites of pure cortical or trabecular bone...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Shin-Ichi Oikawa, Kiyoto Shiga, Daisuke Saito, Katsunori Katagiri, Aya Ikeda, Kodai Tuchida, Jun Miyaguchi, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tamotsu Sugai
The present study aimed to investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and a newly developed analysis software for the detection of microcapillary network distribution in lymph nodes of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) by comparing the CEUS and histopathological findings. Patients that were diagnosed with HNC between February and September 2016 were enrolled. A total of five patients underwent resection of the primary tumor and neck dissection as their initial treatment. The cervical lymph nodes of these patients were analyzed by CEUS intraoperatively, and their surgical specimens were examined histopathologically...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Marenka Smit, David Vállez García, Bauke M de Jong, Evelien Zoons, Jan Booij, Rudi A Dierckx, Antoon T Willemsen, Erik F de Vries, Anna L Bartels, Marina A Tijssen
Purpose: Alterations of the central serotonergic system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this molecular imaging study, we assessed whether altered presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding contributes to the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia (CD), concerning both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). Methods: We assessed the non-displaceable binding potential (BPND ) using the selective SERT tracer [11 C]DASB and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 CD patients and 12 age- and gender-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lei Kang, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Todd E Barnhart, Dalong Ni, Jonathan W Engle, Rongfu Wang, Peng Huang, Xiaojie Xu, Weibo Cai
CD30 has been considered a unique diagnostic and therapeutic target for CD30-positive lymphomas and some lung diseases. Additionally, CD30 has shown high expression in clinical lung cancer samples. In this study,89 Zr-radiolabeled Brentuximab vedotin (BV) was developed for in vivo tracking of BV and imaging CD30 expression in lung cancer models via conjugation with desferrioxamine (Df). CD30 expression in three lung cancer cell lines (H460, H358, and A549) was quantified by Western blot. Flow cytometry and saturation binding assays were used to evaluate the binding capabilities of the tracer in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
A Masarykova, D Scepanovic, P Povinec, P Bires, D Lederleitner, M Pobijakova
OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether the maximum standardized uptake value of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography for radiotherapy planning was useful as a prognostic factor for tumour response and survival of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. BACKGROUND: Increased 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake by lung cancer cells, measured as the maximum standardized uptake value, has been reported to predict the biologic aggressiveness of both early and advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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