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Small Intestine Bacteria Overgrowth

Hongjun Zhao, Lijuan Zhao, Wei Shi, Hui Luo, Liping Duan, Yunhui You, Yisha Li, Xiaoxia Zuo
INTRODUCTION: Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome is rare systemic diseases characterized by a prodrome of fever, chills, and influenza-like symptoms with subsequent skin eruptions, myalgias, and polyarthralgias. It is reported to be occurred in Intestinal bypass surgery and inflammatory bowel disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: Herein, we described a 29-years-old man with Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. He had no history of gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory bowel disease...
2016: SpringerPlus
Richard S Hoehn, Aaron P Seitz, Peter L Jernigan, Erich Gulbins, Michael J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Ceramide is a mediator of apoptosis and has been implicated as increasing bacterial infection susceptibility. The metabolite of ceramide, sphingosine, was recently shown to play an important role in the cell-autonomous, innate immune response of the upper respiratory tract by killing bacterial pathogens. The role of ceramide and/or sphingosine after mesenteric I/R is unknown...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rani H Shayto, Rachel Abou Mrad, Ala I Sharara
Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yanli Ning, Cen Lou, Zhongke Huang, Dongfang Chen, Huacheng Huang, Liang Chen, Bucheng Zhang, Ning Dai, Jianmin Zhao, Xia Zhen
OBJECTIVE: Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be a pathogenetic factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This syndrome cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and has no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or biomarkers. We studied quantitatively and semi-quantitatively, using lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT), small intestinal transit time (SITT) (99m)technetium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) in order to examine the mobility of small intestine as an indication of bacterial overgrowth in patients...
May 2016: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Andrea Fialho, Andre Fialho, Prashanthi Thota, Arthur J McCullough, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Changes in gut bacteria play a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hepatic steatosis. There is a lack of studies evaluating the frequency and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients tested for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). AIM: To evaluate the frequency of NAFLD and associated risk factors in patients tested for SIBO. METHODS: In this case-control study, 372 eligible patients submitted to glucose hydrogen/methane breath test for SIBO who also had an abdominal imaging study were included...
June 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Gourab Dutta Banik, Anulekha De, Suman Som, Subhra Jana, Sunil B Daschakraborty, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
There is a pressing need to develop a novel early-detection strategy for the precise evolution of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The current method based on a hydrogen breath test (HBT) for the detection of SIBO is highly controversial. HBT has many limitations and drawbacks. It often fails to indentify SIBO when IBS individuals have 'non-hydrogen-producing' colonic bacteria. Here, we show that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in exhaled breath is distinctly altered for diarrhea-predominant IBS individuals with positive and negative SIBO by the activity of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Mika Yuki, Yoshinori Komazawa, Yoshiya Kobayashi, Maho Kusunoki, Yoshiko Takahashi, Sayaka Nakashima, Goichi Uno, Isao Ikuma, Toshihiro Shizuku, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DKT for abdominal bloating in patients with chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DKT for the treatment of abdominal bloating. METHODS: After discontinuing as-needed use of laxatives, 10 patients received oral DKT for 14 days (15 g/d). To evaluate small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO), a glucose breath test was performed before and after treatment with DKT...
December 2015: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Mark Pimentel
The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges...
March 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ali Rezaie, Mark Pimentel, Satish S Rao
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by an excessive amount of bacteria in the small intestine and a constellation of symptoms that include bloating, pain, gas, and diarrhea. Although known for many decades, there is a lack of consensus and clarity regarding the natural history and methods for its diagnosis. Several tests have been proposed, including the glucose breath test, lactulose breath test, small intestinal aspiration and culture, and others. However, there is a lack of standardization of these tests and their interpretation...
February 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Viviana Gerardi, Antonio Gasbarrini
A huge number of bacteria are hosted in the gastrointestinal tract, following a gradient increasing towards the colon. Gastric acid secretion and intestinal clearance provide the qualitative and quantitative partitioning of intestinal bacteria; small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when these barrier mechanisms fail. Diagnosis of SIBO is challenging due to the low specificity of symptoms, the frequent association with other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the absence of optimal objective diagnostic tests...
2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Vishal C Patel, Helen White, Sidsel Støy, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Debbie L Shawcross
A clinical science workshop was held at the ISHEN meeting in London on Friday 11th September 2014 with the aim of thrashing out how we might translate what we know about the central role of the gut-liver-brain axis into targets which we can use in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarises the integral role that inter-organ ammonia metabolism plays in the pathogenesis of HE with specific discussion of the roles that the small and large intestine, liver, brain, kidney and muscle assume in ammonia and glutamine metabolism...
October 8, 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
Wei Ling Lau, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic inflammation is a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In recent years, the gastrointestinal tract has emerged as a major instigator of systemic inflammation in CKD. Postmortem studies previously discovered gut wall inflammation throughout the digestive tract in chronic dialysis patients. In CKD animals, colon wall inflammation is associated with breakdown of the epithelial tight junction barrier ('leaky gut') and translocation of bacterial DNA and endotoxin into the bloodstream...
2015: Nephron
Katarzyna Siniewicz-Luzeńczyk, Agnieszka Bik-Gawin, Krzysztof Zeman, Leokadia Bąk-Romaniszyn
INTRODUCTION: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) is defined as an increased number of nonpathogenic bacteria over 10(5) organisms in 1 millilitre of small intestine content. The most common predisposing factors include, among others, gut motility disorders and chronic use of proton pump inhibitors. The results of recent studies indicate the importance of SIBO in gastrointestinal diseases. AIM: To assess the prevalence of SIBO in children with abdominal pain...
2015: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
N A Fadeeva, I N Ruchkina, A I Parfenov, P L Shcherbakov
AIM: To establish the rate of lactase deficiency (LD) in patients with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), to define a role of enteric bacteria in the pathogenesis of hypolactasia, and to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic therapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Examinations were made in 386 patients with PI-IBS, including 112 (79.4%) women; mean age 33.9 ± 9.1 years; disease duration 2.6 ± 1.4 years. Rapid tests of small intestinal mucosa (SIM) biopsy specimens obtained from the duodenal retrobulbar segment were used to diagnose LD...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Angelika Miazga, Maciej Osiński, Wojciech Cichy, Ryszard Żaba
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance caused by an excessive amount of bacteria in the upper alimentary tract. Physiological microbiota are replaced by pathogenic bacteria mainly from large intestine, which is called dysbacteriosis. SIBO disturbs digestion and absorption in the alimentary tract, which seems to cause inflammation. SIBO affects the morphology and function of the digestive system and causes systemic complications (e.g. osteoporosis, macrocytic anemia)...
March 2015: Advances in Medical Sciences
Harald Brüssow
Antibiotics have been proposed as supplements in re-feeding programmes for malnourished children. A review of paediatric literature showed that growth promotion by antibiotics, when it was observed, was mostly mediated by its anti-infective properties. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal rearing, the available evidence again points to the suppression of infections as the underlying mechanism. Under controlled hygienic conditions, growth promotion was frequently not observed...
July 2015: Environmental Microbiology
Ji Min Lee, Kang-Moon Lee, Yoon Yung Chung, Yang Woon Lee, Dae Bum Kim, Hea Jung Sung, Woo Chul Chung, Chang-Nyol Paik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which has recently been diagnosed with the glucose breath test is characterized by excessive colonic bacteria in the small bowel, and results in gastrointestinal symptoms that mimic symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to estimate the positivity of the glucose breath test and investigate its clinical role in inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Patients aged > 18 years with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled...
June 2015: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jeffrey R Donowitz, William A Petri
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted gastrointestinal (GI) motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions who do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease...
January 2015: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Silvia M Ferolla, Geyza N A Armiliato, Cláudia A Couto, Teresa C A Ferrari
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is a progressive disorder involving a spectrum of conditions that include pure steatosis without inflammation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. The key factor in the pathophysiology of NAFLD is insulin resistance that determines lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes, which may be followed by lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species and consequent inflammation. Recent studies suggest that the characteristics of the gut microbiota are altered in NAFLD, and also, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) contributes to the pathogenesis of this condition...
December 2014: Nutrients
Hirofumi Okubo, Yusuke Nakatsu, Hideyuki Sakoda, Akifumi Kushiyama, Midori Fujishiro, Toshiaki Fukushima, Yasuka Matsunaga, Haruya Ohno, Masayasu Yoneda, Hideaki Kamata, Takanori Shinjo, Misaki Iwashita, Fusanori Nishimura, Tomoichiro Asano
Several lines of evidence have suggested a role of gut microbiota in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH subjects reportedly showed a prolonged orocecal transit time coexistent with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. We considered the possibility that enhanced gastrointestinal motility would influence gut microbiota and thus investigated the effects of the gastroprokinetic agent mosapride citrate (MC) on gut microbiota and the development of NASH using a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-fed rodent model...
January 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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