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Small Intestine Bacteria Overgrowth

Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Abigail R Cannon, Omair M Khan, Robin C Gagnon, Nellie V Movtchan, Ilse van Langeveld, Xiaoling Li, Bin Gao, Mashkoor A Choudhry
Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established...
May 11, 2017: Shock
Marianna Signoretti, Roberta Roggiolani, Caterina Stornello, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
Changes in diet, lifestyle and exposition to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiome in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly recognized. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Uday C Ghoshal, Ujjala Ghoshal
Gut microbiota is the largest organ of the human body. Although growth of bacteria more than 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter in culture of upper gut aspirate is used to diagnosis small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), 10(3) CFU or more is being considered to suggest the diagnosis, particularly if colonic type bacteria are present in the upper gut. Although neither very sensitive nor specific, hydrogen breath tests are widely used to diagnose SIBO. Rifaximin is the best treatment for SIBO due to its broad spectrum, lack of systemic absorption, and safety profile...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
James S Pearson, Peter J Whorwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial dysbiosis is receiving increasing attention as possibly being important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. This review will summarize the most recent literature addressing attempts to explore and target the microbiome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome is receiving increasing attention. Traditionally, dietary manipulation has been utilized...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
L Gatta, C Scarpignato
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a heterogeneous syndrome, characterised by an increased number and/or abnormal type of bacteria in the small bowel. Over the past decades, rifaximin has gained popularity for this indication despite its use is not evidence based. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise evidence about the efficacy and safety of rifaximin to eradicate SIBO in adult patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCRCT, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from inception to March 16, 2015 for RCTs and observational studies...
March 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kristen Cares, Namir Al-Ansari, Suhasini Macha, Najeeb Zoubi, Hazim Zaghloul, Ron Thomas, Patricia Lalinsky, Mohammad El-Baba
BACKGROUND: Some theorize that prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Chronic acid suppression and resultant hypochlorhydria may lead to an altered intraluminal environment, which, in turn, may promote the growth of bacteria in the small intestine. A handful of studies measured the risk of SIBO in adults taking PPIs and obtained mixed results; however, this risk has not been exclusively measured in children...
April 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Pablo A Souto, Ariel R Marcotegui, Lisandro Orbea, Juan Skerl, Juan Carlos Perazzo
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that commonly complicates the course of patients with liver disease. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized hundreds of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of HE and is estimated to affect more that 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by cognitive impairment predominantly attention, reactiveness and integrative function with very subtle clinical manifestations...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hongjun Zhao, Lijuan Zhao, Wei Shi, Hui Luo, Liping Duan, Yunhui You, Yisha Li, Xiaoxia Zuo
INTRODUCTION: Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome is rare systemic diseases characterized by a prodrome of fever, chills, and influenza-like symptoms with subsequent skin eruptions, myalgias, and polyarthralgias. It is reported to be occurred in Intestinal bypass surgery and inflammatory bowel disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: Herein, we described a 29-years-old man with Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. He had no history of gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory bowel disease...
2016: SpringerPlus
Richard S Hoehn, Aaron P Seitz, Peter L Jernigan, Erich Gulbins, Michael J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Ceramide is a mediator of apoptosis and has been implicated as increasing bacterial infection susceptibility. The metabolite of ceramide, sphingosine, was recently shown to play an important role in the cell-autonomous, innate immune response of the upper respiratory tract by killing bacterial pathogens. The role of ceramide and/or sphingosine after mesenteric I/R is unknown...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rani H Shayto, Rachel Abou Mrad, Ala I Sharara
Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yanli Ning, Cen Lou, Zhongke Huang, Dongfang Chen, Huacheng Huang, Liang Chen, Bucheng Zhang, Ning Dai, Jianmin Zhao, Xia Zhen
OBJECTIVE: Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be a pathogenetic factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This syndrome cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and has no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or biomarkers. We studied quantitatively and semi-quantitatively, using lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT), small intestinal transit time (SITT) (99m)technetium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) in order to examine the mobility of small intestine as an indication of bacterial overgrowth in patients...
May 2016: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Andrea Fialho, Andre Fialho, Prashanthi Thota, Arthur J McCullough, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Changes in gut bacteria play a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hepatic steatosis. There is a lack of studies evaluating the frequency and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients tested for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). AIM: To evaluate the frequency of NAFLD and associated risk factors in patients tested for SIBO. METHODS: In this case-control study, 372 eligible patients submitted to glucose hydrogen/methane breath test for SIBO who also had an abdominal imaging study were included...
June 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Gourab Dutta Banik, Anulekha De, Suman Som, Subhra Jana, Sunil B Daschakraborty, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
There is a pressing need to develop a novel early-detection strategy for the precise evolution of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The current method based on a hydrogen breath test (HBT) for the detection of SIBO is highly controversial. HBT has many limitations and drawbacks. It often fails to indentify SIBO when IBS individuals have 'non-hydrogen-producing' colonic bacteria. Here, we show that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in exhaled breath is distinctly altered for diarrhea-predominant IBS individuals with positive and negative SIBO by the activity of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Mika Yuki, Yoshinori Komazawa, Yoshiya Kobayashi, Maho Kusunoki, Yoshiko Takahashi, Sayaka Nakashima, Goichi Uno, Isao Ikuma, Toshihiro Shizuku, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DKT for abdominal bloating in patients with chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DKT for the treatment of abdominal bloating. METHODS: After discontinuing as-needed use of laxatives, 10 patients received oral DKT for 14 days (15 g/d). To evaluate small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO), a glucose breath test was performed before and after treatment with DKT...
December 2015: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Mark Pimentel
The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges...
March 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ali Rezaie, Mark Pimentel, Satish S Rao
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by an excessive amount of bacteria in the small intestine and a constellation of symptoms that include bloating, pain, gas, and diarrhea. Although known for many decades, there is a lack of consensus and clarity regarding the natural history and methods for its diagnosis. Several tests have been proposed, including the glucose breath test, lactulose breath test, small intestinal aspiration and culture, and others. However, there is a lack of standardization of these tests and their interpretation...
February 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Viviana Gerardi, Antonio Gasbarrini
A huge number of bacteria are hosted in the gastrointestinal tract, following a gradient increasing towards the colon. Gastric acid secretion and intestinal clearance provide the qualitative and quantitative partitioning of intestinal bacteria; small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when these barrier mechanisms fail. Diagnosis of SIBO is challenging due to the low specificity of symptoms, the frequent association with other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the absence of optimal objective diagnostic tests...
2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Vishal C Patel, Helen White, Sidsel Støy, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Debbie L Shawcross
A clinical science workshop was held at the ISHEN meeting in London on Friday 11th September 2014 with the aim of thrashing out how we might translate what we know about the central role of the gut-liver-brain axis into targets which we can use in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarises the integral role that inter-organ ammonia metabolism plays in the pathogenesis of HE with specific discussion of the roles that the small and large intestine, liver, brain, kidney and muscle assume in ammonia and glutamine metabolism...
December 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Wei Ling Lau, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic inflammation is a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In recent years, the gastrointestinal tract has emerged as a major instigator of systemic inflammation in CKD. Postmortem studies previously discovered gut wall inflammation throughout the digestive tract in chronic dialysis patients. In CKD animals, colon wall inflammation is associated with breakdown of the epithelial tight junction barrier ('leaky gut') and translocation of bacterial DNA and endotoxin into the bloodstream...
2015: Nephron
Katarzyna Siniewicz-Luzeńczyk, Agnieszka Bik-Gawin, Krzysztof Zeman, Leokadia Bąk-Romaniszyn
INTRODUCTION: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) is defined as an increased number of nonpathogenic bacteria over 10(5) organisms in 1 millilitre of small intestine content. The most common predisposing factors include, among others, gut motility disorders and chronic use of proton pump inhibitors. The results of recent studies indicate the importance of SIBO in gastrointestinal diseases. AIM: To assess the prevalence of SIBO in children with abdominal pain...
2015: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
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