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Neurotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#1
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334644/low-level-inorganic-arsenic-exposure-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-american-indian-elders
#2
Clint R Carroll, Carolyn Noonan, Eva M Garroutte, Ana Navas-Acien, Steven P Verney, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic at high and prolonged doses is highly neurotoxic. Few studies have evaluated whether long-term, low-level arsenic exposure is associated with neuropsychological functioning in adults. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between long-term, low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning among American Indians aged 64-95. METHODS: We assessed 928 participants in the Strong Heart Study by using data on arsenic species in urine samples collected at baseline (1989-1991) and results of standardized tests of global cognition, executive functioning, verbal learning and memory, fine motor functioning, and speed of mental processing administered during comprehensive follow-up evaluations in 2009-2013...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333983/alterations-in-amino-acid-status-in-cats-with-feline-dysautonomia
#3
Bruce C McGorum, Herb W Symonds, Clare Knottenbelt, Tom A Cave, Susan J MacDonald, Joanna Stratton, Irene Leon, Judith A Turner, R Scott Pirie
Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333868/proteasome-inhibitor-induced-gastrointestinal-toxicity
#4
Romany L Stansborough, Rachel J Gibson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal toxicities are commonly reported following treatment with proteasome inhibitors. The first-generation proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, induces significant gastrointestinal side effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and constipation, occurring in up to 84% of patients. Despite the development of safer proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib, gastrointestinal toxicities remain some of the most common side effects. This review aims to summarize the previous literature on proteasome inhibitor-induced gastrointestinal toxicities, report on recent updates in the field, and investigate possible mechanisms of this toxicity...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332229/type-i-interferons-in-parkinson-s-disease-innate-inflammatory-response-drives-fate-of-neurons-in-model-of-degenerative-brain-disorder-an-editorial-comment-on-type-i-interferons-mediate-the-neuroinflammatory-response-and-neurotoxicity-induced-by-rotenone
#5
EDITORIAL
Katja M Kanninen, Anthony R White
Read the commented article 'Type-I interferons mediate the neuroinflammatory response and neurotoxicity induced by rotenone' on page 75.
April 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332150/dynamic-nature-of-presenilin1-%C3%AE-secretase-implication-for-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Katarzyna Marta Zoltowska, Oksana Berezovska
Presenilin 1 (PS1) is a catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for the intramembraneous cleavage of more than 90 type I transmembrane proteins, including Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related amyloid precursor protein (APP). The γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the APP C-terminal membrane stub leads to the production of various amyloid β (Aβ) species. The assembly of Aβ into neurotoxic oligomers, which causes synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration, is influenced by the relative ratio of the longer (Aβ42/43) to shorter Aβ (Aβ40) peptides...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332138/benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-causes-genotoxic-and-biochemical-changes-in-the-midge-larvae-of-chironomus-sancticaroli-strixino-strixino-diptera-chironomidae
#7
M Vicentini, G S Morais, D Rebechi-Baggio, V S Richardi, G S Santos, M M Cestari, M A Navarro-Silva
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, also found in nature due to human activities. BaP adheres to sediments showing toxic effects on benthic organisms, including midge larvae of the family Chironomidae. We tested for toxic effects of benzo(a)pyrene on Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino 1981 using biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers, to identify changes in metabolic and antioxidant pathways, besides neurotoxic and DNA damage. Enzyme activity was compared by exposing larvae to four nominal concentrations (0...
March 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331313/involvement-of-pink1-parkin-mediated-mitophagy-in-zno-nanoparticle-induced-toxicity-in-bv-2-cells
#8
Limin Wei, Jianfeng Wang, Aijie Chen, Jia Liu, Xiaoli Feng, Longquan Shao
With the increasing application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in biological materials, the neurotoxicity caused by these particles has raised serious concerns. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the toxic effect of ZnO NPs on brain cells remain unclear. Mitochondrial damage has been reported to be a factor in the toxicity of ZnO NPs. PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy is a newly emerging additional function of autophagy that selectively degrades impaired mitochondria. Here, a PINK1 gene knockdown BV-2 cell model was established to determine whether PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy was involved in ZnO NP-induced toxicity in BV-2 cells...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330770/dj-1-a-parkinson-s-disease-related-protein-aggregates-under-denaturing-conditions-and-co-aggregates-with-%C3%AE-synuclein-through-hydrophobic-interaction
#9
Min Zhu, Shivaliben H Patel, Shubo Han
BACKGROUND: DJ-1, a small ubiquitously expressed protein implicated in several pathways associated with Parkinson's disease pathogenesis, has been found to interact with α-synuclein and modulate its aggregation, yet the exact mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: The stability and aggregation properties of wild-type DJ-1 under denaturing conditions, such as low pH, high temperature, presence of denaturants were investigated. The interaction between DJ-1 and α-synuclein was tested by SDS-PAGE gel and native gel electrophoresis and by size-exclusion HPLC...
March 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330719/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-inhibits-jnk-activation-to-reverse-alzheimer-disease
#10
Zhiwen Yao, Wenhao Yang, Zhiqiang Gao, Peng Jia
Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been accepted as major neurotoxic agents in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been shown that the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is related with the decline of Aβ toxicity in AD. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the important precursor of NAD+, is produced during the reaction of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt). This study aimed to figure out the potential therapeutic effects of NMN and its underlying mechanisms in APPswe/PS1dE9 (AD-Tg) mice...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327516/an-extract-from-shrimp-processing-by-products-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-from-neurotoxicity-induced-by-a%C3%AE-25-35
#11
Yongping Zhang, Guangling Jiao, Cai Song, Shelly Gu, Richard E Brown, Junzeng Zhang, Pingcheng Zhang, Jacques Gagnon, Steven Locke, Roumiana Stefanova, Claude Pelletier, Yi Zhang, Hongyu Lu
Increased evidence suggests that marine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) can protect neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) assays showed that the acetone extract 4-2A obtained from shrimp Pandalus borealis industry processing wastes contained 67.19% monounsaturated FAs and 16.84% polyunsaturated FAs. The present study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-2A in Aβ25-35-insulted differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
March 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327181/soluble-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-induces-calcium-dyshomeostasis-that-precedes-synapse-loss-in-the-living-mouse-brain
#12
Michal Arbel-Ornath, Eloise Hudry, Josiah R Boivin, Tadafumi Hashimoto, Shuko Takeda, Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Steven Hou, Carli R Lattarulo, Arianna M Belcher, Naomi Shakerdge, Pariss B Trujillo, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Bradley T Hyman, Brian J Bacskai
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β oligomers (oAβ) are thought to mediate neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies in AD transgenic mice suggest that calcium dysregulation may contribute to these pathological effects. Even though AD mouse models remain a valuable resource to investigate amyloid neurotoxicity, the concomitant presence of soluble Aβ species, fibrillar Aβ, and fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) complicate the interpretation of the phenotypes. METHOD: To explore the specific contribution of soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) to calcium dyshomeostasis and synaptic morphological changes, we acutely exposed the healthy mouse brain, at 3 to 6 months of age, to naturally occurring soluble oligomers and investigated their effect on calcium levels using in vivo multiphoton imaging...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326551/cyclic-imine-toxins-from-dinoflagellates-a-growing-family-of-potent-antagonists-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Jordi Molgó, Pascale Marchot, Rómulo Aráoz, Evelyne Benoit, Bogdan I Iorga, Armen Zakarian, Palmer Taylor, Yves Bourne, Denis Servent
We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326463/relationship-between-selenium-lead-and-mercury-in-red-blood-cells-of-saudi-autistic-children
#14
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny, Hussain Al Dera
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Environmental contribution to ASD is due in large part to the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) as toxic heavy metals or due to a poor detoxification ability as the phenotype of this disorder. Selenium (Se) as an antioxidant element that counteracts the neurotoxicity of Hg, and Pb, presumably through the formation of nontoxic complexes...
March 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325913/persistent-dna-methylation-changes-associated-with-prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-cognitive-performance-during-childhood
#15
Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Golareh Agha, Marie-France Hivert, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo, Xihong Lin, Chitra J Amarasiriwardena, Emily Oken, Matthew W Gillman, Andrea A Baccarelli
Prenatal exposure to mercury, a known neurotoxic metal, is associated with lower cognitive performance during childhood. Disruption of fetal epigenetic programming could explain mercury's neurodevelopmental effects. We screened for epigenome-wide methylation differences associated with maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in 321 cord blood DNA samples and examined the persistence of these alterations during early (n = 75; 2.9-4.9 years) and mid-childhood (n = 291; 6.7-10.5 years). Among males, prenatal mercury levels were associated with lower regional cord blood DNA methylation at the Paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) that persisted in early childhood and was attenuated in mid-childhood blood...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323108/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-significantly-decreases-microglia-activation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus
#16
Steven A Lloyd, Beau Corkill, Matthew C Bruster, Rick L Roberts, Ryan A Shanks
Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323007/intrathecal-application-of-the-microglial-inhibitor-minocycline-attenuates-sympathoexcitatory-and-proarrhythmogenic-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Amol M Bhandare, Komal Kapoor, Kim L Powell, Emma Braine, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Terence J O'Brien, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
The incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is highest in people with chronic and drug resistant epilepsy. Chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures cause cardiorespiratory autonomic dysfunctions. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective, whereas microglia produce both pro- and anti- inflammatory effects in the CNS. During acute seizures in rats, PACAP and microglia produce sympathoprotective effect at the intermediolateral cell column (IML), whereas their action on the presympathetic rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons mediates proarrhythmogenic changes...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322979/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-ecstasy-produces-edema-due-to-bbb-disruption-induced-by-mmp-9-activation-in-rat-hippocampus
#18
Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María Encarnación Fernández-Valle, Ana Rubio-Araiz, Rebeca Vidal, María Dolores Gutiérrez-López, Esther O'Shea, María Isabel Colado
The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X7 receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on in vivo edema development associated with changes in the expression of the perivascular astrocytic water channel, AQP4, as well as in the expression of the tight-junction (TJ) protein, claudin-5 and Evans Blue dye extravasation in the hippocampus of adult male Dark Agouti rats...
March 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322794/involvement-of-vimentin-in-neurite-outgrowth-damage-induced-by-fipronil-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#19
Theetat Ruangjaroon, Daranee Chokchaichamnankit, Chantragan Srisomsap, Jisnuson Svasti, N Monique Paricharttanakul
Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is more selective in its potency towards insects than humans and is thus commonly used. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to fipronil may pose a human health risk. We observed in vitro the shortening of neurite outgrowths of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upon treatment with fipronil, even at a non-cytotoxic concentration. Fipronil induced apoptosis involving caspase-6, which is an apoptotic effector highly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, at a concentration that did not induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic vacuole formation were detected...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322126/prenatal-exposure-to-nanosized-zinc-oxide-in-rats-neurotoxicity-and-postnatal-impaired-learning-and-memory-ability
#20
Feng Xiaoli, Wu Junrong, Lai Xuan, Zhang Yanli, Wei Limin, Liu Jia, Shao Longquan
AIM: To examine the neurotoxicity of prenatal exposure to ZnO nanoparticles on rat offspring. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by gavage. Toxicity was assessed including zinc biodistribution, cerebral histopathology, antioxidant status and learning and memory capability. RESULTS: A significantly elevated concentration of zinc was detected in offspring brains. Transmission electron microscope observations showed abnormal neuron ultrastructures...
March 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
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