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Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Vina Tresa, Afshan Yaseen, Ali Asghar Lanewala, Seema Hashmi, Sabeeta Khatri, Irshad Ali, Muhammed Mubarak
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence rates and etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) are quite variable in different regions of the world. The current study was planned to determine the etiology, clinical profile, and short-term outcome of pediatric AKI at our hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was carried out from April 2014 to March 2015. All pediatric patients (1 month to ≤15 years) diagnosed as AKI using modified pRIFLE criteria were studied and followed for 3 months to document short-term outcome...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Pierpaolo Ferrante, Alessandra Binazzi, Claudia Branchi, Alessandro Marinaccio
: INTRODUZIONE: sebbene la relazione causale tra esposizione ad amianto e malattie neoplastiche sia ben nota, in molti Paesi il consumo del materiale è ancora rilevante e crescente. A causa della lunga latenza, nei Paesi dove è stato bandito (come in Italia) è oggi in corso un'epidemia di malattie correlate ad amianto. OBIETTIVI: descrivere i sistemi di sorveglianza dei mesoteliomi attivi nel mondo mediante un'analisi comparativa. METODI: è stata condotta una revisione bibliografica della letteratura disponibile sui sistemi di sorveglianza epidemiologica dei mesoteliomi attivi nel mondo, comparando metodi e risultati disponibili...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Zhiming Chen, Chen Zhu, Curtis J Kuo, Jaclyn Robustelli, Tobias Baumgart
N-BAR proteins such as endophilin are thought to bend lipid membranes via scaffolding (the molding of membranes through the crescent protein shape) and membrane insertion (also called wedging) of amphipathic helices. However, the contributions from these distinct mechanisms to membrane curvature generation and sensing have remained controversial. Here we quantitatively demonstrate that the amphipathic N-terminal H0 helix of endophilin is important for recruiting this protein to the membrane, but does not contribute significantly to its intrinsic membrane curvature generation capacity...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Zhi Liu, Yu-Dan Wei, Yue Hou, Ying Xu, Xiu-Jiang Li, Yu-Jun Du
We aimed to investigate the differences in renal histopathological changes and laboratory parameters between adult and pediatric patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), and to analyze the correlation between laboratory parameters and renal histopathological grading. A total of 139 patients diagnosed with HSPN between September 2010 and December 2014 at the First Hospital of Jilin University, China, were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical and pathological characteristics were examined and compared between the adult and the pediatric patients...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Cristiane C Denardin, Leo A M Martins, Mariana M Parisi, Moema Queiroz Vieira, Silvia R Terra, Florencia M Barbé-Tuana, Radovan Borojevic, Márcia Vizzotto, Tatiana Emanuelli, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling...
October 15, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Alexander Staruschenko
Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a well-known family of transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). To date, four PARs have been identified and PAR1 and PAR2 are the most abundant receptors, which were shown to be expressed in the kidney vascular and tubular cells. PAR signaling is mediated by an N-terminus tethered ligands that can be unmasked by serine protease cleavage. PARs are activated by endogenous serine proteases, such as thrombin (acts on PARs 1, 3 and 4) and trypsin (PAR2). PARs can be involved in glomerular, microvascular and inflammatory regulation of renal function in both normal and pathological conditions...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Eric Piver, Audrey Boyer, Julien Gaillard, Anne Bull, Elodie Beaumont, Philippe Roingeard, Jean-Christophe Meunier
OBJECTIVE: HCV particles are associated with very low-density lipoprotein components in chronically infected patients. These hybrid particles, or 'lipo-viro particles' (LVPs), are rich in triglycerides, and contain the viral RNA, the capsid protein, E1E2 envelope glycoproteins and apolipoproteins B and E. However, their specific ultrastructural organisation has yet to be determined. We developed a strategy for the preparation of any viral sample that preserves the native structure of the LVPs, facilitating their precise morphological characterisation...
October 11, 2016: Gut
Richard Cv Tyser, Antonio Ma Miranda, Chiann-Mun Chen, Sean M Davidson, Shankar Srinivas, Paul R Riley
The mammalian heartbeat is thought to begin just prior to the linear heart tube stage of development. How the initial contractions are established and the downstream consequences of the earliest contractile function on cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis have not been described. Using high-resolution live imaging of mouse embryos, we observed randomly distributed spontaneous asynchronous Ca(2+)-oscillations (SACOs) in the forming cardiac crescent (stage E7.75) prior to overt beating. Nascent contraction initiated at around E8...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Juan Wang, Guizhi Shen, Kai Ma, Tifeng Jiao, Kai Liu, Xuehai Yan
Concave nanospheres based on the self-assembly of simple dipeptides not only provide alternatives for modeling the interactions between biomacromolecules, but also present a range of applications for purification and separation, and delivery of active species. The kinetic control of the peptide assembly provides a unique opportunity to build functional and dynamic nanomaterials, such as concave nanospheres. In this work, we report dipeptide-based concave nanospheres with structures from crescent-like to solid interior by interfacially controlled self-assembly in combination with covalent formation of building blocks, driven by synergistic thermodynamic and kinetic control...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Marc Napoleone, Ania Z Kielar, Rebecca Hibbert, Sameh Saif, Benjamin Y M Kwan
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate patterns of local tumor progression (LTP) after radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) and to highlight the percentage of LTP not attributable to lesion size or RF ablation procedure-related factors (heat sink or insufficient ablation margin). METHODS: CRCLM treated by RF ablation at a single tertiary care center from 2004-2012, with a minimum of six months of post-procedure follow-up, were included in this retrospective study...
October 3, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Roozbehan Khaefi, Hamid Reza Esmaeili, Golnaz Sayyadzadeh, Matthias F Geiger, Jörg Freyhof
Squalius namak, new species, from the endorheic Lake Namak and Kavir basins in Iran, is distinguished from the species of the genus Squalius in the Persian Gulf and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a wide and thick symphysial knob on the lower jaw, a convex posterior anal-fin margin, a bold, dark-grey or brown, roundish or crescent-shaped blotch at the posterior tip of each flank scale and orange caudal-, anal- and pelvic-fin rays in life. Squalius namak is also characterized by four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region...
September 19, 2016: Zootaxa
Yegyu Sung, Jung Sun Cho, Ho-Joong Youn
Multi-imaging modalities should be considered in patients with atrial septal defects (ASDs) in which the degree of right ventricular enlargement is not fully explained by the small size of ASD found on conventional transthoracic echocardiography. We report a case of crescent-shaped superior sinus venosus ASD discriminated using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. MDCT confirmed its relationship with the superior vena cava and the absence of combined anomalies, such as the pulmonary venous return anomaly...
October 4, 2016: Echocardiography
Adam C Pritchard, Alan H Turner, Randall B Irmis, Sterling J Nesbitt, Nathan D Smith
The tetrapod forelimb is one of the most versatile structures in vertebrate evolution, having been co-opted for an enormous array of functions. However, the structural relationships between the bones of the forelimb have remained largely unchanged throughout the 375 million year history of Tetrapoda, with a radius and ulna made up of elongate, paralleling shafts contacting a series of shorter carpal bones. These features are consistent across nearly all known tetrapods, suggesting that the morphospace encompassed by these taxa is limited by some sort of constraint(s)...
September 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Hassib Chehade, Samuel Rotman, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, Vincent Aubert, Salima Sadallah, Loukia Sifaki, Rémi Salomon, Manuel Pascual
Activation of the complement cascade plays an important role in the pathogenesis of postinfectious glomerulonephritis. We report successful terminal complement pathway blockade using an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab) in an 8-year-old child with severe acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis requiring hemodialysis. The child presented with clinical, serologic, and histopathologic criteria for diffuse crescentic postinfectious glomerulonephritis. Complement measurements showed low C3 and C4 levels, with increased SC5b-9 titers...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Axel Vande Veegaete, Vere Borra, Emmy De Buck, Philippe Vandekerckhove
OBJECTIVES: To appraise the quality of guidelines developed by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) between 2001 and 2015. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: 2 authors independently assessed the quality of IFRC guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. Average domain scores were calculated and overall quality scores and recommendation for use were determined...
2016: BMJ Open
Turki Al Hussain, Hadeel Al Mana, Maged H Hussein, Mohammed Akhtar
The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy...
September 26, 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Abid Hussain, Ashwani Tandon, Aruna K Prayaga, Tara Roshni Paul, Anukonda M V R Narendra
OBJECTIVES: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon, benign histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology, typically presenting in young adulthood. We highlight the cytomorphology of RDD and correlate it with the histopathology. STUDY DESIGN: All cases diagnosed as RDD on fine-needle aspiration cytology between January 2001 and June 2015 were included. Clinical details were obtained from medical records. The cytology smears were reviewed along with the histopathology and immunohistochemistry, wherever available...
September 28, 2016: Acta Cytologica
Phi Doan, Demar R G Pitter, Andrea Kocher, James N Wilson, Theodore Goodson
The classical model for DNA groove binding states that groove binding molecules should adopt a crescent shape that closely matches the helical groove of DNA. Here, we present a new design strategy that does not obey this classical model. The DNA-binding mechanism of small organic molecules was investigated by synthesizing and examining a series of novel compounds that bind with DNA. This study has led to the emergence of structure-property relationships for DNA-binding molecules and/or drugs, which reveals that the structure can be designed to either intercalate or groove bind with calf thymus dsDNA by modifying the electron acceptor properties of the central heterocyclic core...
October 13, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Sónia Rocha, Luís Filipe Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Ricardo Severino, Carlos Azevedo, Maria João Santos, Graça Casal
The myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa diplodae Lubat et al. 1989 sensu Sitjà-Bobadilla & Álvarez-Pellitero, 1993, originally described from the annular seabream Diplodus annularis in the Adriatic Sea, has subsequently been reported from several other sparid hosts, and also a moronid fish, the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax from the Mediterranean Sea. Here, molecular identity and additional morphological data are given for this parasite infecting the gall bladder of D. labrax in a southern Portuguese fish farm...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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