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black soldier fly

D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Thomas Spranghers, Matteo Ottoboni, Cindy Klootwijk, Ann Ovyn, Stefaan Deboosere, Bruno De Meulenaer, Joris Michiels, Mia Eeckhout, Patrick De Clercq, Stefaan De Smet
BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. RESULTS: Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) among treatments...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ana Clariza Samayoa, Wei-Ting Chen, Shaw-Yhi Hwang
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28°C (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28°C (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
N A Ushakova, E S Brodskii, A A Kovalenko, A I Bastrakov, A A Kozlova, D S Pavlov
The lipid fraction of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was shown to contain lauric acid (38.43 wt %) and its esters, azelaic and sebacic acids, and azelaic acid dibutyl ester. The dominant compound in the group of identified glycerides was lauric acid monoglyceride (0.70 wt %). Glycerides were also represented by triglycerides and diglycerides of lauric acid. Sterols were represented primarily by phytosterols (over 75%), the major of which was alpha-sitosterol (45%). The identified lipid complex composition is apparently determined by the biological characteristics of the fly Hermetia illucens and ensures antibacterial defence of larvae and stability of lipids at changing ambient temperature...
May 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
M Cullere, G Tasoniero, V Giaccone, R Miotti-Scapin, E Claeys, S De Smet, A Dalle Zotte
In order to expand with validated scientific data the limited knowledge regarding the potential application of insects as innovative feed ingredients for poultry, the present study tested a partial substitution of soya bean meal and soya bean oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on growth performance, mortality, nutrients apparent digestibility, microbiological composition of excreta, feed choice, carcass and meat traits...
June 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Laura M Harnden, Jeffery K Tomberlin
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, is recognised for its use in a forensic context as a means for estimating the time of colonisation and potentially postmortem interval of decomposing remains. However, little data exist on this species outside of its use in waste management. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the development, and subsequent validation, of H. illucens. Larvae of H. illucens were reared at three temperatures (24.9°C, 27.6°C and 32.2°C) at 55% RH on beef loin muscle, pork loin muscle and a grain-based diet (control)...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Maria Luisa Dindo, Jonas Vandicke, Elisa Marchetti, Thomas Spranghers, Jochem Bonte, Patrick De Clercq
The effect of supplementing hemolymph of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), or the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville), to a basic insect-free artificial medium for the tachinid Exorista larvarum (L.) was investigated. The supplementation (20% w/w) was based on the assumption that insect additives may optimize the media for this parasitoid. Egg hatch, pupal and adult yields, and sex ratio did not differ among the enriched and basic media. Preimaginal development was faster on both hemolymph-enriched media than on the basic medium...
April 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Trinh T X Nguyen, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Sherah Vanlaerhoven
Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae...
April 2015: Environmental Entomology
Wu Li, Mingsun Li, Longyu Zheng, Yusheng Liu, Yanlin Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Zonghua Ma, Qing Li
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is known to be an abundant source of glucose and xylose for biofuels. Yeasts can convert glucose into bioethanol. However, bioconversion of xylose by yeasts is not very efficient, to say nothing of the presence of both glucose and xylose. Efficient utilization of xylose is one of the critical factors for reducing the cost of biofuel from lignocelluloses. However, few natural microorganisms preferentially convert xylose to ethanol. The simultaneous utilization of both glucose and xylose is the pivotal goal in the production of biofuels...
2015: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Wu Li, Qing Li, Longyu Zheng, Yuanyuan Wang, Jibin Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Yanlin Zhang
Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220...
October 2015: Bioresource Technology
Jack Y K Cheng, Irene M C Lo
Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Soon-Ik Park, Jong-Wan Kim, Sung Moon Yoe
In this study, we induced and purified a novel antimicrobial peptide exhibiting activity against Gram-positive bacteria from the immunized hemolymph of Hermetia illucens larvae. The immunized hemolymph was extracted, and the novel defensin-like peptide 4 (DLP4) was purified using solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase chromatography. The purified DLP4 demonstrated a molecular weight of 4267 Da, as determined using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) method. From analysis of DLP4 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing using Edman degradation, combined with MALDI-TOF and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR), the amino acid sequence of the mature peptide was determined to be ATCDLLSPFKVGHAACAAHCIARGKRGGWCDKRAVCNCRK...
September 2015: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Helena Čičková, G Larry Newton, R Curt Lacy, Milan Kozánek
The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter...
January 2015: Waste Management
Karine Brenda Barros-Cordeiro, Sônia Nair Báo, José Roberto Pujol-Luz
The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6(th) instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the prepupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first six hours, extroversion of the head and thoracic appendages took place between the ninth and 21(st) hours, and the pharate appeared 21 hours after completing pupation...
2014: Journal of Insect Science
Chang-Muk Lee, Young-Seok Lee, So-Hyeon Seo, Sang-Hong Yoon, Soo-Jin Kim, Bum-Soo Hahn, Joon-Soo Sim, Bon-Sung Koo
A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed using genomic DNA isolated from the gut microflora of Hermetia illucens, a black soldier fly. A cellulase-positive clone, with the CS10 gene, was identified by extensive Congo-red overlay screenings for cellulase activity from the fosmid library of 92,000 clones. The CS10 gene was composed of a 996 bp DNA sequence encoding the mature protein of 331 amino acids. The deduced amino acids of CS10 showed 72% sequence identity with the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 gene of Dysgonomonas mossii, displaying no significant sequence homology to already known cellulases...
September 2014: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fen Zhou, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Longyu Zheng, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions...
November 2013: Journal of Medical Entomology
S W Bradley, D C Sheppard
Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition...
June 1984: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ian J Banks, Walter T Gibson, Mary M Cameron
OBJECTIVES: To determine the capacity of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) to convert fresh human faeces into larval biomass under different feeding regimes, and to determine how effective BSFL are as a means of human faecal waste management. METHODS: Black soldier fly larvae were fed fresh human faeces. The frequency of feeding, number of larvae and feeding ratio were altered to determine their effects on larval growth, prepupal weight, waste reduction, bioconversion and feed conversion rate (FCR)...
January 2014: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Jae Kook Lee, Youn Yeop Lee, Kwan Ho Park, Jeonggu Sim, Youngcheol Choi, Sung-Jae Lee
A novel, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL006(T) was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens, Black soldier fly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006(T) showed 96.4 % similarity to that of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica S5(T). Strain KBL006(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were positive. The major fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c, C14:0, and C16:0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8)...
January 2014: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Longyu Zheng, Tawni L Crippen, Leslie Holmes, Baneshwar Singh, Meaghan L Pimsler, M Eric Benbow, Aaron M Tarone, Scot Dowd, Ziniu Yu, Sherah L Vanlaerhoven, Thomas K Wood, Jeffery K Tomberlin
There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics...
2013: Scientific Reports
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