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black soldier fly

M Pezzi, M Leis, M Chicca, P Falabella, R Salvia, A Scala, D Whitmore
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is a relevant species in waste and pest management, but is also of forensic and medical importance. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the antennae of both sexes of H. illucens is presented here for the first time. The antenna is composed of three regions: the scape, the pedicel, and the flagellum. The first two regions are single segments, whereas the third region, the longest one, is composed of eight flagellomeres...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kashif Ur Rehman, Minmin Cai, Xiaopeng Xiao, Longyu Zheng, Hui Wang, Abdul Aziz Soomro, Yusha Zhou, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
World trends toward the modern dairies intensification on large production units cause massive animal manure production and accumulation. Improper handling of manure produced by industrial farm operation greatly deteriorates the major environmental media including air, water and soil. The black soldier fly utilizes organic waste and converts it into larvae biomass to be used as livestock feed and into residues to be used as bio-fertilizer. However, due to the high ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in dairy manure, this conversion is difficult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Benedict Purschke, Rafaela Scheibelberger, Sonja Axmann, Andreas Adler, Henry Jäger
Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, Hermetia illucens L...
February 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Qiao Gao, Xiaoyun Wang, Wanqiang Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is a good candidate for waste management. The harvested insects are rich in protein and have the potential to be used in animal feed. However, people are wary about heavy metals in waste. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how the uptake of heavy metals could affect H. illucens and where and to what extent metals are accumulated by the black soldier fly. Based on these considerations, developmental parameters were investigated in the different life stages of H. illucens fed an increasing concentration gradient of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr); additionally, Cd and Cr distribution in the body parts of H...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sara Bußler, Birgit A Rumpold, Elisabeth Jander, Harshadrai M Rawel, Oliver K Schlüter
Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor) and 8.8% (H. illucens) and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively...
December 2016: Heliyon
Ana Clariza Samayoa, Wei-Ting Chen, Shaw-Yhi Hwang
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d...
December 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
H J van der Fels-Klerx, L Camenzuli, M K van der Lee, D G A B Oonincx
Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed...
2016: PloS One
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Thomas Spranghers, Matteo Ottoboni, Cindy Klootwijk, Anneke Ovyn, Stefaan Deboosere, Bruno De Meulenaer, Joris Michiels, Mia Eeckhout, Patrick De Clercq, Stefaan De Smet
BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. RESULTS: Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) among treatments...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ana Clariza Samayoa, Wei-Ting Chen, Shaw-Yhi Hwang
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28°C (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28°C (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
N A Ushakova, E S Brodskii, A A Kovalenko, A I Bastrakov, A A Kozlova, D S Pavlov
The lipid fraction of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was shown to contain lauric acid (38.43 wt %) and its esters, azelaic and sebacic acids, and azelaic acid dibutyl ester. The dominant compound in the group of identified glycerides was lauric acid monoglyceride (0.70 wt %). Glycerides were also represented by triglycerides and diglycerides of lauric acid. Sterols were represented primarily by phytosterols (over 75%), the major of which was alpha-sitosterol (45%). The identified lipid complex composition is apparently determined by the biological characteristics of the fly Hermetia illucens and ensures antibacterial defence of larvae and stability of lipids at changing ambient temperature...
May 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
M Cullere, G Tasoniero, V Giaccone, R Miotti-Scapin, E Claeys, S De Smet, A Dalle Zotte
In order to expand with validated scientific data the limited knowledge regarding the potential application of insects as innovative feed ingredients for poultry, the present study tested a partial substitution of soya bean meal and soya bean oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on growth performance, mortality, nutrients apparent digestibility, microbiological composition of excreta, feed choice, carcass and meat traits...
December 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Laura M Harnden, Jeffery K Tomberlin
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, is recognised for its use in a forensic context as a means for estimating the time of colonisation and potentially postmortem interval of decomposing remains. However, little data exist on this species outside of its use in waste management. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the development, and subsequent validation, of H. illucens. Larvae of H. illucens were reared at three temperatures (24.9°C, 27.6°C and 32.2°C) at 55% RH on beef loin muscle, pork loin muscle and a grain-based diet (control)...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Maria Luisa Dindo, Jonas Vandicke, Elisa Marchetti, Thomas Spranghers, Jochem Bonte, Patrick De Clercq
The effect of supplementing hemolymph of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), or the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville), to a basic insect-free artificial medium for the tachinid Exorista larvarum (L.) was investigated. The supplementation (20% w/w) was based on the assumption that insect additives may optimize the media for this parasitoid. Egg hatch, pupal and adult yields, and sex ratio did not differ among the enriched and basic media. Preimaginal development was faster on both hemolymph-enriched media than on the basic medium...
April 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Trinh T X Nguyen, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Sherah Vanlaerhoven
Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae...
April 2015: Environmental Entomology
Wu Li, Mingsun Li, Longyu Zheng, Yusheng Liu, Yanlin Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Zonghua Ma, Qing Li
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is known to be an abundant source of glucose and xylose for biofuels. Yeasts can convert glucose into bioethanol. However, bioconversion of xylose by yeasts is not very efficient, to say nothing of the presence of both glucose and xylose. Efficient utilization of xylose is one of the critical factors for reducing the cost of biofuel from lignocelluloses. However, few natural microorganisms preferentially convert xylose to ethanol. The simultaneous utilization of both glucose and xylose is the pivotal goal in the production of biofuels...
2015: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Wu Li, Qing Li, Longyu Zheng, Yuanyuan Wang, Jibin Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Yanlin Zhang
Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220...
October 2015: Bioresource Technology
Jack Y K Cheng, Irene M C Lo
Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Soon-Ik Park, Jong-Wan Kim, Sung Moon Yoe
In this study, we induced and purified a novel antimicrobial peptide exhibiting activity against Gram-positive bacteria from the immunized hemolymph of Hermetia illucens larvae. The immunized hemolymph was extracted, and the novel defensin-like peptide 4 (DLP4) was purified using solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase chromatography. The purified DLP4 demonstrated a molecular weight of 4267 Da, as determined using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) method. From analysis of DLP4 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing using Edman degradation, combined with MALDI-TOF and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR), the amino acid sequence of the mature peptide was determined to be ATCDLLSPFKVGHAACAAHCIARGKRGGWCDKRAVCNCRK...
September 2015: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Helena Čičková, G Larry Newton, R Curt Lacy, Milan Kozánek
The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter...
January 2015: Waste Management
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