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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346269/identification-of-secreted-proteins-involved-in-nonspecific-dsrna-mediated-lutzomyia-longipalpis-ll5-cell-antiviral-response
#1
Andrea Martins-da-Silva, Erich Loza Telleria, Michel Batista, Fabricio Klerynton Marchini, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö, Antonio Jorge Tempone
Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340209/discovery-of-culex-pipiens-associated-tunisia-virus-a-new-ssrna-virus-representing-a-new-insect-associated-virus-family
#2
Diane Bigot, Célestine M Atyame, Mylène Weill, Fabienne Justy, Elisabeth A Herniou, Philippe Gayral
In the global context of arboviral emergence, deep sequencing unlocks the discovery of new mosquito-borne viruses. Mosquitoes of the species Culex pipiens, C. torrentium, and C. hortensis were sampled from 22 locations worldwide for transcriptomic analyses. A virus discovery pipeline was used to analyze the dataset of 0.7 billion reads comprising 22 individual transcriptomes. Two closely related 6.8 kb viral genomes were identified in C. pipiens and named as Culex pipiens associated tunisia virus (CpATV) strains Ayed and Jedaida...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339344/analysis-and-evaluation-of-neuro-peptides-in-honey-bees-exposed-to-pesticides-in-field-conditions
#3
María Del Mar Gómez-Ramos, María José Gómez Ramos, María Martínez Galera, María Dolores Gil García, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
During the last years, declines in honey bee colonies are being registered worldwide. Cholinergic pesticides and their extensive use have been correlated to the decline of pollinators and there is evidence that pesticides act as neuroendocrine disruptors affecting the metabolism of neuropeptides. However, there is a big absence of studies with quantitative results correlating the effect of pesticide exposure with changes on neuropeptides insects, and most of them are conducted under laboratory conditions, typically with individual active ingredients...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337270/the-cationic-tetradecapeptide-mastoparan-as-a-privileged-structure-for-drug-discovery-enhanced-antimicrobial-properties-of-mitoparan-analogues-modified-at-position-14
#4
John Howl, Lewis Howl, Sarah Jones
Mastoparan (MP) peptides, distributed in insect venoms, induce a local inflammatory response post envenomation. Most endogenous MPs share common structural elements within a tetradecapeptide sequence that adopts an amphipathic helix whilst traversing biological membranes and when bound to an intracellular protein target. Rational modifications to increase cationic charge density and amphipathic helicity engineered mitoparan (MitP), a mitochondriotoxic bioportide and potent secretagogue. Following intracellular translocation, MitP is accreted by mitochondria thus indicating additional utility as an antimicrobial agent...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337139/identification-of-yellow-gene-family-in-agrotis-ipsilon-and-functional-analysis-of-aiyellow-y-by-crispr-cas9
#5
Xi'en Chen, Yanghui Cao, Shuai Zhan, Yong Zhang, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The yellow gene family has been identified in several model insects, but yellow genes were poorly identified in non-model insects and the functions of yellow genes are largely unknown. In this study, we identified seven yellow genes in an important agricultural pest Agrotis ipsilon. Each gene encodes a protein containing a major royal jelly domain. Phylogenetic analysis defined these genes as yellow-y, -b, -b2, -c, -d, -e, and -h, respectively. The A. ipsilon yellow genes yellow-b, -b2, and -c were stably expressed in all developmental stages and tissues analyzed, whereas the other four yellow genes had unique expression patterns, suggesting distinct physiological roles of each gene...
January 11, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336997/modulation-of-nonessential-amino-acid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-virulent-hessian-fly-larvae-mayetiola-destructor-feeding-on-susceptible-host-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#6
Subhashree Subramanyam, Jacob T Shreve, Jill A Nemacheck, Alisha J Johnson, Brandi Schemerhorn, Richard H Shukle, Christie E Williams
Compatible interactions between wheat (Triticum aestivum), and its dipteran pest Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor) result in successful establishment of larval feeding sites rendering the host plant susceptible. Virulent larvae employ an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host physiology resulting in formation of a protein- and sugar-rich nutritive tissue beneficial to developing larvae. Previous studies documented increased levels of nonessential amino acids (NAA; that need not be received through insect diet) in the susceptible wheat in response to larval feeding, suggesting importance of plant-derived NAA in larval nutrition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336504/wolbachia-induced-transcription-factor-gata4-suppresses-ovary-specific-genes-blastoderm-specific-protein-25d-and-imaginal-disc-growth-factor
#7
S Osei-Amo, M Hussein, S Asad, L Hugo, S Asgari
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects a wide array of insect hosts and has been implicated in a range of biological modifications as a consequence of its infection. Previously, it was shown that the transcription factor GATA4 was significantly induced in Wolbachia wMelPop-CLA strain infected Aedes aegypti whole mosquitoes and cells. Here, we provide evidence that this induction also occurs in mosquito ovaries where the ovary-specific genes blastoderm-specific protein 25D (Bsg25D) and imaginal disc growth factor (Disc) are suppressed by Wolbachia...
January 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335463/sub-kb-hi-c-in-d-melanogaster-reveals-conserved-characteristics-of-tads-between-insect-and-mammalian-cells
#8
Qi Wang, Qiu Sun, Daniel M Czajkowsky, Zhifeng Shao
Topologically associating domains (TADs) are fundamental elements of the eukaryotic genomic structure. However, recent studies suggest that the insulating complexes, CTCF/cohesin, present at TAD borders in mammals are absent from those in Drosophila melanogaster, raising the possibility that border elements are not conserved among metazoans. Using in situ Hi-C with sub-kb resolution, here we show that the D. melanogaster genome is almost completely partitioned into >4000 TADs, nearly sevenfold more than previously identified...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335414/evolutionary-history-of-coleoptera-revealed-by-extensive-sampling-of-genes-and-species
#9
Shao-Qian Zhang, Li-Heng Che, Yun Li, Dan Liang, Hong Pang, Adam Ślipiński, Peng Zhang
Beetles (Coleoptera) are the most diverse and species-rich group of insects, and a robust, time-calibrated phylogeny is fundamental to understanding macroevolutionary processes that underlie their diversity. Here we infer the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Coleoptera by analyzing 95 protein-coding genes in 373 beetle species, including ~67% of the currently recognized families. The subordinal relationships are strongly supported as Polyphaga (Adephaga (Archostemata, Myxophaga)). The series and superfamilies of Polyphaga are mostly monophyletic...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332318/intraspecific-differences-in-plant-defense-induction-by-fall-armyworm-strains
#10
Flor E Acevedo, Michelle Peiffer, Swayamjit Ray, Robert Meagher, Dawn S Luthe, Gary W Felton
The underlying adaptive mechanisms by which insect strains are associated with specific plants are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of herbivore-induced defenses in the host plant association of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) strains. We tested the expression of herbivore-induced defense-related genes and the activity of plant-defensive proteins in maize and Bermuda grass upon feeding by fall armyworm strains. The rice strain caterpillars induced greater accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in maize than the corn strain caterpillars...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329292/transcriptome-profiling-with-focus-on-potential-key-genes-for-wing-development-and-evolution-in-megaloprepus-caerulatus-the-damselfly-species-with-the-world-s-largest-wings
#11
Wiebke Feindt, Sara J Oppenheim, Robert DeSalle, Paul Z Goldstein, Heike Hadrys
The evolution, development and coloration of insect wings remains a puzzling subject in evolutionary research. In basal flying insects such as Odonata, genomic research regarding bauplan evolution is still rare. Here we focus on the world's largest odonate species-the "forest giant" Megaloprepus caerulatus, to explore its potential for looking deeper into the development and evolution of wings. A recently discovered cryptic species complex in this genus previously considered monotypic is characterized by morphological differences in wing shape and color patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328461/anti%C3%A2-inflammatory-effects-of-gambogic-acid-in-murine-collagen%C3%A2-induced-arthritis-through-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#12
Qing Lai Wang, Dong Zhen Yang, Cunxian Lv
Garcinia angustifolia is a dry resin secreted by Garcinia cambogia, which has the functions of breaking blood, detoxifying, stopping bleeding and killing insects. It is used for the treatment of cancer and brain edema. Gambogic acid is the primary active ingredient. The present study aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory and antiproliferative effects of gambogic acid on arthritis and the possible mechanisms. It was demonstrated that gambogic acid decreased arthritic scores in murine collagen‑induced arthritic mice...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327416/comparative-proteomics-studies-of-insect-cuticle-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry-application-of-a-novel-proteomics-approach-to-the-pea-aphid-cuticular-proteins
#13
Masson Victor, Arafah Karim, Voisin Sébastien, Bulet Philippe
The exoskeleton of arthropods, called cuticle, is a biological composite material consisting principally of N-acetylglucosamine polymer embedded in cuticular proteins (CPs). The CPs have been studied and characterized by mass spectrometry in several cuticular structures and in many arthropods. Such analyses were usually carried out by protein extraction using SDS detergent followed by electrophoresis, allowing detection and identification of a large number of CPs. To build a repertoire of cuticular structures from Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae we avoided the use of SDS and electrophoresis...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325877/dmcatd-a-cathepsin-d-like-peptidase-of-the-hematophagous-insect-dipetalogaster-maxima-hemiptera-reduviidae-purification-bioinformatic-analyses-and-the-significance-of-its-interaction-with-lipophorin-in-the-internalization-by-developing-oocytes
#14
Jimena Leyria, Leonardo L Fruttero, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Marina S Defferrari, Estela L Arrese, José L Soulages, Beatriz P Settembrini, Celia R Carlini, Lilián E Canavoso
DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase of the hematophagous insect Dipetalogaster maxima, is synthesized by the fat body and the ovary and functions as yolk protein precursor. Functionally, DmCatD is involved in vitellin proteolysis. In this work, we purified and sequenced DmCatD, performed bioinformatic analyses and investigated the events involved in its targeting and storage in developing oocytes. By ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, DmCatD was purified from egg homogenates and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometry...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325093/a-comprehensive-caenorhabditis-elegans-n-glycan-shotgun-array
#15
Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325071/viral-suppressors-of-rnai-employ-a-rapid-screening-mode-to-discriminate-viral-rna-from-cellular-small-rna
#16
Mohamed Fareh, Jasper van Lopik, Iason Katechis, Alfred W Bronkhorst, Anna C Haagsma, Ronald P van Rij, Chirlmin Joo
RNA interference (RNAi) is an indispensable mechanism for antiviral defense in insects, including mosquitoes that transmit human diseases. To escape this antiviral defense system, viruses encode suppressors of RNAi that prevent elimination of viral RNAs, and thus ensure efficient virus accumulation. Although the first animal Viral Suppressor of RNAi (VSR) was identified more than a decade ago, the molecular basis of RNAi suppression by these viral proteins remains unclear. Here, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence assay to investigate how VSRs inhibit the recognition of viral RNAs by Dcr-2, a key endoribonuclease enzyme in the RNAi pathway...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325020/dynamic-effects-of-initial-ph-of-substrate-on-biological-growth-and-metamorphosis-of-black-soldier-fly-diptera-stratiomyidae
#17
Junhua Ma, Yanyan Lei, Kashif Ur Rehman, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang, Wu Li, Qing Li, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Longyu Zheng
Edible insects have become a recognized alternative and sustainable source of high-quality proteins and fats for livestock or human consumption. In the production process of black soldier fly (BSF), (Hermetia illucens L. [Diptera: Stratiomyidae]), initial substrate pH is a critical parameter to ensure the best value of insect biomass, life history traits, and quality bio-fertilizer. This study examined the impact of initial pH values on BSF larvae production, development time, and adult longevity. The BSF were reared on artificial diet with initial pH of 2...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324038/the-evolution-and-metamorphosis-of-arthropod-proteomics-and-genomics
#18
Judith H Willis
This article presents an overview of the development of techniques for analyzing cuticular proteins (CPs), their transcripts, and their genes over the past 50 years based primarily on experience in the laboratory of J.H. Willis. It emphasizes changes in the kind of data that can be gathered and how such data provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect metamorphosis and cuticle structure. It describes the techniques that allowed visualization of the location of CPs at both the anatomical and intracuticular levels and measurement of the appearance and deployment of transcripts from CP genes as well as what was learned from genomic and transcriptomic data...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323436/molecular-characterization-and-gene-silencing-of-laccase-1-in-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#19
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323419/evaluation-of-viral-contamination-in-a-baculovirus-expression-system
#20
Chikako Ono, Junki Hirano, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Insect expression systems based on baculovirus are widely used for the generation of recombinant proteins. Here, we evaluated the infectivity of baculoviruses under the physiological stresses of 'freeze- thaw' and sonication, and the baculoviral contamination of recombinant proteins after protein purification. Our findings suggest that Nonidet™ P-40 (NP-40) treatment of baculoviruses completely abolishes their infectivity and that recombinant proteins purified with affinity beads do not include infectious baculoviruses...
January 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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