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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926949/influence-of-freeze-drying-and-oven-drying-post-blanching-on-the-nutrient-composition-of-the-edible-insect-ruspolia-differens
#1
Forkwa Tengweh Fombong, Mik Van Der Borght, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November-December 2016...
September 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924503/biochemical-and-structural-characterization-of-a-novel-arginine-kinase-from-the-spider-polybetes-pythagoricus
#2
Aldana Laino, Alonso A Lopez-Zavala, Karina D Garcia-Orozco, Jesus S Carrasco-Miranda, Marianela Santana, Vivian Stojanoff, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Carlos Fernando Garcia
Energy buffering systems are key for homeostasis during variations in energy supply. Spiders are the most important predators for insects and therefore key in terrestrial ecosystems. From biomedical interest, spiders are important for their venoms and as a source of potent allergens, such as arginine kinase (AK, EC 2.7.3.3). AK is an enzyme crucial for energy metabolism, keeping the pool of phosphagens in invertebrates, and also an allergen for humans. In this work, we studied AK from the Argentininan spider Polybetes pythagoricus (PpAK), from its complementary DNA to the crystal structure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924263/refinement-of-ectopic-protein-expression-through-the-gal4-uas-system-in-bombyx-mori-application-to-behavioral-and-developmental-studies
#3
Chiho Hara, Koudai Morishita, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Akihisa Mikami, Keiro Uchino, Takeshi Sakurai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hideki Sezutsu, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
Silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is one of the important model insects in which transgenic techniques and the GAL4/UAS system are applicable. However, due to cytotoxicity and low transactivation activity of GAL4, effectiveness of the GAL4/UAS system and its application in B. mori are still limited. In the present study, we refined the previously reported UAS vector by exploiting transcriptional and translational enhancers, and achieved 200-fold enhancement of reporter GFP fluorescence in the GAL4/UAS system. Enhanced protein expression of membrane-targeted GFP and calcium indicator protein (GCaMP5G) drastically improved visualization of fine neurite structures and neural activity, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924205/the-multifunctional-polydnavirus-tnbvank1-protein-impact-on-host-apoptotic-pathway
#4
Rosanna Salvia, Gerarda Grossi, Angela Amoresano, Carmen Scieuzo, Marisa Nardiello, Chiara Giangrande, Ilaria Laurenzana, Vitalba Ruggieri, Sabino A Bufo, S Bradleigh Vinson, Monica Carmosino, David Neunemann, Heiko Vogel, Pietro Pucci, Patrizia Falabella
Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is an endophagous parasitoid of the larval stages of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The bracovirus associated with this wasp (TnBV) is currently being studied. Several genes expressed in parasitised host larvae have been isolated and their possible roles partly elucidated. TnBVank1 encodes an ankyrin motif protein similar to insect and mammalian IκB, an inhibitor of the transcription nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Here we show that, when TnBVank1 was stably expressed in polyclonal Drosophila S2 cells, apoptosis is induced...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923848/body-shape-and-coloration-of-silkworm-larvae-are-influenced-by-a-novel-cuticular-protein
#5
Gao Xiong, Xiaoling Tong, Tingting Gai, Chunlin Li, Liang Qiao, Antónia Monteiro, Hai Hu, Minjin Han, Xin Ding, Songyuan Wu, Zhonghuai Xiang, Cheng Lu, Fangyin Dai
The genetic basis of body shape and coloration patterns on caterpillars is often assumed to be regulated separately, but it is possible that common molecules affect both types of trait simultaneously. Here we examine the genetic basis of a spontaneous cuticle defect in silkworm, where larvae exhibit a bamboo-like body shape and also decreased pigmentation. We performed linkage mapping and mutation screening to determine the gene product that affects body shape and coloration simultaneously. In these mutant larvae we identified a null mutation in BmorCPH24, a gene encoding a cuticular protein with low complexity sequence...
September 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922762/three-myb-genes-co-regulate-the-phloem-based-defence-against-english-grain-aphid-in-wheat
#6
Yan Zhai, Ping Li, Yu Mei, Mingye Chen, Xiaochen Chen, Heng Xu, Xuan Zhou, Hansong Dong, Chunling Zhang, Weihua Jiang
Plant phloem-based defence (PBD) against phloem-feeding insects is characteristic of the sieve occlusion by phloem lectins and β-1,3-glucan callose, both of which are produced under regulation by ethylene and MYB transcription factors. Wheat PBD requires β-1,3-glucan synthase-like proteins GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12, and may also require insect-resistant mannose-binding lectins Hfr-1 and Wci-1, which can accumulate in the phloem upon aphid feeding. This study elucidates whether any of the 73 MYB genes identified previously in the common wheat Triticum aestivum genome plays a role in wheat PBD activation with regard to the GSLs and lectins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922413/exploitation-of-stable-nanostructures-based-on-the-mouse-polyomavirus-for-development-of-a-recombinant-vaccine-against-porcine-circovirus-2
#7
Martin Fraiberk, Michaela Hájková, Magdaléna Krulová, Martina Kojzarová, Alena Drda Morávková, Ivan Pšikal, Jitka Forstová
The aim of this study was to develop a suitable vaccine antigen against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome, which causes significant economic losses in swine breeding. Chimeric antigens containing PCV2b Cap protein sequences based on the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) nanostructures were developed. First, universal vectors for baculovirus-directed production of chimeric MPyV VLPs or pentamers of the major capsid protein, VP1, were designed for their exploitation as vaccines against other pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921430/production-of-recombinant-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-by-insect-cells-in-a-single-use-fixed-bed-bioreactor
#8
Daniella C Ventini-Monteiro, Renato M Astray, Carlos A Pereira
A single-use fixed-bed bioreactor (iCELLis nano) can be used for cultivating non adherent insect cells, which can be then recovered for scaling up or for harvesting a membrane-associated viral glycoprotein with high quality in terms of preserved protein structure and biological function. Here, we describe the procedures for establishing genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cell cultures in the iCELLis nano bioreactor and for quantifying by ELISA the recombinant rabies virus glycoprotein (rRVGP) synthesized...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920394/-bioinformatic-analysis-and-characterization-of-myxobacteria-laccase-like-multicopper-oxidases
#9
Xiuyan Zhao, Fei Chang, Zemin Fang, Yinliang Zhang, Yazhong Xiao
Laccase is a widely-used environment-friendly copper-containing oxidase found in many plants, insects and fungi. Recently, more and more laccases are also found in bacteria. Myxobacteria are an important bacteria resource. However, myxobacteria are much more difficult to isolate and purify than other bacteria. We used bioinformatic approach to screen myxobacteria proteomes available in NCBI. Based on conserved sequences of four copper binding sites in multicopper oxidase, 30 potential laccase sequences were obtained...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920390/-advance-of-heterologous-expression-study-of-eukaryote-origin-laccases
#10
Na Ning, Huijun Tan, Xinxin Sun, Jinfeng Ni
Laccases are enzymes belonging to the group of multi-copper oxidases. These enzymes are widely distributed in insects, plants, fungi and bacteria. In general, laccases can oxidize an exceptionally high number of substrates, so they have broad applications in textile, pulp, food and the degradation of lignin. However, low yield, low activity and thermo-instability of laccase in nature limit the application of laccase. High efficient heterologous expression of the protein is an effective way for solving this problem...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920057/amine-metabolism-is-influenced-by-dietary-protein-source
#11
Soumya K Kar, Alfons J M Jansman, Dirkjan Schokker, Leo Kruijt, Amy C Harms, Jerry M Wells, Mari A Smits
Growth in world population will inevitably leads to increased demand for protein for humans and animals. Protein from insects and blood plasma are being considered as possible alternatives, but more research on their nutritional quality and health effects is needed. Here, we studied the effect of dietary protein source on metabolism and metabolic amine profiles in serum and urine of mice. Groups of mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 300 g/kg of soybean meal, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray-dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal, and yellow mealworm...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#12
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919559/adipokinetic-hormone-receptor-gene-identification-and-its-role-in-triacylglycerol-mobilization-and-sexual-behavior-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#13
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Dan-Dan Wei, Shun-Hua Gui, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
September 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#14
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914754/investigation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-associated-with-fungus-and-insect-resistance-in-maize
#15
Joseph Noonan, William Paul Williams, Xueyan Shan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small defense proteins present in various organisms. Major groups of AMPs include beta-barrelin, hevein, knottin, lipid transfer protein (LTP), thionin, defensin, snakin, and cyclotide. Most plant AMPs involve host plant resistance to pathogens such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria, whereas a few plant AMPs from the cyclotide family carry insecticidal functions. In this research, a genome-wide investigation on antimicrobial peptide genes in maize genome was conducted. AMPs previously identified from various plant species were used as query sequences for maize genome data mining...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#16
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913792/what-will-be-the-benefits-of-biotech-wheat-for-european-agriculture
#17
Agnès E Ricroch
In European countries, wheat occupies the largest crop area with high yielding production. France, a major producer and exporter in Europe, ranks the fifth producer worldwide. Biotic stresses are European farmers' major challenges (fungal and viral diseases, and insect pests) followed by abiotic ones such as drought and grain protein composition. During the last 40 years, 1136 scientific articles on biotech wheat were published by USA followed by China, Australia, Canada, and European Union with the UK. European research focuses on pests and diseases resistances using widely marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913775/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-taharana-fasciana-insecta-hemiptera-cicadellidae-and-comparison-with-other-cicadellidae-insects
#18
Jiajia Wang, Hu Li, Renhuai Dai
Here, we describe the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the leafhopper Taharana fasciana (Coelidiinae). The mitogenome sequence contains 15,161 bp with an A + T content of 77.9%. It includes 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding (A + T-rich) region; in addition, a repeat region is also present (GenBank accession no. KY886913). These genes/regions are in the same order as in the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome. All protein-coding genes have ATN as the start codon, and TAA or single T as the stop codons, except the gene ND3, which ends with TAG...
September 14, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912601/phf7-a-novel-male-gene-influences-female-fecundity-and-population-growth-in-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#19
Lin-Quan Ge, Ting Xia, Bo Huang, Hao-Tian Gu, Qi-Sheng Song, Guo-Qing Yang, Fang Liu, Jin-Cai Wu
PHF7 exhibits male-specific expression in early germ cells, germline stem cells and spermatogonia in insects, and its expression promotes spermatogenesis in germ cells when they are present in a male soma. However, the influence of male-specific PHF7 on female reproductive biology via mating remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the potential impacts of male PHF7, existed in seminal fluid of Nilaparvata lugens (NlPHF7), on fecundity and population growth via mating. Our results revealed that suppressing male NlPHF7 expression by RNAi led to decreases in body weight, soluble accessory gland protein content, arginine content, and reproductive organ development in males, resulting in significant reduction of oviposition periods and fecundity in females, and significant decrease in body weight, fat body and ovarian protein content, yeast-like symbionts abundance, ovarian development and vitellogenin gene expression in their female mating partners...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912112/molecular-basis-of-peripheral-olfactory-sensing-during-oviposition-in-the-behavior-of-the-parasitic-wasp-anastatus-japonicus
#20
Yinliang Wang, Qi Chen, Junqi Guo, Jing Li, Jiatong Wang, Ming Wen, Hanbo Zhao, Bingzhong Ren
Anastatus japonicus is a parasitic wasp and natural enemy of the litchi pest Tessaratoma papillosa, and for decades in China, A. japonicus has been mass-reared inside the eggs of Antheraea pernyi to control T. papillosa. A series of experiments was performed to explore the olfactory mechanism underlying the oviposition behavior of A. japonicus. First, a transcriptomic analysis was performed on the antennae of A. japonicus, and the resulting assemblies led to the generation of 70,473 unigenes. Subsequently, 21,368 unigenes were matched to known proteins, 48 odorant receptors (ORs) (including Orco) and 13 antennal ionotropic receptors (IRs) (including the co-receptors IR8a and IR25a) were identified and predicted to form complete open reading frames (ORFs)...
September 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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