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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108840/differences-in-monoterpene-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-in-pistacia-palaestina-leaves-and-aphid-induced-galls
#1
Karin Rand, Einat Bar, Matan Ben Ari, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Natalia Dudareva, Moshe Inbar, Efraim Lewinsohn
Certain insect species can induce gall formation on numerous plants species. Although the mechanism of gall development is largely unknown, it is clear that insects manipulate their hosts' anatomy, physiology, and chemistry for their own benefit. It is well known that insect-induced galls often contain vast amounts of plant defensive compounds as compared to non-colonized tissues, but it is not clear if defensive compounds can be produced in situ in the galled tissues. To answer this question, we analyzed terpene accumulation patterns and possible independent biosynthetic potential of galls induced by the aphid Baizongia pistaciae L...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108197/identification-of-aminopeptidase-n2-as-a-cry2ab-binding-protein-in-manduca-sexta
#2
Janette Onofre, Meztlli O Gaytán, Arlen Peña-Cardeña, Blanca I García-Gomez, Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab toxin has been used in combination with Cry1Ac for resistance management on the Bt-cotton that is widely planted worldwide. However, little is known regarding Cry2Ab mode of action. Particularly, there is a gap of knowledge on the identification of insect midgut proteins that bind Cry2Ab and mediate toxicity. In the case of Cry1Ab toxin, a transmembrane cadherin protein and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins like aminopeptidase-N1 (APN1) or alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) from Manduca sexta, have been shown to be important for oligomer formation and insertion into the membrane...
January 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105887/light-microscopy-with-a-differential-staining-technique-for-the-characterization-and-discrimination-of-insects-versus-marine-arthropods-in-processed-animal-proteins
#3
Matteo Ottoboni, Marco Tretola, Federica Cheli, Daniela Marchis, Pascal Veys, Vincent Baeten, Luciano Pinotti
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of light microscopy with a differential staining technique for the discrimination of insect material from marine arthropods - classified as fishmeal. Specifically, three samples of single species insect material, Hermetia illucens (HI), Bombyx mori (BM) and Tenebrio molitor (TM) and two samples of marine arthropods, shrimp material and krill, have been analysed and compared after staining by two reagents to enhance fragment identification. Alizarin Red (AR) and Chlorazol black (CB), which react respectively with calcium salts and chitin, were tested for their potential efficacy in distinguishing between insect and marine materials...
January 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103802/proteomics-informed-by-transcriptomics-for-characterising-active-transposable-elements-and-genome-annotation-in-aedes-aegypti
#4
Kevin Maringer, Amjad Yousuf, Kate J Heesom, Jun Fan, David Lee, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Conrad Bessant, David A Matthews, Andrew D Davidson
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a vector for the (re-)emerging human pathogens dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Almost half of the Ae. aegypti genome is comprised of transposable elements (TEs). Transposons have been linked to diverse cellular processes, including the establishment of viral persistence in insects, an essential step in the transmission of vector-borne viruses. However, up until now it has not been possible to study the overall proteome derived from an organism's mobile genetic elements, partly due to the highly divergent nature of TEs...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101872/properties-of-engineered-and-fabricated-silks
#5
Gregor Lang, Heike Herold, Thomas Scheibel
Silk is a protein-based material which is predominantly produced by insects and spiders. Hundreds of millions of years of evolution have enabled these animals to utilize different, highly adapted silk types in a broad variety of applications. Silk occurs in several morphologies, such as sticky glue or in the shape of fibers and can, depending on the application by the respective animal, dissipate a high mechanical energy, resist heat and radiation, maintain functionality when submerged in water and withstand microbial settling...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101536/host-range-restriction-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-occurs-at-several-levels-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#6
Sandra Junglen, Marvin Korries, Wolfgang Grasse, Janett Wieseler, Anne Kopp, Kyra Hermanns, Moises León-Juárez, Christian Drosten, Beate Mareike Kümmerer
The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100451/an-aphid-effector-targets-trafficking-protein-vps52-in-a-host-specific-manner-to-promote-virulence
#7
Patricia Rodriguez, Carmen Escudero-Martinez, Jorunn Bos
Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098752/microbiological-load-of-edible-insects-found-in-belgium
#8
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098189/global-identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-chlorantraniliprole-resistance-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#9
Bin Zhu, Xiuxia Li, Ying Liu, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most serious cruciferous pests and has developed high resistance to most insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Previous studies have reported several protein-coding genes that involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance, but research on resistance mechanisms at the post-transcription level is still limited. In this study, a global screen of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella was performed...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097684/feeding-asian-pangolins-an-assessment-of-current-diets-fed-in-institutions-worldwide
#10
Francis Cabana, Amy Plowman, Thai Van Nguyen, Shih-Chien Chin, Sung-Lin Wu, Hsuan-Yi Lo, Hirofumi Watabe, Fujio Yamamoto
Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions...
January 18, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096379/molecular-mechanism-underlying-juvenile-hormone-mediated-repression-of-precocious-larval-adult-metamorphosis
#11
Takumi Kayukawa, Akiya Jouraku, Yuka Ito, Tetsuro Shinoda
Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval-pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095489/transgenic-expression-of-the-anti-parasitic-factor-tep1-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#12
Gloria Volohonsky, Ann-Katrin Hopp, Mélanie Saenger, Julien Soichot, Heidi Scholze, Jens Boch, Stéphanie A Blandin, Eric Marois
Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095417/schistosoma-mansoni-infection-of-mice-rats-and-humans-elicits-a-strong-antibody-response-to-a-limited-number-of-reduction-sensitive-epitopes-on-five-major-tegumental-membrane-proteins
#13
Greice Krautz-Peterson, Michelle Debatis, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Sergio C Oliveira, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly, Charles B Shoemaker
Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world for which no vaccine has been successfully commercialized. While numerous Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens have been identified that elicit antibody responses during natural infections, little is known as to the identities of the schistosome antigens that are most prominently recognized by antibodies generated through natural infection. Non-reducing western blots probed with serum from schistosome-infected mice, rats and humans on total extracts of larval or adult schistosomes revealed that a small number of antigen bands predominate in all cases...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094987/crystal-engineering-of-self-assembled-porous-protein-materials-in-living-cells
#14
Satoshi Abe, Hiroyasu Tabe, Hiroshi Ijiri, Keitaro Yamashita, Kunio Hirata, Kohei Atsumi, Takuya Shimoi, Masaki Akai, Hajime Mori, Susumu Kitagawa, Takafumi Ueno
Crystalline porous materials have been investigated for development of important applications in molecular storage, separations, and catalysis. The potential of protein crystals is increasing as they become better understood. Protein crystals have been regarded as porous materials because they present highly ordered 3D arrangements of protein molecules with high porosity and wide range of pore sizes. However, it remains difficult to functionalize protein crystals in living cells. Here, we report that polyhedra, a natural crystalline protein assembly of polyhedrin monomer (PhM) produced in insect cells infected by cypovirus, can be engineered to extend porous networks by deleting selected amino acid residues located on the intermolecular contact region of PhM...
January 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094453/down-regulation-of-a-chitin-synthase-a-gene-by-rna-interference-enhances-pathogenicity-of-beauveria-bassiana-anu1-against-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner
#15
Jung-Bok Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Youngjin Park
Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A)...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094002/the-rfamide-receptor-dmsr-1-regulates-stress-induced-sleep-in-c-elegans
#16
Michael J Iannacone, Isabel Beets, Lindsey E Lopes, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew D Nelson, Liliane Schoofs, David M Raizen
In response to environments that cause cellular stress, animals engage in sleep behavior that facilitates recovery from the stress. In Caenorhabditis elegans, stress-induced sleep(SIS) is regulated by cytokine activation of the ALA neuron, which releases FLP-13 neuropeptides characterized by an amidated arginine-phenylalanine (RFamide) C-terminus motif. By performing an unbiased genetic screen for mutants that impair the somnogenic effects of FLP-13 neuropeptides, we identified the gene dmsr-1, which encodes a G-protein coupled receptor similar to an insect RFamide receptor...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092034/expression-and-purification-of-sh2-domains-using-baculovirus-expression-system
#17
Mari Ogiue-Ikeda, Kazuya Machida
Recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria are sometimes insoluble, aggregated, and incorrectly folded. For those Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that are insoluble in bacteria, baculovirus-insect cell expression systems can be an alternative to produce soluble and functionally active proteins. We describe a protocol for cloning and purification of GST-tagged SH2 domains using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#18
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090761/modest-overexpression-of-foxo-maintains-cardiac-proteostasis-and-ameliorates-age-associated-functional-decline
#19
Anna C Blice-Baum, Alexander C Zambon, Gaurav Kaushik, Meera C Viswanathan, Adam J Engler, Rolf Bodmer, Anthony Cammarato
Heart performance declines with age. Impaired protein quality control (PQC), due to reduced ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) activity, autophagic function, and/or chaperone-mediated protein refolding, contributes to cardiac deterioration. The transcription factor FOXO participates in regulating genes involved in PQC, senescence, and numerous other processes. Here, a comprehensive approach, involving molecular genetics, novel assays to probe insect cardiac physiology, and bioinformatics, was utilized to investigate the influence of heart-restricted manipulation of dFOXO expression in the rapidly aging Drosophila melanogaster model...
February 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089733/antimicrobial-peptide-gene-cecropin-2-and-defensin-respond-to-peptidoglycan-infection-in-the-female-adult-of-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#20
Shi-Huo Liu, Dong Wei, Guo-Rui Yuan, Hong-Bo Jiang, Wei Dou, Jin-Jun Wang
Cecropins and defensins are important antimicrobial peptides in insects and are inducible after injection of immune triggers. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin-2 (BdCec-2) and defensin (BdDef) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The BdCec-2 sequence of 192bp encodes a protein of 63 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.78 kD. The 282bp cDNA of BdDef encodes a protein of 93 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 9...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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