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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#1
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444203/a-chemosensory-protein-gene-si-csp1-associated-with-necrophoric-behavior-in-red-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#2
Hua-Long Qiu, Dai-Feng Cheng
Necrophoric behavior is essential to colony health in social insects. Little is known about the genes that are responsible for necrophoric behavior. Here, we show that a chemosensory protein gene Si-CSP1 was expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues such as the legs and heads of Solenopsis invicta Buren workers. Furthermore, Si-CSP1-silenced workers moved significantly fewer corpses of their nestmates than normal workers. Finally, Si-CSP1-silenced workers exhibited weaker antennal responses to oleic acid and linoleic acid than controls...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442446/proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-saliva-components-from-the-hematophagous-reduviid-triatoma-pallidipennis
#3
María J Hernández-Vargas, Jeovanis Gil, Luis Lozano, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Ernesto Ortiz, Sergio Encarnación-Guevara, Alejandro Alagón, Gerardo Corzo
Species belonging to the Triatominae subfamily are commonly associated with Chagas disease, as they are potential vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. However, their saliva contains a cocktail of diverse anti-hemostatic proteins that prevent blood coagulation, vasodilation and platelet aggregation of blood; components with indisputable therapeutic potential. We performed a transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of salivary glands and protein spots from 2DE gels of milked saliva, respectively, from the Mexican Triatoma pallidipennis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439422/anti-aging-effect-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-dung-beetle-glycosaminoglycan-in-aged-rats
#4
Mi Young Ahn, Ban Ji Kim, Ha Jeong Kim, Jae Sam Hwang, Yi-Sook Jung, Kun-Koo Park
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-aging effect of a newly prepared insect-derived compound, dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (GAG), given intraperitoneally to old SD rats as part of their diet for 1 month. Insect GAG administration was found to be related to a reduction in oxidative damage, hepato-cellular biomarker levels, protein carbonyl content, and malondialdehyde concentration. The anti-aging-related molecular genetic mechanisms of dung beetle GAG are not yet fully elucidated...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439240/apolipophorin-iii-acts-as-a-positive-regulator-of-plasmodium-development-in-anopheles-stephensi
#5
Rini Dhawan, Kuldeep Gupta, Mithilesh Kajla, Parik Kakani, Tania P Choudhury, Sanjeev Kumar, Vikas Kumar, Lalita Gupta
Apolipophorin III (ApoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune responses of insects. Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles stephensi Apolipophorin-III (AsApoLp-III) gene. This gene consists of 679 nucleotides arranged into two exons of 45 and 540 bp that give an ORF encoding 194 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 19 amino acid residues, the 175-residues in mature AsApoLp-III protein has a calculated molecular mass of 22 kDa...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438456/pirab-protein-from-xenorhabdus-nematophila-hb310-exhibits-a-binary-toxin-with-insecticidal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-in-galleria-mellonella
#6
Qing Yang, Jie Zhang, Tianhui Li, Shen Liu, Ping Song, Ziyan Nangong, Qinying Wang
PirAB (Photorhabdus insect-related proteins, PirAB) toxin was initially found in the Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 strain and has been shown to be a binary toxin with high insecticidal activity. Based on GenBank data, this gene was also found in the Xenorhabdus nematophila genome sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of pirA and pirB in the genome of X. nematophila showed 51% and 50% identity with those gene sequences from P. luminescens. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the relevant information for this toxin gene in X...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436337/molecular-cloning-expression-and-characterization-of-e2f-transcription-factor-4-from-antheraea-pernyi
#7
M N Abbas, S Kausar, Y-X Sun, Y Sun, L Wang, C Qian, G-Q Wei, B-J Zhu, C-L Liu
The E2F transcription factor family is distributed widely in eukaryotes and has been well studied among mammals. In the present study, the E2F transcription factor 4 (E2F4) gene was isolated from fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi and sequenced. E2F4 comprised a 795 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 264 amino acid residues. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (Transetta DE3), and anti-E2F4 antibodies were prepared. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed significant homology to an E2F4-like protein from Bombyx mori L...
April 24, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436309/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-and-stress-from-invertebrates-to-humans
#8
Kyle D Ketchesin, Gwen S Stinnett, Audrey F Seasholtz
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key regulator of the stress response. This peptide controls the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as well as a variety of behavioral and autonomic stress responses via the two CRH receptors, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. The CRH system also includes an evolutionarily conserved CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with subnanomolar affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. In this review, we discuss the current literature on CRH-BP and stress across multiple species, from insects to humans...
April 23, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435138/proteomic-analysis-of-a-mosquito-host-cell-response-to-persistent-wolbachia-infection
#9
Gerald Baldridge, LeeAnn Higgins, Bruce Witthuhn, Todd Markowski, Abigail Baldridge, Anibal Armien, Ann Fallon
Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with arthropods and filarial worms, is a target for filarial disease treatment and provides a gene drive agent for insect vector population suppression/replacement. We compared proteomes of Aedes albopictus mosquito C/wStr1 cells persistently infected with Wolbachia strain wStr, relative to uninfected C7-10 control cells. Among approximately 2,500 proteins, iTRAQ data identified 815 differentially abundant proteins. As functional classes, energy and central intermediary metabolism proteins were elevated in infected cells, while suppressed proteins with roles in host DNA replication, transcription and translation suggested that Wolbachia suppresses pathways that support host cell growth and proliferation...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435107/wasp-venomic-unravelling-the-toxins-arsenal-of-polybia-paulista-venom-and-its-potential-pharmaceutical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma, Márcia Regina Brochetto-Braga
Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a neotropical social wasp from southeast Brazil. As most social Hymenoptera, venom from P. paulista comprises a complex mixture of bioactive toxins ranging from low molecular weight compounds to peptides and proteins. Several efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular composition of the P. paulista venom. Data derived from proteomic, peptidomic and allergomic analyses has enhanced our understanding of the whole envenoming process caused by the insect sting...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435087/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-clostera-anachoreta-lepidoptera-notodontidae-and-phylogenetic-implications-for-noctuoidea-species
#11
Xiao-Yu Zhu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Ying Wang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Zheng-Fei Wang, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang, Qiu-Ning Liu
In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Clostera anachoreta (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) was sequenced. It comprises 15,456 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA) and one non-coding control region (CR), as found in other lepidopterans. Gene order is identical to that of typical lepidopterans. There are 15 intergenic spacers ranging from 1 to 49bp, and 9 overlapping regions ranging from 1 to 8bp, occurring throughout the genome...
April 20, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434970/transfer-of-c-terminal-residues-of-human-apolipoprotein-a-i-to-insect-apolipophorin-iii-creates-a-two-domain-chimeric-protein-with-enhanced-lipid-binding-activity
#12
James V C Horn, Rachel A Ellena, Jesse J Tran, Wendy H J Beck, Vasanthy Narayanaswami, Paul M M Weers
Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an insect apolipoprotein (18kDa) that comprises a single five-helix bundle domain. In contrast, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a 28kDa two-domain protein: an α-helical N-terminal domain (residues 1-189) and a less structured C-terminal domain (residues 190-243). To better understand the apolipoprotein domain organization, a novel chimeric protein was engineered by attaching residues 179 to 243 of apoA-I to the C-terminal end of apoLp-III. The apoLp-III/apoA-I chimera was successfully expressed and purified in E...
April 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#13
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433751/elevated-chaperone-proteins-are-a-feature-of-winter-freeze-avoidance-by-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#14
Guijun Zhang, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey
Winter survival for many insect species includes a need to maintain metabolic homeostasis and structural/functional integrity of macromolecules not only over a wide range of cold temperatures but also in response to rapid temperature change. Chaperones are well-known to protect/stabilize protein structure with regard to heat stress but less is known about their potential involvement in long-term protection of the proteome at subzero temperatures. The present study assessed the participation of chaperone proteins in the cold hardiness of larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae), monitoring changes in nine proteins over the winter months as well as their responses to laboratory cold acclimation or anoxia exposure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430986/field-trial-performance-of-herculex-xtra-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-and-smartstax-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-cry3bb1-hybrids-and-soil-insecticides-against-western-and-northern-corn-rootworms-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#15
K D Johnson, L A Campbell, M D Lepping, D M Rule
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429650/development-of-real-time-pcr-tests-for-the-detection-of-tenebrio-molitor-in-food-and-feed
#16
Frédéric Debode, Aline Marien, Amaury Gerard, Frédéric Francis, Olivier Fumiere, Gilbert Berben
Insects are rich in proteins and could be an alternative source of proteins to feed animals and humans. Numerous companies have started the production of insects for feed purposes. In Europe, these processed animal proteins are not yet authorized by legislation, as many questions still need to be answered concerning this "novel food". Authorizations will be possible when methods of authentication of the products are available. In this study we propose real-time PCR methods for the specific detection of the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), one of the most widely used insects for food and feed production...
April 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429156/crystallization-and-preliminary-x-ray-diffraction-analysis-of-a-mammal-inositol-1-3-4-5-6-pentakisphosphate-2-kinase
#17
Elsa Franco-Echevarría, Julia Sanz-Aparicio, Nathalie Troffer-Charlier, Arnaud Poterszman, Beatriz González
Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of phytic acid (IP6) from IP5 and ATP. In mammals, IP6 is involved in multiple events such as DNA repair and mRNA edit and it is the precursor of inositol pyrophosphates, emerging compounds shown to have an essential role in apoptosis. In addition, IP5 2-K have functions in cells independently of its catalytic activity, for example in rRNA biogenesis. We pursue the structure determination of a mammal IP5 2-K by Protein Crystallography...
April 21, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428983/rapid-inducible-protein-displacement-in-plasmodiumin-vivo-and-in-vitro-using-knocksideways-technology
#18
Katie R Hughes, Andy P Waters
A deeper understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium parasite is essential in order to identify targets for interventions, with the ultimate aim of eliminating malaria. Determining the function(s) of essential proteins in Plasmodium has, until recently, been hampered by the lack of efficient conditional systems to abrogate proteins. We report the adaptation of a conditional technology, knocksideways (KS), for use in Plasmodium berghei, which can potentially rapidly inactivate proteins of interest through relocalisation...
March 14, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428061/identification-and-characterization-of-an-interleukin-16-like-gene-from-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#19
Qianhui Liang, Jiefu Zheng, Hongliang Zuo, Chaozheng Li, Shengwen Niu, Linwei Yang, Muting Yan, Shao-Ping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Interleukins are a group of cytokines that play essential roles in immune regulation. Almost all interleukin genes are only found in vertebrates. In this study, an interleukin-16-like gene (LvIL-16L) was identified from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIL-16L was predicted to encode a precursor (pro-LvIL-16L) with 1378 amino acids, sharing similarities with predicted pro-IL-16-like proteins from insects. The C-terminus of pro-LvIL-16L protein contained two PDZ domains homologous to the mature IL-16 cytokine of vertebrates...
April 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426766/activated-entomopathogenic-nematode-infective-juveniles-release-lethal-venom-proteins
#20
Dihong Lu, Marissa Macchietto, Dennis Chang, Mirayana M Barros, James Baldwin, Ali Mortazavi, Adler R Dillman
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species) release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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