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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926429/biologically-produced-methane-as-a-renewable-energy-source
#1
D E Holmes, J A Smith
Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923578/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-representative-organic-solid-wastes-food-waste-recycling-wastewater-manure-and-sewage-sludge
#2
Jangwoo Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Hyun Min Jang, Young Beom Kim, Joonyeob Lee, Young Mo Kim
In this research, the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was characterized in representative organic solid waste (OSW) in Korea: food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW), manure, and sewage sludge. The amounts of total ARG (gene copies/16S rRNA gene copies) was greatest in manure followed by sewage sludge and FRW. Interestingly, there were significantly different patterns in the diversity and mechanisms of ARGs. For example, a significant proportion of ARGs were tetracycline resistant genes in all the OSW (40...
December 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919152/-monitoring-plan-of-environmental-contaminants-in-sheep-milk-from-areas-next-to-an-italian-contaminated-site-named-%C3%A2-aree-industriali-di-porto-torres-e-discarica-di-calancoi%C3%A2-industrial-areas-of-porto-torres-and-landfill-of-calancoi-in-sardinia-region-southern
#3
Francesco Sgarangella, Giuseppe Bitti, Maria Caterina Suelzu, Pietro Desini, Patrizia Piras, Gianuario Fiori, Maurizio Cossu, Giannina Chessa
OBJECTIVES: to assess concentration levels of dioxins, PCBs, and chemical elements in sheep milk produced in areas close to the Italian contaminated site (CS) located in the North-West of Sardinia (Southern Italy), named «Aree industriali di Porto Torres e discarica di Calancoi» (i.e., industrial areas of Porto Torres and landfill of Calancoi). DESIGN: monitoring plan of environmental contaminants on zootechnical productions based on analysis of dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb), and other elements (As, Be, Cr, Ni, Tl , Zn) in sheep bulk milk...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917968/innovations-in-food-preservation-in-pastoral-zones
#4
C Jans, D W Mulwa Kaindi, L Meile
Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#5
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913170/effects-of-the-feeding-ratio-of-food-waste-on-fed-batch-aerobic-composting-and-its-microbial-community
#6
Xiaojun Wang, Songqing Pan, Zhaoji Zhang, Xiangyu Lin, Yuzhen Zhang, Shaohua Chen
To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%...
November 22, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912029/how-to-establish-a-bioregenerative-life-support-system-for-long-term-crewed-missions-to-the-moon-or-mars
#7
Yuming Fu, Leyuan Li, Beizhen Xie, Chen Dong, Mingjuan Wang, Boyang Jia, Lingzhi Shao, Yingying Dong, Shengda Deng, Hui Liu, Guanghui Liu, Bojie Liu, Dawei Hu, Hong Liu
To conduct crewed simulation experiments of bioregenerative life support systems on the ground is a critical step for human life support in deep-space exploration. An artificial closed ecosystem named Lunar Palace 1 was built through integrating efficient higher plant cultivation, animal protein production, urine nitrogen recycling, and bioconversion of solid waste. Subsequently, a 105-day, multicrew, closed integrative bioregenerative life support systems experiment in Lunar Palace 1 was carried out from February through May 2014...
December 2, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910937/biohydrogen-production-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-food-waste-in-batch-and-continuous-systems
#8
Wei Han, Yingting Yan, Yiwen Shi, Jingjing Gu, Junhong Tang, Hongting Zhao
In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905457/researchers-serve-up-suggestions-to-reduce-food-waste
#9
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902329/abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-bacteriophages
#10
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Rajesh K Vaid, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Nitin Virmani, Mubarik Hussain, Raj K Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural runoffs, animal related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901554/a-possible-wound-dressing-material-from-marine-food-waste
#11
Senthil Rethinam, Prabakaran Nivedita, Thiagarajan Hemalatha, Sathyaraj Weslen Vedakumari, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry
PURPOSE: Bluefin Trevally (Caranx melampygus) fish is mainly used for fillet production, the bones of which are discarded as a major solid waste in the fish food processing industry. In the present study, novel collagen films were prepared using the bones of Bluefin Trevally (BT). The study investigates the potential of using this collagen film as a wound dressing material. METHODS: The prepared collagen films (CFs) were characterized for their physicochemical properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), tensile strength, elongation at break, etc...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898793/increasing-soluble-phosphate-species-by-treatment-of-phosphate-rocks-with-acidic-waste
#12
Wedisson O Santos, Dean Hesterberg, Edson M Mattiello, Leonardus Vergütz, Matheus S C Barreto, Ivo R Silva, Luiz F S Souza Filho
The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896546/jmv2894-a-novel-growth-hormone-secretagogue-accelerates-body-mass-recovery-in-an-experimental-model-of-cachexia
#13
Elena Bresciani, Laura Rizzi, Laura Molteni, Monica Ravelli, Antonella Liantonio, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Giuseppe Biagini, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
Oncologic patients subjected to chemotherapy frequently present aphagia, malnutrition, and cachexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selected growth hormone secretagogues including hexarelin, JMV2894 and JMV2951 could antagonize body weight loss and wasting induced by cisplatin administration in rats. The three growth hormone secretagogues behaved as full agonists of the growth hormone secretagogues receptor both in terms of ability to stimulate calcium mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells and stimulation of growth hormone release in neonatal rats...
November 28, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895283/food-waste-prevention-in-athens-greece-the-effect-of-family-characteristics
#14
Konstadinos Abeliotis, Katia Lasaridi, Christina Chroni
Food waste is a stream that becomes increasingly important in terms of its prevention potential. There is a large number of behaviours that can be associated with food waste generation and the efforts towards food waste prevention. A questionnaire study was carried in order to study consumer behaviour related to food provision and wastage in Greece. Proper practices of the respondents that can prevent the generation of food waste were investigated using nine behavioural scales, which were defined on the basis of similar studies in other countries...
December 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888733/enhancement-of-l-lactic-acid-production-via-synergism-in-open-co-fermentation-of-sophora-flavescens-residues-and-food-waste
#15
Jin Zheng, Ming Gao, Qunhui Wang, Juan Wang, Xiaohong Sun, Qiang Chang, Yukihiro Tashiro
In this study, Sophora flavescens residues (SFR) were used for l-lactic acid production and were mixed with food waste (FW) to assess the effects of different compositions of SFR and FW. Positive synergistic effects of mixed substrates were achieved with co-fermentation. Co-fermentation increased the proportion of l-lactic acid by decreasing the co-products of ethanol and other organic acids. A maximum l-lactic acid concentration of 48.4g/L and l-lactic acid conversion rate of 0.904g/g total sugar were obtained through co-fermentation of SFR and FW at the optimal ratio of 1:1...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876567/improvement-in-ch4-co2-ratio-and-ch4-yield-as-related-to-biomass-mix-composition-during-anaerobic-co-digestion
#16
Tjalfe G Poulsen, Laetitia Adelard, Mona Wells
Sixteen data sets (two of which were measured in this study) with a combined total of 145 measurements of ultimate methane yield (UMY) during mono- and co-digestion of ternary biomass mixtures were used to assess impact of co-digestion on the relative change in UMY (ΔUMY) as a function of biomass mix composition. The data involved 9 biomass materials (brewery spent grains, chicken manure, cow manure, fresh grass clippings, pig manure, primary sewage sludge, vegetable food waste, wheat straw, and rice straw)...
November 19, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872964/toward-sustainable-amino-acid-production
#17
Yoshihiro Usuda, Yoshihiko Hara, Hiroyuki Kojima
Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870995/agronomic-assessment-of-pyrolysed-food-waste-digestate-for-sandy-soil-management
#18
Suraj Adebayo Opatokun, Lina F Yousef, Vladimir Strezov
The digestate (DFW) of an industrial food waste treatment plant was pyrolysed for production of biochar for its direct application as bio-fertilizer or soil enhancer. Nutrient dynamics and agronomic viability of the pyrolysed food waste digestate (PyD) produced at different temperatures were evaluated using germination index (GI), water retention/availability and mineral sorption as indicators when applied on arid soil. The pyrolysis was found to enrich P, K and other micronutrients in the biochar at an average enrichment factor of 0...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855214/a-straightforward-access-to-new-families-of-lipophilic-polyphenols-by-using-lipolytic-bacteria
#19
Leyre Sánchez-Barrionuevo, Alejandro González-Benjumea, Almudena Escobar-Niño, María Teresa García, Óscar López, Inés Maya, José G Fernández-Bolaños, David Cánovas, Encarnación Mellado
The chemical synthesis of new lipophilic polyphenols with improved properties presents technical difficulties. Here we describe the selection, isolation and identification of lipolytic bacteria from food-processing industrial wastes, and their use for tailoring a new set of compounds with great interest in the food industry. These bacteria were employed to produce lipolytic supernatants, which were applied without further purification as biocatalysts in the chemoselective and regioselective synthesis of lipophilic partially acetylated phenolic compounds derived from olive polyphenols...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853568/rodents-food-or-pests-in-neolithic-orkney
#20
Andrzej A Romaniuk, Alexandra N Shepherd, David V Clarke, Alison J Sheridan, Sheena Fraser, László Bartosiewicz, Jeremy S Herman
Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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