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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456123/activated-carbon-enhanced-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-laboratory-scale-and-pilot-scale-operation
#1
Le Zhang, Jingxin Zhang, Kai-Chee Loh
Effects of activated carbon (AC) supplementation on anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste were elucidated in lab- and pilot-scales. Lab-scale AD was performed in 1 L and 8 L digesters, while pilot-scale AD was conducted in a 1000 L digester. Based on the optimal dose of 15 g AC per working volume derived from the 1 L digester, for the same AC dosage in the 8 L digester, an improved operation stability coupled with a higher methane yield was achieved even when digesters without AC supplementation failed after 59 days due to accumulation of substantial organic intermediates...
February 15, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454816/optimization-of-granular-waste-production-based-on-mechanical-properties
#2
Ali Ghasemi, Reza Amiri Chayjan, Hossein Jahanian Najafabadi
Pellet production of food and agricultural wastes is a suitable method to supply livestock feed. Mechanical properties of pellets play an important role in their handling and transportation. In this study, the mechanical properties of pellets made from waste are investigated. After the pelleting process, the pellets were dried with a laboratory convective hot air dryer until reaching a safe moisture content. The effects of feedstock moisture content (0.54, 0.88, and 1.2 kgw kgDM -1 ), particle size (PS < 0...
February 14, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454554/geospatial-inequalities-and-determinants-of-nutritional-status-among-women-and-children-in-afghanistan-an-observational-study
#3
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Taufiq Mashal, Sajid Soofi, Rahim Moineddin, Robert E Black, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a pervasive condition in Afghanistan, and prevalence is among the highest in the world. We aimed to comprehensively assess district-level geographical disparities and determinants of nutritional status (stunting, wasting, or underweight) among women and children in Afghanistan. METHODS: The study used individualised data from the recent Afghanistan National Nutrition Survey 2013. Outcome variables were based on growth and weight anthropometry data, which we analysed linearly as Z scores and as dichotomous categories...
February 14, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454277/nitrogen-removal-enhancement-using-lactic-acid-fermentation-products-from-food-waste-as-external-carbon-sources-performance-and-microbial-communities
#4
Jialing Tang, Xiaochang C Wang, Yisong Hu, Yunhui Pu, Jin Huang, Huu Hao Ngo, Yonggang Zeng, Yuyou Li
In this study, nitrogen removal using the lactic acid fermentation products from food waste and other external chemical carbon sources (sodium acetate, sodium lactate and starch) was investigated. Similar to sodium acetate and lactate, the lactic acid-enriched fermentation liquid from food waste (FLFW) exhibited a high denitrification rate (5.5 mg NO x -N/(g-VSS h)) and potential (0.16 g NO 3 - -N/g COD), and could achieve high NH 4 + -N and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies during long-term operation...
February 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453266/the-gills-of-reef-fish-support-a-distinct-microbiome-influenced-by-host-specific-factors
#5
Zoe A Pratte, Marc Besson, Rebecca D Hollman, Frank J Stewart
Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the gill microbiome. We focus on ecologically diverse taxa from coral reefs around Moorea, sampling the gill and intestines of adults and juveniles representing 15 families...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453178/seasonal-dynamics-of-tetracycline-resistance-gene-transport-in-the-sumas-river-agricultural-watershed-of-british-columbia-canada
#6
Patricia L Keen, Charles W Knapp, Kenneth J Hall, David W Graham
Environmental transport of contaminants that can influence the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an important concern in the management of ecological and human health risks. Agricultural regions are locales where practices linked to food crop and livestock production can introduce contaminants that could alter the selective pressures for the development of antibiotic resistance in microbiota. This is important in regions where the use of animal manure or municipal biosolids as waste and/or fertilizer could influence selection for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacterial species...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450770/how-can-water-quality-be-improved-when-the-urban-waste-water-directive-has-been-fulfilled-a-case-study-of-the-lot-river-france
#7
Josette Garnier, Antsiva Ramarson, Vincent Thieu, Julien Némery, Sylvain Théry, Gilles Billen, Alexandra Coynel
The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called "Lot Rivière Claire" provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin's population...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449885/deep-eutectic-solvents-pretreatment-of-agro-industrial-food-waste
#8
Alessandra Procentese, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Maria Elena Russo, Lars Rehmann, Antonio Marzocchella
Background: Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. Results: The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449111/a-comparative-study-of-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-food-waste-and-wheat-straw-process-stability-and-microbial-community-structure-shifts
#9
Xuchuan Shi, Xianglin Guo, Jiane Zuo, Yajiao Wang, Mengyu Zhang
Renewable energy recovery from organic solid waste via anaerobic digestion is a promising way to provide sustainable energy supply and eliminate environmental pollution. However, poor efficiency and operational problems hinder its wide application of anaerobic digestion. The effects of two key parameters, i.e. temperature and substrate characteristics on process stability and microbial community structure were studied using two lab-scale anaerobic reactors under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Both the reactors were fed with food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS)...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448621/removal-of-food-waste-odor-using-nanoporous-carbon-adsorbents
#10
Bo Sung Kang, Yeojin Hong, Heejin Lee, Young Min Kim, Sang Chai Kim, Jong-Ki Jeon, Sang-Chul Jung, Young-Kwon Park
The removal of acetaldehyde, which is one of main components of food waste odor was investigated using biomass char as a nanoporous carbon absorbent. The biomass char adsorbent obtained from the pyrolysis of Geodae-Uksae was modified by the water and KOH treatment. The modified char absorbent had a higher acetaldehyde removal efficiency than nanoporous CMK-8 possibly due to its high oxygen and nitrogen functional groups.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448548/nano-sized-fume-biogas-production-from-food-waster-using-semi-continuous-anaerobic-digester
#11
Keum-Joo Park, Seong-Gyu Seo, Eun-Sik Kim, M N Islam, Hyung-Woon Song, Hyung-Sun Yoon
In this study, the nano-sized fume biogas production from food waste was investigated using lab scale semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SCSTR) at 35 °C with 30d HRT and 30L working volume. The mesophilic digestion test was performed with three different feed materials (food waste) and food to microorganism (F/M) ratios (0.13, 0.34, and 0.27) in the same experiment. The results showed that the F/M ratios significantly affected the biogas production rate. The highest production rate was obtained at F/M ratio of 0...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446033/climate-change-foodborne-pathogens-and-illness-in-higher-income-countries
#12
REVIEW
I R Lake, G C Barker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential...
February 14, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444094/plate-waste-of-adults-in-the-united-states-measured-in-free-living-conditions
#13
Brian E Roe, John W Apolzan, Danyi Qi, H Raymond Allen, Corby K Martin
We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442750/cooked-food-waste-an-efficient-and-less-expensive-precursor-for-the-generation-of-activated-carbon
#14
Thangavelu Krithiga, Xavier Janet Sabina, Baskaran Rajesh, Hamid Ilbeygi, Adka Nityananda Shetty, Ramanjaneya Reddy, Jayabalan Karthikeyan
Activated carbon was synthesized from cooked food waste, especially dehydrated rice kernels, by chemical activation method using NaOH and KOH as activating agents. It was then characterized by ultimate and proximate analysis, BET surface analysis, XRD, FTIR, Raman and SEM. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared activated carbons. Ultimate analysis showed an increase in the carbon content after activation of the raw carbon samples. Upon activation with NaOH and KOH, the surface area of the carbon sample was found to have increased from 0...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440726/a-chemoenzymatic-process-for-amide-bond-formation-by-an-adenylating-enzyme-mediated-mechanism
#15
Ryotaro Hara, Kengo Hirai, Shin Suzuki, Kuniki Kino
Amide bond formation serves as a fundamental reaction in chemistry, and is practically useful for the synthesis of peptides, food additives, and polymers. However, current methods for amide bond formation essentially generate wastes and suffer from poor atom economy under harsh conditions. To solve these issues, we demonstrated an alternative synthesis method for diverse tryptophyl-N-alkylamides by the combination of the first adenylation domain of tyrocidine synthetase 1 with primary or secondary amines as nucleophiles...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433245/evaluation-of-radical-scavenging-activity-intestinal-cell-viability-and-antifungal-activity-of-brazilian-propolis-by-product
#16
Lizziane de Francisco, Diana Pinto, Hélen Rosseto, Lucas Toledo, Rafaela Santos, Flávia Tobaldini-Valério, Terezinha Svidzinski, Marcos Bruschi, Bruno Sarmento, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Francisca Rodrigues
Propolis is a natural adhesive resinous compound produced by honeybees to protect hives from bacteria and fungi, being extremely expensive for food industry. During propolis production, a resinous by-product is formed. This resinous waste is currently undervalued and underexploited. Accordingly, in this study the proximate physical and chemical quality, as well as the antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and cell viability of this by-product were evaluated and compared with propolis in order to boost new applications in food and pharmaceutical industries...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433048/effects-of-changes-in-temperature-on-treatment-performance-and-energy-recovery-at-mainstream-anaerobic-ceramic-membrane-bioreactor-for-food-waste-recycling-wastewater-treatment
#17
Kyungjin Cho, Yeongmi Jeong, Kyu Won Seo, Seockheon Lee, Adam L Smith, Seung Gu Shin, Si-Kyung Cho, Chanhyuk Park
An anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) has been attracted as an alternative technology to co-manage various organic substrates. This AnCMBR study investigated process performance and microbial community structure at decreasing temperatures to evaluate the potential of AnCMBR treatment for co-managing domestic wastewater (DWW) and food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW). As a result, the water flux (≥6.9 LMH) and organic removal efficiency (≥98.0%) were maintained above 25 °C. The trend of methane production in the AnCMBR was similar except for at 15 °C...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433047/effect-of-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-regulator-on-carbon-retention-and-organic-component-transformation-during-food-waste-composting
#18
Qian Lu, Yue Zhao, Xintong Gao, Junqiu Wu, Haixuan Zhou, Pengfei Tang, Qingbin Wei, Zimin Wei
Composting is an environment friendly method to recycling organic waste. However, with the increasing concern about greenhouse gases generated in global atmosphere, it is significant to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study analyzes tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle regulators on the effect of reducing CO2 emission, and the relationship among organic component (OC) degradation and transformation and microorganism during composting. The results showed that adding adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) could enhance the transformation of OC and increase the diversity of microorganism community...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433032/seasonal-variations-of-pcdd-fs-congeners-in-air-soil-and-eggs-from-a-polish-small-scale-farm
#19
Malgorzata Węgiel, Ryszard Chrząszcz, Anna Maślanka, Adam Grochowalski
The transfer of dioxin from the environment to the food is a problem in a consumers' health protection. The study aimed to determine the concentration of dioxins in free-range chicken eggs, air and soil samples, collected during 12 months on an individual small farm, located in Małopolska region, Poland. In the majority of analyzed eggs, the concentrations of dioxin exceeded several times the legal limit of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ g-1fat. Seasonal changes in the PCDD/Fs congeners in egg, air and soil samples were studied...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429695/histo-cytochemistry-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-for-studying-spatial-and-temporal-extraction-of-metabolites-induced-by-ultrasound-towards-chain-detexturation-mechanism
#20
B Khadhraoui, M Turk, A S Fabiano-Tixier, E Petitcolas, P Robinet, R Imbert, M El Maâtaoui, F Chemat
There are more than 1300 articles in scientific literature dealing with positive impacts of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) such as reduction of extraction time, diminution of solvent and energy used, enhancement in yield and even selectivity, intensification of diffusion, and eliminating wastes. This present study aims to understand what are the mechanism(s) behind these positive impacts which will help to design a decision tool for UAE of natural products. Different microscopic observations (Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (e-SEM), Cyto-histochemistry) have been used for spacial and temporal localization of metabolites in rosemary leaves, which is one of the most studied and most important plant for its antioxidant metabolites used in food industry, during conventional and ultrasound extraction...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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