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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245134/phosphorus-recovery-and-reuse-by-pyrolysis-applications-for-agriculture-and-environment
#1
REVIEW
Daquan Sun, Lauren Hale, Gourango Kar, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Sina Adl
Phosphorus ore extraction for soil fertilization supports the demand of modern agriculture, but extractable resource limitations, due to scarcity, impose a P reuse and recycling research agenda. Here we propose to integrate biochar production (pyrogenic carbon) with municipal and agricultural waste management systems, to recover and reuse phosphorous that would otherwise be lost from the ecological food web. A meta-analysis and available data on total P in biochar indicated that P-enriched feedstocks include animal manure, human excreta, and plant-biomass collected from P-polluted sites...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245129/a-novel-approach-of-modeling-continuous-dark-hydrogen-fermentation
#2
Maria Alexandropoulou, Georgia Antonopoulou, Gerasimos Lyberatos
In this study a novel modeling approach for describing fermentative hydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed, using the Aquasim modeling platform. This model accounts for the key metabolic reactions taking place in a fermentative hydrogen producing reactor, using fixed stoichiometry but different reaction rates. Biomass yields are determined based on bioenergetics. The model is capable of describing very well the variation in the distribution of metabolic products for a wide range of hydraulic retention times (HRT)...
December 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242117/design-implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-internet-of-things-iot-network-system-for-restaurant-food-waste-management
#3
Zongguo Wen, Shuhan Hu, Djavan De Clercq, M Bruce Beck, Hua Zhang, Huanan Zhang, Fan Fei, Jianguo Liu
Catering companies around the world generate tremendous amounts of waste; those in China are no exception. The paper discusses the design, implementation, and evaluation of a sensor-based Internet of Things (IoT) network technology for improving the management of restaurant food waste (RFW) in the city of Suzhou, China. This IoT-based system encompasses the generation, collection, transportation and final disposal of RFW. The Suzhou case study comprised four steps: (1) examination of the required functionality of an IoT-enabled system in the specific context of Suzhou; (2) configuration of the system architecture, both software and hardware components, according to the identified functionality; (3) installation of the components of the IoT system at the facilities of the stakeholders across the RFW generation-collection-transportation-disposal value chain; and (4) evaluation of the performance of the entire system, based on data from three years of operation...
December 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232709/local-setting-influences-the-quantity-of-household-food-waste-in-mid-sized-south-african-towns
#4
Gamuchirai Chakona, Charlie M Shackleton
The world faces a food security challenge with approximately 868 million people undernourished and about two billion people suffering from the negative health consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. Yet, it is believed that at least 33% of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted along the food chain. As food waste has a negative effect on food security, the present study sought to quantify household food waste along the rural-urban continuum in three South African mid-sized towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224980/factors-responsible-for-the-post-slaughter-loss-of-carcass-and-offal-s-in-abattoirs-in-south-africa
#5
Ishmael Festus Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
Global demand for food is surging upward due to the expansion of human population. Hence food production and supply need to double with little or no waste to meet this demand. Food loss at any point in the farm to fork chain inhibits the stability of food security at household and national level. A retrospective (AR) and a post mortem meat inspection (PMMI) study to identify major causes of offal and carcass condemnation was conducted in three abattoirs namely, Adeliade, Queenstown and East London abattoirs represented as AD, QT, and EL respectively...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224459/dietary-patterns-of-households-in-scotland-differences-by-level-of-deprivation-and-associations-with-dietary-goals
#6
S Whybrow, Lca Craig, J I Macdiarmid
BACKGROUND: Foods tend to be consumed in combinations, and dietary pattern analysis and diet-quality scores are often more appropriate methods of assessing overall diet quality than is intakes of individual foods or nutrients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary patterns from the food and drink purchases of households in Scotland, and to identify any dietary patterns that were associated with closer adherence to the Revised Dietary Goals for Scotland (RDGS)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224193/screening-of-yeasts-for-the-production-of-2-phenylethanol-rose-aroma-in-organic-waste-based-media
#7
Chreptowicz Karolina, Sternicka Magdalena Katarzyna, Kowalska Patrycja Daria, Mierzejewska Jolanta
In the present study, we isolated twenty eight yeast strains from samples of plant material and fermented food and evaluated the possibility of efficient production of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in the organic waste-based media supplemented with L-phenylalanine (L-Phe). We used whey, a by-product from milk processing, as a base for media and either glucose or three by-products from sugar-beet processing as a fermentable carbon source. Ten newly isolated yeast strains were capable of producing over 2 g l-1 2-PE through the L-Phe biotransformation in a batch-mode in standard medium...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#8
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222877/critical-examination-of-evidence-for-the-nutritional-status-of-children-in-papua-new-guinea-a-systematic-review
#9
Peter J McGlynn, Andre μΝ Renzaho, Minh D Pham, Mike Toole, Jane Fisher, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Undernutrition remains a significant cause of childhood illness, poor growth, development, and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Studies on child nutritional outcomes in PNG vary by design, measurement protocols and quality. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the prevalence of child undernutrition across different study populations, geographical locations and time periods. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Six electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for articles describing the nutritional status by wasting, stunting and underweight, of PNG children under five years of age, published between 1990 and April 2015...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218577/street-foods-exacerbate-effects-of-the-environmental-burden-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nigeria
#10
Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216610/prescription-2017-pharmacy-compounding-issues-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-harzardous-drugs-and-wasted-drugs
#11
Loyd V Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215968/food-flows-in-the-uk-the-potential-of-surplus-food-redistribution-to-reduce-waste
#12
Elisa Facchini, Eleni Iacovidou, Jan Gronow, Nikolaos Voulvoulis
The increasing amount of food waste generated as a direct consequence of its excessive production, mismanagement and wasteful behaviours, represents a real challenge in promoting resource efficiency. In the UK, the lack of robust mass flow data hinders both the ability to understand and address food waste challenges, and to devise long-term sustainable prevention strategies. In recognition of these challenges, this paper seeks to: i) provide insights into the UK's annual estimates of food mass flows, including imports, exports, distribution, consumption, surplus food production, and final disposal, and ii) scrutinise the uptake and surplus food redistribution as a potential food waste prevention strategy...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214479/cities-of-the-future-bionic-systems-of-new-urban-environment
#13
Alicja Edyta Krzemińska, Anna Danuta Zaręba, Anna Dzikowska, Katarzyna Rozalia Jarosz
The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211053/impacts-of-small-scale-industrialized-swine-farming-on-local-soil-water-and-crop-qualities-in-a-hilly-red-soil-region-of-subtropical-china
#14
Di Zhang, Xingxiang Wang, Zhigao Zhou
Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr-1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210325/foods-dietary-patterns-and-occupational-class-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-the-male-population
#15
Behrooz Karimi, Ramin Nabizadeh, Masud Yunesian, Parvin Mehdipour, Noushin Rastkari, Afsaneh Aghaie
Telomeres contain TTAGGG repetitive sequences and are located at the end of human chromosomes. Telomere dysfunction is associated with some age-related and chronic diseases, but its relationship with foods, dietary patterns, and occupational class in the young male population is not yet known. In this cross-sectional study, 300 healthy men, residents of Tehran, aged 25-40 years were enrolled from January to December 2016. We employed a cross-sectional study of 300 healthy people, residents of Tehran, aged 25-40 years...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210028/antimicrobial-peptides-sourced-from-post-butter-processing-waste-yak-milk-protein-hydrolysates
#16
Jinjin Pei, Hai Jiang, Xinsheng Li, Wengang Jin, Yanduo Tao
Yak butter is one of the most important foods for the Tibetan people. Of note, its production yields waste yak milk as a by-product. In this work, waste yak milk protein hydrolysates made via Pepsin hydrolysis were shown to have antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, an innovative method of magnetic liposome adsorption combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed to screen for and purify the antimicrobial peptides. Two antimicrobial peptides were obtained and their amino acid sequences were determined by N-sequencing, namely Arg-Val-Met-Phe-Lys-Trp-Ala and Lys-Val-Ile-Ser-Met-Ile...
December 6, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209974/metallothionein-in-hermetia-illucens-linnaeus-1758-larvae-diptera-stratiomyidae-a-potential-biomarker-for-organic-waste-system
#17
Xiaoyun Wang, Qiao Gao, Xinhui Liu, Xiao-Ping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Waheed A A Sayed, Fen Zhu
Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758), is an important economic fly as its larvae can be used for recycling organic waste, such as food waste and manure. H. illucens larvae (BSFL) could uptake Cd from substrates and accumulate it inside bodies, which need to be monitored during waste treatment. Metallothionein (MT) usually serve as biomarker because of its role in metal homeostasis, detoxification, and dose response of heavy metals. Therefore, a MT gene was cloned from H. illucens (HIMT) that encoded 40 amino acids with typical cysteine rich features, which had a high sequence identity with other insect MTs...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209963/generation-of-highly-potent-organic-fertilizer-from-pernicious-aquatic-weed-salvinia-molesta
#18
Naseer Hussain, Tasneem Abbasi, Shahid Abbas Abbasi
Utilization of Salvinia molesta, an aquatic weed which is notorious for its allelopathy and invasiveness, has been explored by its vermicomposting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and plant bioassay tests were conducted to analyze the composition and fertilizer value of S .molesta vermicompost. Germination and seedling growth tests were performed in soil supplemented with vermicompost at levels ranging from 0.75 to 40% by weight of the soil on three common food plants, ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and green gram (Vigna radiata)...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209795/exploring-anaerobic-environments-for-cyanide-and-cyano-derivatives-microbial-degradation
#19
REVIEW
Víctor M Luque-Almagro, Purificación Cabello, Lara P Sáez, Alfonso Olaya-Abril, Conrado Moreno-Vivián, María Dolores Roldán
Cyanide is one of the most toxic chemicals for living organisms described so far. Its toxicity is mainly based on the high affinity that cyanide presents toward metals, provoking inhibition of essential metalloenzymes. Cyanide and its cyano-derivatives are produced in a large scale by many industrial activities related to recovering of precious metals in mining and jewelry, coke production, steel hardening, synthesis of organic chemicals, and food processing industries. As consequence, cyanide-containing wastes are accumulated in the environment becoming a risk to human health and ecosystems...
December 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208532/improvement-of-acidogenic-fermentation-for-volatile-fatty-acid-production-from-protein-rich-substrate-in-food-waste
#20
Xiaoqin Yu, Jun Yin, Dongsheng Shen, Jiali Shentu, Yuyang Long, Ting Chen
Based on our previous study, the low volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from egg white in food waste was mainly attributed to more acidogenic substrates (proteins and amino acids) consumed in the Maillard reaction and more organics converted into lactic acid. In this study, two methods were employed to improve VFA production: (1) reducing Maillard reaction with a drop in pH during hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment, and (2) inhibiting the conversion from protein to lactic acid. HT pretreatment under weakly acidic condition significantly promoted the hydrolysis and degradation of protein and the hydrolytic enzyme (protease) activity, thus increasing VFA yield by 45...
December 2, 2017: Waste Management
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