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food waste

Qin He, Lei Li, Xiaofei Zhao, Li Qu, Di Wu, Xuya Peng
Foaming negatively affects anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW). To identify the causes of foaming, reactor performance and microbial community dynamics were investigated in three mesophilic digesters treating FW. The digesters were operated under different modes, and foaming was induced with several methods. Proliferation of specific bacteria and accumulation of surface active materials may be the main causes of foaming. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) accumulated in these reactors before foaming, which may have contributed to foam formation by decreasing the surface tension of sludge and increasing foam stability...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu-Shiang Wang, Matan Shelomi
Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous...
October 18, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Yeboah-Agyepong Mark, Amoah Philip, Agbo W Nelson, Ashley Muspratt, Samuel Aikins
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 2-3 log units as expected...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
Fernanda Carvalho de Santana, Lucillia Rabelo de Oliveira Torres, Fernanda Branco Shinagawa, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Luciana Tedesco Yoshime, Illana Louise Pereira de Melo, Paulo Sergio Marcellini, Jorge Mancini-Filho
The conditions for the solid-liquid extraction of the antioxidant polyphenol compounds from yellow passion fruit seeds were optimized by response surface methodology with the following variables as the extraction parameters: extraction time (12.8-147.2 min), ethanol concentration (13-97%), and temperature (16.4-83.6 °C). The polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, which were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, were considered dependent variables...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Katja Lappalainen, Johanna Kärkkäinen, Matti Niemelä, Harri Vartiainen, Olli Rissanen, Hanne Korva
In this work, untreated starch-rich potato peel waste was used as a starting material in preparation of cationized starch (CS)(1) in water solution with 2-chloro-3-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) as the cationization reagent. The impact of various factors (activation time, temperature, reaction time, the amount of CHPTAC and NaOH) on the degree of substitution (DS) of CS was studied by using experimental design. The DS values were determined by (1)H NMR. The highest DS (0.40) was obtained when the reaction time was 8h, temperature 30°C, the molar ratio of CHPTAC and NaOH to AGU 3 and 3...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yury Kostyukevich, Mikhail Vlaskin, Ludmila Borisova, Alexander Zherebker, Irina Perminova, Alexey Kononikhin, Igor Popov, Eugene Nikolaev
Recent research has revealed that more than 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally every year. The disposal of such huge biomass has become a challenge. In the present paper, we report the production of the bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction of three classes of food waste: meat, cheese and fruits. The highest yield of the bio-oil was observed for meat (∼60%) and cheese (∼75%), while for fruits, it was considerably low (∼10%). The molecular composition of the obtained bio-oil was investigated using ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and was found to be similar to that obtained from algae...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Aurélia Revel, Marianne Jarzaguet, Marie-Agnès Peyron, Isabelle Papet, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Carole Migné, Laurent Mosoni, Sergio Polakof, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Didier Rémond, Dominique Dardevet
BACKGROUND: Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS), whey (WHEY) or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND) and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state...
2017: PloS One
Ying Zhou, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Jonathan W C Wong
This study aimed to co-compost Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) as the bulking agent with food waste (FW) to develop a high value antipathogenic compost. The FW, sawdust (SD) and CMHRs were mixed at three different mixing ratios, 5:5:1, 2:2:1 and 1:1:1 on dry weight basis. Lime at 2.25% was added to the composting mix to buffer the pH during the composting. A control without lime addition was also included. The mixtures were composted in 20-L in-vessel composters for 56 days. A maximum of 67.2% organic decomposition was achieved with 1:1:1 mixing ratio within 8 weeks...
October 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Muhammad Asif, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Tauqir A Sherazi, Matloob Ahmad, Ameer Fawad Zahoor, Sohail Anjum Shahzad, Zaib Hussain, Hassan Mahmood, Nasir Mahmood
Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fadi Abdelradi
One-third of the world produced food is wasted according to FAO (2011). The aim of this paper is to have an in-depth analysis of consumers' behaviours regarding food waste in Egypt. A conceptual framework is developed that brings many factors considered in the recent literature in one model to be tested using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that the incorporated factors were found statistically significant. Additionally, the individual's perception about food waste was related with food quantities wasted at the household level...
October 13, 2017: Waste Management
Michał Piątek, Aleksander Lisowski, Barbara Lisowska
The aim of our research was to assess a relatively new method of estimating ammonium nitrogen concentration in anaerobic digestion of plant substrates. We analysed our own data, received from the anaerobic digestion of maize silage (PM), as well as data published by Purser et al. (2014) who measured energy crops and slurry (ECS), and food waste (FW). In our study, the process was monitored for VFA content that was determined by gas chromatography, and for the content of ammonium nitrogen determined using the HACH LANGE LCK 303 cuvette test...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Yijing Tang, Qunxing Huang, Kai Sun, Yong Chi, Jianhua Yan
In this work, typical organic food waste (soybean protein (SP)) and typical chlorine enriched plastic waste (polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were chosen as principal MSW components and their interaction during co-pyrolysis was investigated. Results indicate that the interaction accelerated the reaction during co-pyrolysis. The activation energies needed were 2-13% lower for the decomposition of mixture compared with linear calculation while the maximum reaction rates were 12-16% higher than calculation. In the fixed-bed experiments, interaction was observed to reduce the yield of tar by 2-69% and promote the yield of char by 13-39% compared with linear calculation...
October 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
John N Hahladakis, Costas A Velis, Roland Weber, Eleni Iacovidou, Phil Purnell
Over the last 60 years plastics production has increased manifold, owing to their inexpensive, multipurpose, durable and lightweight nature. These characteristics have raised the demand for plastic materials that will continue to grow over the coming years. However, with increased plastic materials production, comes increased plastic material wastage creating a number of challenges, as well as opportunities to the waste management industry. The present overview highlights the waste management and pollution challenges, emphasising on the various chemical substances (known as "additives") contained in all plastic products for enhancing polymer properties and prolonging their life...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jingzhi Wang, Deli Wang, Chunqiang Li, Timothy R Seastedt, Cunzhu Liang, Ling Wang, Wei Sun, Maowei Liang, Yu Li
Large herbivores have pronounced effects on nutrient cycling in grasslands. These organisms are known to alter the quality and quantity of plant production as well as the amounts and quality of plant litter and animal wastes. The generalization that the relative quality of detritus inputs is enhanced by herbivores is well known, but how this process is affected by diet selection processing and feces production of different large herbivores remains largely unstudied. Here, we measured how these differences for cattle and sheep on a dry grassland might influence nitrogen (N) mineralization from feces...
October 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
L De Gelder, K Audenaert, B Willems, K Schelfhout, S De Saeger, M De Boevre
Food and feed stocks heavily contaminated with mycotoxins are rendered unfit for consumption and therefore discarded as waste. Due to the lack of guidelines and in accordance with the prudent avoidance principle, these waste streams are often incinerated. For better valorization, these streams could be used as input for anaerobic digestion. However, the degradation of multiple mycotoxins during anaerobic digestion and their effect on the methane production is currently unknown. In batch tests spiked with mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were degraded for more than 90%...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
S Chandrasekhar, Víctor M Aguayo, Vandana Krishna, Rajlakshmi Nair
We analyse data from the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in the State of Maharashtra, India, which surveyed 2,630 households. This is a unique dataset because in addition to nutritional status of mothers and children, it has information on diets of women and children and household food security. This rich dataset allows us to address three issues: whether household food security predicts higher diet diversity in children aged 6-23 months; whether household food security predicts lower risk of undernutrition; and whether the lower risk of undernutrition in children who live in food secure households is mediated by improved diet diversity for children...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Kim F Michaelsen, Laurence Grummer-Strawn, France Bégin
The complementary feeding period (6-24 months) is a window of opportunity for preventing stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity and for improving long-term development and health. Because WHO published its guiding principles for complementary feeding in 2003, new knowledge and evidence have been generated in the area of child feeding. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the emerging issues in complementary feeding and potential implications on the guidelines revision. Evidence on the effect of the quality and quantity of protein and fat intake on child growth during the complementary feeding period is summarized...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Anuj Kumar, Abhishek Roy, Rashmi Priyadarshinee, Bratin Sengupta, Alok Malaviya, Dalia Dasguptamandal, Tamal Mandal
Rice is one of the imperative staple foods, particularly in the developing countries. The exponential boom in human population has resulted in the continuous expansion in the rice industry in order to meet the food demands. The various stages of paddy processing release huge quantity of solid wastes, mainly rice husk, rice husk ash and liquid wastes in the form of rice industry wastewater. The discharge of the rice industry wastewater imparts a substantial threat to the aquatic bodies and the nearby surrounding and, thus, consequently demands eco-benign treatment plan...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ping Shao, Ben Niu, Hangjun Chen, Peilong Sun
Edible packaging films using polymer for food preservation have been developed for a long time. In this study, the effects of different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, w/v) of tea polyphenols incorporated into pullulan-Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Pul-CMC) solutions on electrospun nanofiber films were evaluated. The fiber size distribution was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The morphological features of nanofibers were modulated through adjusting process parameters (e.g. concentration of polymer solution, applied voltage and feeding rate)...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Naga Vijaya Lakshmi Manchinasetty, Sho Oshima, Masanori Kikuchi
Gonads of sea urchin are consumed in Japan and some countries as food and most parts including its tests are discarded as marine wastes. Therefore, utilization of them as functional materials would reduce the waste as well as encourage Japanese fishery. In this study, magnesium containing calcite granules collected from sea urchin tests were hydrothermally phosphatized and the obtained granules were identified as approximately 82% in mass of magnesium containing β-tricalcium phosphate and 18% in mass of nonstoichiometric hydroxyapatite, i...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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