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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679930/mixed-culture-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-synthesis-from-nutrient-rich-wet-oxidation-liquors
#1
Suren Wijeyekoon, Carlo R Carere, Mark West, Shresta Nath, Daniel Gapes
Organic waste residues can be hydrothermally treated to produce organic acid rich liquors. These hydrothermal liquors are a potential feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. We investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration and substrate feeding regimes on PHA accumulation and yield using two hydrothermal liquors derived from a mixture of primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment sludge and food waste. The enriched culture accumulated a maximum of 41% PHA of cell dry weight within 7 h; which is among the highest reported for N and P rich hydrothermal liquors...
April 12, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678494/household-food-waste-collection-building-service-networks-through-neighborhood-expansion
#2
William R Armington, Roger B Chen
In this paper we develop a residential food waste collection analysis and modeling framework that captures transportation costs faced by service providers in their initial stages of service provision. With this framework and model, we gain insights into network transportation costs and investigate possible service expansion scenarios faced by these organizations. We solve a vehicle routing problem (VRP) formulated for the residential neighborhood context using a heuristic approach developed. The scenarios considered follow a narrative where service providers start with an initial neighborhood or community and expands to incorporate other communities and their households...
April 17, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677675/nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-crop-production-patterns-of-regional-variation-in-the-united-states-1987-2012
#3
Dennis P Swaney, Robert W Howarth, Bongghi Hong
National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677655/stimulation-of-methane-yield-rate-from-food-waste-by-aerobic-pre-treatment
#4
Chuanfu Wu, Miao Yu, Qiqi Huang, Hongzhi Ma, Ming Gao, Qunhui Wang, Kenji Sakai
Aerobic pre-treatment (AP) was applied to enhance methane yield from food waste through anaerobic digestion. Different AP durations (i.e. 2, 5 and 8 days) prior to anaerobic digestion were tested. The results indicated that AP of food waste led to no significant differences (p > 0.05) in methane yield potential (ca. 418 mL/g-VS). However, a suitable AP duration (5 days) increased methane yield rates (ca. 18 mL/d/g-VS; 22.0% higher than the control) by anticipating methane generation and shortening the methanogenic phase via volatile fatty acid reduction and pH increase...
April 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673973/using-agro-industrial-wastes-for-the-cultivation-of-microalgae-and-duckweeds-contamination-risks-and-biomass-safety-concerns
#5
REVIEW
Giorgos Markou, Liang Wang, Jianfeng Ye, Adrian Unc
Aquatic organisms, such as microalgae (Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina), Tetrasselmis, Dunalliela etc.) and duckweed (Lemna spp., Wolffia spp. etc.) are a potential source for the production of protein-rich biomass and for numerous other high-value compounds (fatty acids, pigments, vitamins etc.). Their cultivation using agro-industrial wastes and wastewater (WaW) is of particular interest in the context of a circular economy, not only for recycling valuable nutrients but also for reducing the requirements for fresh water for the production of biomass...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669626/dye-removal-from-water-and-wastewater-using-various-physical-chemical-and-biological-processes
#6
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Paweł K Zarzycki
Synthetic dyes or colorants are key chemicals for various industries producing textiles, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, printer inks, leather, and plastics. Nowadays, the textile industry is the major consumer of dyes. The mass of synthetic colorants used by this industry is estimated at the level of 1 ÷ 3 × 105 tons, in comparison with the total annual consumption of around 7 × 105 tons worldwide. Synthetic dyes are relatively easy to detect but difficult to eliminate from wastewater and surface water ecosystems because of their aromatic chemical structure...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668732/relationship-between-food-waste-diet-quality-and-environmental-sustainability
#7
Zach Conrad, Meredith T Niles, Deborah A Neher, Eric D Roy, Nicole E Tichenor, Lisa Jahns
Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660874/biogas-recovery-from-two-phase-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-and-paper-waste-optimization-of-paper-waste-addition
#8
Yu Qin, Jing Wu, Benyi Xiao, Toshimasa Hojo, Yu-You Li
In order to optimize the biogas recovery from the co-digestion of food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), the effect of PW content on two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) was investigated. The mixtures of FW and PW, with the ratios of 10:0, 8:2, 6:4 and 5:5 (total solids), were fed into TPAD to recover biomethane. After the long-term expriment, it is elucidated that the methanogenesis in TPAD was stable for PW ≤ 40%. When PW = 50%, NH4 HCO3 was added to the methanogenic phase to provide nitrogen. As the indicators of the stability of the anaerobic process, the ammonia and alkalinity in the methanogenic phase were simulated for their decreasing trend...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660705/enhancement-of-volatile-fatty-acid-production-and-biogas-yield-from-food-waste-following-sonication-pretreatment
#9
Nuo Liu, Jianguo Jiang, Feng Yan, Yuchen Gao, Yuan Meng, Aikelaimu Aihemaiti, Tongyao Ju
The positive effect of sonication on volatile fatty acid (VFA) and hydrogen production was investigated by batch experiments. Several sonication densities (2, 1.6, and 1.2 W/mL) and times (5, 10, and 15 min) were tested. The optimal sonication condition was ultrasonic density 2 W/mL and ultrasonic time 15 min (2-U15). The FW particle size larger than 50 μm (d > 50 μm) were more susceptible to the sonication treatment than the smaller particle size (d ≤ 50 μm). The SCOD increased and VS reduction accelerated under sonication treatment...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660704/influence-of-food-waste-addition-over-microbial-communities-in-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-plant-treating-urban-wastewater
#10
N Zamorano-López, P Moñino, L Borrás, D Aguado, R Barat, J Ferrer, A Seco
Notorious changes in microbial communities were observed during and after the joint treatment of wastewater with Food Waste (FW) in an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) plant. The microbial population was analysed by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and dominance of Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Synergistetes and Proteobacteria phyla was found. The relative abundance of these potential hydrolytic phyla increased as a higher fraction of FW was jointly treated. Moreover, whereas Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) rose from 10 to 51 mL CH4 g-1 VS, Methanosarcinales order increased from 34...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659958/food-photography-is-not-an-accurate-measure-of-energy-intake-in-obese-pregnant-women
#11
Jasper Most, Porsha M Vallo, Abby D Altazan, Linda Anne Gilmore, Elizabeth F Sutton, Loren E Cain, Jeffrey H Burton, Corby K Martin, Leanne M Redman
Background: To improve weight management in pregnant women, there is a need to deliver specific, data-based recommendations on energy intake. Objective: This cross-sectional study evaluated the accuracy of an electronic reporting method to measure daily energy intake in pregnant women compared with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Methods: Twenty-three obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m2): 36.9 ± 1.3] pregnant women (aged 28...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659693/the-history-and-future-of-dietary-guidance-in-america
#12
Lisa Jahns, Wendy Davis-Shaw, Alice H Lichtenstein, Suzanne P Murphy, Zach Conrad, Forrest Nielsen
Evidence-based dietary guidance in the United States has progressed substantially since its inception >100 y ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the United States, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs), and emphasizes the foundations upon which they were developed, the process in the formation of past and current guidelines, and present and future applications. Dietary guidance during the first half of the 20th century was focused primarily on food groups in a healthy diet, food safety, safe food storage, and the role of some minerals and vitamins in the prevention of disease...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659550/use-of-olive-oil-industrial-by-product-for-pasta-enrichment
#13
Lucia Padalino, Isabella D'Antuono, Miriana Durante, Amalia Conte, Angela Cardinali, Vito Linsalata, Giovanni Mita, Antonio F Logrieco, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
BACKGROUND: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. METHODS: Three consecutive steps were carried out...
April 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657110/symbiotic-relationship-between-hydrothermal-carbonization-technology-and-anaerobic-digestion-for-food-waste-in-china
#14
REVIEW
Ying Zhou, Nils Engler, Michael Nelles
Food waste (FW) is traditionally disposed through landfills and incineration in China. Nowadays, there are some promising methods, such as anaerobic digestion (AD) or feeding and composting, which are being applied in pilot cities. However, the inherent characteristics of Chinese FW may be regarded as a double-edged sword in the practical applications of these disposal methods. To overcome these challenges, two modes of the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process were reviewed as innovative strategies in this article...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656251/thallium-contamination-of-desert-soil-in-namibia-chemical-mineralogical-and-isotopic-insights
#15
Zuzana Grösslová, Aleš Vaněk, Vendula Oborná, Martin Mihaljevič, Vojtěch Ettler, Jakub Trubač, Petr Drahota, Vít Penížek, Lenka Pavlů, Ondra Sracek, Bohdan Kříbek, Andreas Voegelin, Jörg Göttlicher, Ondřej Drábek, Václav Tejnecký, Jakub Houška, Benjamin Mapani, Tereza Zádorová
We studied arid desert soils from Namibia (Rosh Pinah) that were contaminated with up to 7 mg kg-1 of thallium (Tl) via dust emitted from a local flotation tailing dam. Chemical extractions of waste and soil materials indicated that most of the Tl is strongly bound, in accordance with X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy data that point to the predominant association of Tl with metal sulfides and phyllosilicates. The isotope fractionation factor ε205 Tl of the soil samples (from -0.4 to +3...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655924/quantifying-household-waste-of-fresh-fruit-and-vegetables-in-the-eu
#16
Valeria De Laurentiis, Sara Corrado, Serenella Sala
According to national studies conducted in EU countries, fresh fruit and vegetables contribute to almost 50% of the food waste generated by households. This study presents an estimation of this waste flow, differentiating between unavoidable and avoidable waste. The calculation of these two flows serves different purposes. The first (21.1 kg per person per year) provides a measure of the amount of household waste intrinsically linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and which would still be generated even in a zero-avoidable waste future scenario...
April 11, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653427/potential-of-portuguese-vine-shoot-wastes-as-natural-resources-of-bioactive-compounds
#17
Manuela M Moreira, M Fátima Barroso, João Vasconcellos Porto, M J Ramalhosa, Jaroslava Švarc-Gajić, Letícia Estevinho, Simone Morais, Cristina Delerue-Matos
Since annually a high amount of wastes is produced in vine pruning, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of vine shoots from two Portuguese grape varieties (Touriga Nacional - TN and Tinta Roriz - TR) to be used as a natural source of phenolic compounds. To reach this goal, three techniques were explored, namely microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE) and conventional extraction (CE). The phenolic composition of the extracts, antioxidant and biological activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry and chromatography...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652435/mediterranean-agro-industrial-wastes-as-valuable-substrates-for-lignocellulolytic-enzymes-and-protein-production-by-solid-state-fermentation
#18
José Manuel Salgado, Daniel Sousa, Armando Venâncio, Isabel Belo
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean agro-food industries, among which are wineries, breweries and olive mills, dispose a great amount of wastes, which generate environmental problems and have a low nutritional value to be used as animal feed. In this sense, solid-state fermentation (SSF) can increase the nutritional value of these wastes and simultaneously produce lignocellulolytic enzymes. RESULTS: All fermented wastes were enriched in protein by the three fungi studied...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651303/reproducible-high-yielding-biological-caproate-production-from-food-waste-using-a-single-phase-anaerobic-reactor-system
#19
Corine Orline Nzeteu, Anna Christine Trego, Florence Abram, Vincent O'Flaherty
Background: Nowadays, the vast majority of chemicals are either synthesised from fossil fuels or are extracted from agricultural commodities. However, these production approaches are not environmentally and economically sustainable, as they result in the emission of greenhouse gases and they may also compete with food production. Because of the global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent interest in developing alternative sustainable sources of chemicals. In recent years, organic waste streams have been investigated as attractive and sustainable feedstock alternatives...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651045/dissolved-organic-carbon-leaching-from-plastics-stimulates-microbial-activity-in-the-ocean
#20
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Maria Pinto, Teresa M Langer, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Gerhard J Herndl
Approximately 5.25 trillion plastic pieces are floating at the sea surface. The impact of plastic pollution on the lowest trophic levels of the food web, however, remains unknown. Here we show that plastics release dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the ambient seawater stimulating the activity of heterotrophic microbes. Our estimates indicate that globally up to 23,600 metric tons of DOC are leaching from marine plastics annually. About 60% of it is available to microbial utilization in less than 5 days. If exposed to solar radiation, however, this DOC becomes less labile...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
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