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Yanjun Liu, Yanting Liu, Hao Li, Xindi Fu, Hanwen Guo, Ruihong Meng, Wenjing Lu, Ming Zhao, Hongtao Wang
Aromatic compounds (ACs) emitted from landfills have attracted a lot of attention of the public due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This study assessed the health risk impacts of the fugitive ACs emitted from the working face of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in China. The emission data was acquired by long-term in-situ samplings using a modified wind tunnel system. The uncertainty of aromatic emissions is determined by means of statistics and the emission factors were thus developed...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Dewei Zhao, Frank Witte, Faqiang Lu, Jiali Wang, Junlei Li, Ling Qin
As a new generation of medical metallic material, magnesium (Mg) and its alloys with or without surface coating have attracted a great deal of attention due to its biodegradability and potential for avoiding a removal operation after the implant has fulfilled its function for surgical fixation of injured musculoskeletal tissues. Although a few clinical cases on Mg-based orthopaedic implants were reported more than a century ago, it was not until recently that clinical trials using these implants with improved physicochemical properties were carried out in Germany, China and Korea for bone fracture fixation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Paula Sosenski, Sergio Ramos-Castro, César A Domínguez, Karina Boege, Juan Fornoni
The evolution of monomorphisms from heterostylous ancestors has been related with the presence of homostyly and the loss of self-incompatibility allowing the occurrence of selfing, which could be advantageous under pollinator limitation. However, flowers of some monomorphic species show herkogamy, attraction and rewarding traits that presumably favour cross-pollination and/or a mixed mating system. This study evaluated the contributions of pollinators, breeding system and floral traits to the reproduction of Turnera velutina, a herkogamous monomorphic species...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Guaraci D Cordeiro, Mardiore Pinheiro, Stefan Dötterl, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit was developed, yet, little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and the breeding system of C...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Agnieszka Fiszer, Marianna E Ellison-Klimontowicz, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases comprise a group of nine genetic disorders that are caused by the expansion of the CAG triplet repeat, which encodes glutamine, in unrelated single genes. Various oligonucleotide (ON)-based therapeutic approaches have been considered for polyQ diseases. The very attractive CAG repeat-targeting strategy offers selective silencing of the mutant allele by directly targeting the mutation site. CAG repeat-targeting miRNA-like siRNAs have been shown to specifically inhibit the mutant gene expression, and their characteristic feature is the formation of mismatches in their interactions with the target site...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Michaël Duruisseaux, Anne McLeer-Florin, Martine Antoine, Sanaz Alavizadeh, Virginie Poulot, Roger Lacave, Nathalie Rabbe, Jacques Cadranel, Marie Wislez
Invasive mucinous lung adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma with no effective treatment option in advanced disease. KRAS mutations occur in 28-87% of the cases. NRG1 fusions were recently discovered in KRAS-negative IMA cases and otherwise negative for known driver oncogenes and could represent an attractive therapeutic target. Published data suggest that NRG1 fusions occur essentially in nonsmoking Asian women. From an IMA cohort of 25 French patients of known ethnicity, driver oncogenes EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2 mutations, and ALK and ROS1 rearrangements presence were analyzed...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sainath S Kasar, Kiran R Marathe, Amey J Bhide, Abhijeet P Herwade, Ashok P Giri, Vijay L Maheshwari, Pankaj K Pawar
BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. RESULTS: A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with molecular weight 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II type α-AI from Wrightia religiosa...
October 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Stephan Wilke, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Steffen Fischer, Marianne Patt, Andreas Schildan, Jörg Patt, René Smits, Alexander Hoepping, Jörg Steinbach, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust
BACKGROUND: Both enantiomers of [(18)F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+)-[(18)F]flubatine compared to (-)-[(18)F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+)-[(18)F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (-)-[(18)F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Gaige R VandeZande, Jasmine M Olvany, Julia L Rutherford, Michelle Rasmussen
Enzymatic electrodes are becoming increasingly common for energy production and sensing applications. Research over the past several decades has addressed a major issue that can occur when using these biocatalysts, i.e., slow heterogeneous electron transfer, by incorporation of a redox active species to act as an electron shuttle. There are several advantages to immobilizing both the enzyme and mediator at the enzyme surface, including increased electron transfer rates, decreased enzyme leaching, and minimized diffusion limitations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ju Hui Jeong, Yong Jin Oh, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Young Ho Seo
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has emerged as an attractive cancer therapeutic target due to its role in cellular homeostasis by modulating the stabilization and maturation of many oncogenic proteins. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of Hsp90 inhibitors that hybridized NVP-AUY992 (2) and PU3 (3) in the chalcone scaffold using a structure-based approach. Our results indicate that compound 1g inhibited the proliferation of gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (H1975) cells, downregulated the expression of client proteins of Hsp90 including EGFR, MET, Her2 and Akt, and up-regulated the expression of Hsp70...
October 21, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Andriy Bilichak, Andrey Golubov, Igor Kovalchuk
The discovery of small RNAs in plants and animals almost two decades ago attracted a significant interest towards epigenetic regulation of gene expression and the practical implementation of the gained knowledge in applied studies. New and sometimes unexpected functions have been ascribed to sRNAs almost every couple of years since their discovery, hence indicating that the complete role of sRNAs in plant and animal physiology is still barely understood. Next-generation sequencing technologies allow to generate high-resolution profiles of sRNAs for the consequent analysis and possibly to discover novel functions of sRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
B Ambrosio, M A Aziz-Alaoui
This article is devoted to the characterization of the basin of attraction of pattern solutions for some slow-fast reaction-diffusion systems with a symmetric property and an underlying oscillatory reaction part. We characterize some subsets of initial conditions that prevent the dynamical system to evolve asymptotically toward solutions which are homogeneous in space. We also perform numerical simulations that illustrate theoretical results and give rise to symmetric and non-symmetric pattern solutions. We obtain these last solutions by choosing particular random initial conditions...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
M Nikkhou, M Škarabot, S Čopar, I Muševič
We study topological defect annihilation on a glass fibre with homeotropic surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal molecules. The fibre is set parallel to the nematic director of a planar cell with variable thickness and we create pairs of Saturn ring and Saturn anti-ring using the laser tweezers. In thick cells we observe in the whole region of defect separation a Coulomb-like pair attraction with no background force, [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]. In cells with thickness comparable to glass fibre diameter, we observe the Coulomb-like attraction only at small separations of the defect pair...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
M Y Othman, S Srihari
Foreign body ingestion among children is common and most usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without requiring any intervention. Magnets, however, pose a greater threat especially when more than one are ingested. We report a case of multiple bowel perforation secondary to ingestion of magnetic beads in a 3-year-old.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Akihisa Kangawa, Masayoshi Otake, Satoko Enya, Toshinori Yoshida, Masatoshi Shibata
Microminipigs are becoming increasingly attractive alternatives for various experimental applications, such as general toxicology studies, owing to their manageable size. However, there are limited studies on the male reproductive organs of microminipigs, particularly on the histological aspects of sexual maturity. To clarify the development of male reproductive organs, 35 male microminipigs, aged 0 to 12 months, were used in this study. Histological and histomorphological evaluation was performed based on spermatogenic development, measurement of tubular structure in testes and epididymides, and histological progress of accessory glands...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Shawn I Walsh, Arryn Craney, Floyd E Romesberg
The looming antibiotic crisis has prompted the development of new strategies towards fighting infection. Traditional antibiotics target bacterial processes essential for viability, whereas proposed antivirulence approaches rely on the inhibition of factors that are required only for the initiation and propagation of infection within a host. Although antivirulence compounds have yet to prove their efficacy in the clinic, bacterial signal peptidase I (SPase) represents an attractive target in that SPase inhibitors exhibit broad-spectrum antibiotic activity, but even at sub-MIC doses also impair the secretion of essential virulence factors...
September 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Shan Qian, Tao He, Wei Wang, Yanying He, Man Zhang, Lingling Yang, Guobo Li, Zhouyu Wang
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-mediated kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is identified as an important immune effector pathway in the tumor cells to escape a potentially effective immune response. IDO1 is an attractive target for anticancer therapy and the discovery of IDO1 inhibitors has been intensely ongoing in both academic research laboratories and pharmaceutical organizations. Our study discovered that 1H-indazole was a novel key pharmacophore with potent IDO1 inhibitory activity. A series of new 1H-indazole derivatives were synthesized and determined the enzyme inhibitory activities, and the compound 2g exhibited the highest activity with an IC50 value of 5...
October 6, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
K Kajikhina, M Tsuneto, F Melchers
Early in embryonic development of mice, from day 12.5 after conception, myeloid-lymphoid bipotent progenitors, expressing receptors both for IL7 and CSF-1, migrate from embryonic blood into developing fetal liver. These progenitors also express multiple chemokine receptors, i.e., CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5, all on one cell. Their migration through LYVE-1+ vascular endothelium is guided by CCR7, recognizing the chemokine CCL19, and by CXCR3, recognizing CXCL10/11, chemokines which are both produced by the endothelium...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Dongping Yu, Zhimou Guo, Aijin Shen, Jingyu Yan, Xuefang Dong, Gaowa Jin, Zhen Long, Lina Liang, Xinmiao Liang
Zwitterionic polymer stationary phases have attracted increasing attention in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). In this work, a zwitterionic sulfobetaine functionalized polyacrylamide stationary phase (named TENS) based on porous silica particles was prepared via controlled surface initiated reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Instead of traditional methacrylate type sulfobetaine monomer, acrylamide type sulfobetaine monomer, which has higher chemical stability and hydrophicility, was employed in this work...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
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