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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168742/turning-and-radius-deviation-correction-for-a-hexapod-walking-robot-based-on-an-ant-inspired-sensory-strategy
#1
Yaguang Zhu, Tong Guo, Qiong Liu, Qianwei Zhu, Xiangmo Zhao, Bo Jin
Abstract: In order to find a common approach to plan the turning of a bio-inspired hexapod robot, a locomotion strategy for turning and deviation correction of a hexapod walking robot based on the biological behavior and sensory strategy of ants. A series of experiments using ants were carried out where the gait and the movement form of ants was studied. Taking the results of the ant experiments as inspiration by imitating the behavior of ants during turning, an extended turning algorithm based on arbitrary gait was proposed...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158971/the-ultimate-legs-of-chilopoda-myriapoda-a-review-on-their-morphological-disparity-and-functional-variability
#2
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156162/the-evolution-of-limb-deformity-what-has-changed-over-the-past-ten-years
#3
REVIEW
Jessica L Wilczek, Guido A LaPorta
Limb deformity correction has been widely discussed in orthopedic literature with an increasing interest in technologically based surgical strategies. However, principles described by Ilizarov and Paley still form the basis of these newly developing surgical systems. The recent advances and increased use of computers and mobile devices in the medical arena, along with the application of dynamic hexapod external fixation, have allowed for easier and more convenient strategies, leading to a greater outreach and more confidence in the newer surgeon when faced with addressing a patient with a limb deformity...
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041914/analysis-of-the-genome-of-the-new-zealand-giant-collembolan-holacanthella-duospinosa-sheds-light-on-hexapod-evolution
#4
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949916/an-insect-like-mushroom-body-in-a-crustacean-brain
#5
Gabriella Hannah Wolff, Hanne Halkinrud Thoen, Justin Marshall, Marcel E Sayre, Nicholas James Strausfeld
Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects...
September 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933727/venomics-of-remipede-crustaceans-reveals-novel-peptide-diversity-and-illuminates-the-venom-s-biological-role
#6
Björn M von Reumont, Eivind A B Undheim, Robin-Tobias Jauss, Ronald A Jenner
We report the first integrated proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of a crustacean venom. Remipede crustaceans are the venomous sister group of hexapods, and the venom glands of the remipede Xibalbanus tulumensis express a considerably more complex cocktail of proteins and peptides than previously thought. We identified 32 venom protein families, including 13 novel peptide families that we name xibalbins, four of which lack similarities to any known structural class. Our proteomic data confirm the presence in the venom of 19 of the 32 families...
July 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918263/dna-nanotechnology-based-composite-type-gold-nanoparticle-immunostimulatory-dna-hydrogel-for-tumor-photothermal-immunotherapy
#7
Tomoya Yata, Yuki Takahashi, Mengmeng Tan, Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Shozo Ohtsuki, Tatsuya Murakami, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuka Umeki, Tomoki Shiomi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles resulted in the formation of composite-type gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogels. Laser irradiation of the hydrogel resulted in the release of hexapodna, which efficiently stimulated immune cells to release proinflammatory cytokines...
November 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867173/different-processing-of-capa-and-pyrokinin-precursors-in-the-giant-mealworm-beetle-zophobas-atratus-tenebrionidae-and-the-boll-weevil-anthonomus-grandis-grandis-curculionidae
#8
Susanne Neupert, Pawel Marciniak, Rene Köhler, Ronald J Nachman, Charles P-C Suh, Reinhard Predel
Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs...
August 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#9
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
September 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799989/new-trends-in-ring-fixators
#10
Christopher A Iobst
Multiple versions of ring fixators are currently available to orthopaedic surgeons. Although the traditional Ilizarov-type ring fixator is still available, many surgeons are now using computer-assisted hexapod frames. There has been a recent surge in the number of different hexapod ring fixators on the market. This article will review some of the new trends in ring fixator hardware and software as well as discuss possible future directions of ring fixator development.
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741632/strain-induced-stranski-krastanov-growth-of-pd-pt-core-shell-hexapods-and-octapods-as-electrocatalysts-for-methanol-oxidation
#11
Yalin Xiong, Yanling Ma, Junjie Li, Jingbo Huang, Yucong Yan, Hui Zhang, Jianbo Wu, Deren Yang
Bimetallic nanocrystals with a branched shape have received great interest as catalysts due to their unique structures and fascinating properties. However, the conventional synthetic approaches based on the island growth mode often lead to the dendritic nanostructures with inhomogeneous and uncontrolled branches. Here precise control over the number of branches has been realized in the deposition of Pt on Pd seeds through the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. Based on such a growth mode, Pd@Pt core-shell hexapods and octapods have been generated by a seeded growth with Pd octahedra and cubes as the seeds, respectively...
July 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655921/novel-insights-into-mitochondrial-gene-rearrangement-in-thrips-insecta-thysanoptera-from-the-grass-thrips-anaphothrips-obscurus
#12
Hangrui Liu, Hu Li, Fan Song, Wenyi Gu, Jinian Feng, Wanzhi Cai, Renfu Shao
We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus, which is highly rearranged and differs from the four thrips species reported previously in the arrangement of both tRNA genes and a protein-coding gene, nad3, and in the copy number of the control region (CR). We reconstructed the phylogeny of the thrips with mt genome sequences, and used it as a framework to gain insights into mt genome evolution in thrips. It is evident that A. obscurus is less rearranged in mt genome organization than the other four known thrips...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654003/a-force-sensing-system-on-legs-for-biomimetic-hexapod-robots-interacting-with-unstructured-terrain
#13
He Zhang, Rui Wu, Changle Li, Xizhe Zang, Xuehe Zhang, Hongzhe Jin, Jie Zhao
The tiger beetle can maintain its stability by controlling the interaction force between its legs and an unstructured terrain while it runs. The biomimetic hexapod robot mimics a tiger beetle, and a comprehensive force sensing system combined with certain algorithms can provide force information that can help the robot understand the unstructured terrain that it interacts with. This study introduces a complicated leg force sensing system for a hexapod robot that is the same for all six legs. First, the layout and configuration of sensing system are designed according to the structure and sizes of legs...
June 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649197/a-minimal-model-describing-hexapedal-interlimb-coordination-the-tegotae-based-approach
#14
Dai Owaki, Masashi Goda, Sakiko Miyazawa, Akio Ishiguro
Insects exhibit adaptive and versatile locomotion despite their minimal neural computing. Such locomotor patterns are generated via coordination between leg movements, i.e., an interlimb coordination, which is largely controlled in a distributed manner by neural circuits located in thoracic ganglia. However, the mechanism responsible for the interlimb coordination still remains elusive. Understanding this mechanism will help us to elucidate the fundamental control principle of animals' agile locomotion and to realize robots with legs that are truly adaptive and could not be developed solely by conventional control theories...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636213/distribution-and-hypoxia-regulation-of-haemocyanin-in-springtails-collembola
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
October 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633150/hexapod-frame-stacked-transport-for-tibial-infected-nonunions-with-bone-loss-analysis-of-use-of-adjunctive-stability
#16
Joshua K Napora, Douglas S Weinberg, Blake A Eagle, Bram R Kaufman, John K Sontich
OBJECTIVES: The stacked hexapod bone transport technique is an effective treatment for infected tibial nonunions with bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patients' risk factors and timing for requiring adjunctive stabilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with infected posttraumatic nonunions of the tibia. INTERVENTION: Resection of nonunion with application of stacked hexapod frame for bone transport...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623893/evolutionary-origin-of-type-iv-classical-cadherins-in-arthropods
#17
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda
BACKGROUND: Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602656/a-phylogenomic-solution-to-the-origin-of-insects-by-resolving-crustacean-hexapod-relationships
#18
Martin Schwentner, David J Combosch, Joey Pakes Nelson, Gonzalo Giribet
Insects, the most diverse group of organisms, are nested within crustaceans, arguably the most abundant group of marine animals. However, to date, no consensus has been reached as to which crustacean taxon is the closest relative of hexapods. A majority of studies have proposed that Branchiopoda (e.g., fairy shrimps) is the sister group of Hexapoda [1-7]. However, these investigations largely excluded two equally important taxa, Remipedia and Cephalocarida. Other studies suggested Remipedia [8-11] or Remipedia + Cephalocarida [12, 13] as potential sister groups of hexapods, but they either did not include Cephalocarida or used only Sanger sequence data and morphology [9, 12]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541308/the-controlled-disassembly-of-mesostructured-perovskites-as-an-avenue-to-fabricating-high-performance-nanohybrid-catalysts
#19
Yuan Wang, Hamidreza Arandiyan, Hassan A Tahini, Jason Scott, Xin Tan, Hongxing Dai, Julian D Gale, Andrew L Rohl, Sean C Smith, Rose Amal
Versatile superstructures composed of nanoparticles have recently been prepared using various disassembly methods. However, little information is known on how the structural disassembly influences the catalytic performance of the materials. Here we show how the disassembly of an ordered porous La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite array, to give hexapod mesostructured nanoparticles, exposes a new crystal facet which is more active for catalytic methane combustion. On fragmenting three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) structures in a controlled manner, via a process that has been likened to retrosynthesis, hexapod-shaped building blocks can be harvested which possess a mesostructured architecture...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500371/the-silhouette-technique-improving-post-operative-radiographs-for-planning-of-correction-with-a-hexapod-external-fixator
#20
Jonathan Wright, Shiraz A Sabah, Shelain Patel, Gavin Spence
Correction of deformity of a bone through use of a hexapod external fixator requires clear definition of the relationship between the bone and the frame. Achieving adequate orthogonal calibrated radiographs for this aim, with minimum X-ray exposure, can prove a challenge in the radiography suite. We describe a simple technique for obtaining adequate imaging, without the use of additional equipment. Introduction of the technique to our department has demonstrated an improvement in the adequacy of planning radiographs and a reduction in the requirement for repeat imaging...
August 2017: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
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