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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933727/venomics-of-remipede-crustaceans-reveals-novel-peptide-diversity-and-illuminates-the-venom-s-biological-role
#1
Björn M von Reumont, Eivind A B Undheim, Robin-Tobias Jauss, Ronald A Jenner
We report the first integrated proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of a crustacean venom. Remipede crustaceans are the venomous sister group of hexapods, and the venom glands of the remipede Xibalbanus tulumensis express a considerably more complex cocktail of proteins and peptides than previously thought. We identified 32 venom protein families, including 13 novel peptide families that we name xibalbins, four of which lack similarities to any known structural class. Our proteomic data confirm the presence in the venom of 19 of the 32 families...
July 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918263/dna-nanotechnology-based-composite-type-gold-nanoparticle-immunostimulatory-dna-hydrogel-for-tumor-photothermal-immunotherapy
#2
Tomoya Yata, Yuki Takahashi, Mengmeng Tan, Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Shozo Ohtsuki, Tatsuya Murakami, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuka Umeki, Tomoki Shiomi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles resulted in the formation of composite-type gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogels. Laser irradiation of the hydrogel resulted in the release of hexapodna, which efficiently stimulated immune cells to release proinflammatory cytokines...
September 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867173/different-processing-of-capa-and-pyrokinin-precursors-in-the-giant-mealworm-beetle-zophobas-atratus-tenebrionidae-and-the-boll-weevil-anthonomus-grandis-grandis-curculionidae
#3
Susanne Neupert, Pawel Marciniak, Rene Köhler, Ronald J Nachman, Charles P-C Suh, Reinhard Predel
Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs...
August 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#4
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799989/new-trends-in-ring-fixators
#5
Christopher A Iobst
Multiple versions of ring fixators are currently available to orthopaedic surgeons. Although the traditional Ilizarov-type ring fixator is still available, many surgeons are now using computer-assisted hexapod frames. There has been a recent surge in the number of different hexapod ring fixators on the market. This article will review some of the new trends in ring fixator hardware and software as well as discuss possible future directions of ring fixator development.
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741632/strain-induced-stranski-krastanov-growth-of-pd-pt-core-shell-hexapods-and-octapods-as-electrocatalysts-for-methanol-oxidation
#6
Yalin Xiong, Yanling Ma, Junjie Li, Jingbo Huang, Yucong Yan, Hui Zhang, Jianbo Wu, Deren Yang
Bimetallic nanocrystals with a branched shape have received great interest as catalysts due to their unique structures and fascinating properties. However, the conventional synthetic approaches based on the island growth mode often lead to the dendritic nanostructures with inhomogeneous and uncontrolled branches. Here precise control over the number of branches has been realized in the deposition of Pt on Pd seeds through the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. Based on such a growth mode, Pd@Pt core-shell hexapods and octapods have been generated by a seeded growth with Pd octahedra and cubes as the seeds, respectively...
July 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655921/novel-insights-into-mitochondrial-gene-rearrangement-in-thrips-insecta-thysanoptera-from-the-grass-thrips-anaphothrips-obscurus
#7
Hangrui Liu, Hu Li, Fan Song, Wenyi Gu, Jinian Feng, Wanzhi Cai, Renfu Shao
We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus, which is highly rearranged and differs from the four thrips species reported previously in the arrangement of both tRNA genes and a protein-coding gene, nad3, and in the copy number of the control region (CR). We reconstructed the phylogeny of the thrips with mt genome sequences, and used it as a framework to gain insights into mt genome evolution in thrips. It is evident that A. obscurus is less rearranged in mt genome organization than the other four known thrips...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654003/a-force-sensing-system-on-legs-for-biomimetic-hexapod-robots-interacting-with-unstructured-terrain
#8
He Zhang, Rui Wu, Changle Li, Xizhe Zang, Xuehe Zhang, Hongzhe Jin, Jie Zhao
The tiger beetle can maintain its stability by controlling the interaction force between its legs and an unstructured terrain while it runs. The biomimetic hexapod robot mimics a tiger beetle, and a comprehensive force sensing system combined with certain algorithms can provide force information that can help the robot understand the unstructured terrain that it interacts with. This study introduces a complicated leg force sensing system for a hexapod robot that is the same for all six legs. First, the layout and configuration of sensing system are designed according to the structure and sizes of legs...
June 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649197/a-minimal-model-describing-hexapedal-interlimb-coordination-the-tegotae-based-approach
#9
Dai Owaki, Masashi Goda, Sakiko Miyazawa, Akio Ishiguro
Insects exhibit adaptive and versatile locomotion despite their minimal neural computing. Such locomotor patterns are generated via coordination between leg movements, i.e., an interlimb coordination, which is largely controlled in a distributed manner by neural circuits located in thoracic ganglia. However, the mechanism responsible for the interlimb coordination still remains elusive. Understanding this mechanism will help us to elucidate the fundamental control principle of animals' agile locomotion and to realize robots with legs that are truly adaptive and could not be developed solely by conventional control theories...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636213/distribution-and-hypoxia-regulation-of-haemocyanin-in-springtails-collembola
#10
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633150/hexapod-frame-stacked-transport-for-tibial-infected-nonunions-with-bone-loss-analysis-of-use-of-adjunctive-stability
#11
Joshua K Napora, Douglas S Weinberg, Blake A Eagle, Bram R Kaufman, John K Sontich
OBJECTIVES: The stacked hexapod bone transport technique is an effective treatment for infected tibial nonunions with bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patients' risk factors and timing for requiring adjunctive stabilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with infected posttraumatic nonunions of the tibia. INTERVENTION: Resection of nonunion with application of stacked hexapod frame for bone transport...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623893/evolutionary-origin-of-type-iv-classical-cadherins-in-arthropods
#12
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda
BACKGROUND: Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602656/a-phylogenomic-solution-to-the-origin-of-insects-by-resolving-crustacean-hexapod-relationships
#13
Martin Schwentner, David J Combosch, Joey Pakes Nelson, Gonzalo Giribet
Insects, the most diverse group of organisms, are nested within crustaceans, arguably the most abundant group of marine animals. However, to date, no consensus has been reached as to which crustacean taxon is the closest relative of hexapods. A majority of studies have proposed that Branchiopoda (e.g., fairy shrimps) is the sister group of Hexapoda [1-7]. However, these investigations largely excluded two equally important taxa, Remipedia and Cephalocarida. Other studies suggested Remipedia [8-11] or Remipedia + Cephalocarida [12, 13] as potential sister groups of hexapods, but they either did not include Cephalocarida or used only Sanger sequence data and morphology [9, 12]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541308/the-controlled-disassembly-of-mesostructured-perovskites-as-an-avenue-to-fabricating-high-performance-nanohybrid-catalysts
#14
Yuan Wang, Hamidreza Arandiyan, Hassan A Tahini, Jason Scott, Xin Tan, Hongxing Dai, Julian D Gale, Andrew L Rohl, Sean C Smith, Rose Amal
Versatile superstructures composed of nanoparticles have recently been prepared using various disassembly methods. However, little information is known on how the structural disassembly influences the catalytic performance of the materials. Here we show how the disassembly of an ordered porous La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite array, to give hexapod mesostructured nanoparticles, exposes a new crystal facet which is more active for catalytic methane combustion. On fragmenting three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) structures in a controlled manner, via a process that has been likened to retrosynthesis, hexapod-shaped building blocks can be harvested which possess a mesostructured architecture...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500371/the-silhouette-technique-improving-post-operative-radiographs-for-planning-of-correction-with-a-hexapod-external-fixator
#15
Jonathan Wright, Shiraz A Sabah, Shelain Patel, Gavin Spence
Correction of deformity of a bone through use of a hexapod external fixator requires clear definition of the relationship between the bone and the frame. Achieving adequate orthogonal calibrated radiographs for this aim, with minimum X-ray exposure, can prove a challenge in the radiography suite. We describe a simple technique for obtaining adequate imaging, without the use of additional equipment. Introduction of the technique to our department has demonstrated an improvement in the adequacy of planning radiographs and a reduction in the requirement for repeat imaging...
August 2017: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464755/limb-lengthening-and-deformity-correction-of-congenital-and-acquired-deformities-in-children-using-the-taylor-spatial-frame
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joachim Horn, Harald Steen, Stefan Huhnstock, Ivan Hvid, Ragnhild B Gunderson
Background and purpose - Hexapod ring fixators such as the Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) have shown good outcomes. However, there have only been a few studies comparing the use of TSF with various etiologies of the deformity. We compared the use of TSF in congenital and acquired deformities in children. Patients and methods - We reviewed 213 lower extremity reconstructive procedures with the TSF in 192 patients who were operated between October 2000 and October 2015. 128 procedures (67 proximal tibiae, 51 distal femora, and 10 distal tibiae) in 117 children (median age 14 (4-18) years; 59 girls) fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
June 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463624/evaluation-of-robot-guided-minimally-invasive-implantation-of-2067-pedicle-screws
#17
Naureen Keric, Christian Doenitz, Amer Haj, Izabela Rachwal-Czyzewicz, Mirjam Renovanz, Dominik M A Wesp, Stephan Boor, Jens Conrad, Alexander Brawanski, Alf Giese, Sven R Kantelhardt
Objective Recent studies have investigated the role of spinal image guidance for pedicle screw placement. Many authors have observed an elevated placement accuracy and overall improvement of outcome measures. This study assessed a bi-institutional experience following introduction of the Renaissance miniature robot for spinal image guidance in Europe. Methods The medical records and radiographs of all patients who underwent robot-guided implantation of spinal instrumentation using the novel system (between October 2011 and March 2015 in Mainz and February 2014 and February 2016 in Regensburg) were reviewed to determine the efficacy and safety of the newly introduced robotic system...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460028/evolutionary-history-of-chemosensory-related-gene-families-across-the-arthropoda
#18
Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B Munro, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C Silva, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive dataset. In particular, odorant receptors (ORs) were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445464/burgess-shale-fossils-illustrate-the-origin-of-the-mandibulate-body-plan
#19
Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron
Retracing the evolutionary history of arthropods has been one of the greatest challenges in biology. During the past decade, phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have coalesced towards the conclusion that Mandibulata, the most diverse and abundant group of animals, is a distinct clade from Chelicerata, in that its members possess post-oral head appendages specialized for food processing, notably the mandible. The origin of the mandibulate body plan, however, which encompasses myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods, has remained poorly documented...
May 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428035/evaluation-of-the-external-fixator-truelok-hexapod-system-for-tibial-deformity-correction-in-children
#20
S Pesenti, C A Iobst, F Launay
BACKGROUND: Tibial deformities are common in paediatric orthopaedic practice. Correcting multiplanar tibial deformities associated with lower limb length discrepancy can be challenging. Hexapod external fixation with gradual correction has been proven effective in this situation. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and radiological outcomes of gradual tibial deformity correction using the external fixator TL-HEX™ (Orthofix) in children. HYPOTHESIS: TL-HEX™ is effective in correcting tibial deformities in children...
April 17, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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