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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636213/distribution-and-hypoxia-regulation-of-haemocyanin-in-springtails-collembola
#1
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633150/hexapod-frame-stacked-transport-for-tibial-infected-nonunions-with-bone-loss-analysis-of-use-of-adjunctive-stability
#2
Joshua K Napora, Douglas S Weinberg, Blake A Eagle, Bram R Kaufman, John K Sontich
OBJECTIVES: The stacked hexapod bone transport technique is an effective treatment for infected tibial nonunions with bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patients' risk factors and timing for requiring adjunctive stabilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with infected posttraumatic nonunions of the tibia. INTERVENTION: Resection of nonunion with application of stacked hexapod frame for bone transport...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623893/evolutionary-origin-of-type-iv-classical-cadherins-in-arthropods
#3
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda
BACKGROUND: Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602656/a-phylogenomic-solution-to-the-origin-of-insects-by-resolving-crustacean-hexapod-relationships
#4
Martin Schwentner, David J Combosch, Joey Pakes Nelson, Gonzalo Giribet
Insects, the most diverse group of organisms, are nested within crustaceans, arguably the most abundant group of marine animals. However, to date, no consensus has been reached as to which crustacean taxon is the closest relative of hexapods. A majority of studies have proposed that Branchiopoda (e.g., fairy shrimps) is the sister group of Hexapoda [1-7]. However, these investigations largely excluded two equally important taxa, Remipedia and Cephalocarida. Other studies suggested Remipedia [8-11] or Remipedia + Cephalocarida [12, 13] as potential sister groups of hexapods, but they either did not include Cephalocarida or used only Sanger sequence data and morphology [9, 12]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541308/the-controlled-disassembly-of-mesostructured-perovskites-as-an-avenue-to-fabricating-high-performance-nanohybrid-catalysts
#5
Yuan Wang, Hamidreza Arandiyan, Hassan A Tahini, Jason Scott, Xin Tan, Hongxing Dai, Julian D Gale, Andrew L Rohl, Sean C Smith, Rose Amal
Versatile superstructures composed of nanoparticles have recently been prepared using various disassembly methods. However, little information is known on how the structural disassembly influences the catalytic performance of the materials. Here we show how the disassembly of an ordered porous La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite array, to give hexapod mesostructured nanoparticles, exposes a new crystal facet which is more active for catalytic methane combustion. On fragmenting three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) structures in a controlled manner, via a process that has been likened to retrosynthesis, hexapod-shaped building blocks can be harvested which possess a mesostructured architecture...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500371/the-silhouette-technique-improving-post-operative-radiographs-for-planning-of-correction-with-a-hexapod-external-fixator
#6
Jonathan Wright, Shiraz A Sabah, Shelain Patel, Gavin Spence
Correction of deformity of a bone through use of a hexapod external fixator requires clear definition of the relationship between the bone and the frame. Achieving adequate orthogonal calibrated radiographs for this aim, with minimum X-ray exposure, can prove a challenge in the radiography suite. We describe a simple technique for obtaining adequate imaging, without the use of additional equipment. Introduction of the technique to our department has demonstrated an improvement in the adequacy of planning radiographs and a reduction in the requirement for repeat imaging...
May 12, 2017: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464755/limb-lengthening-and-deformity-correction-of-congenital-and-acquired-deformities-in-children-using-the-taylor-spatial-frame
#7
Joachim Horn, Harald Steen, Stefan Huhnstock, Ivan Hvid, Ragnhild B Gunderson
Background and purpose - Hexapod ring fixators such as the Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) have shown good outcomes. However, there have only been a few studies comparing the use of TSF with various etiologies of the deformity. We compared the use of TSF in congenital and acquired deformities in children. Patients and methods - We reviewed 213 lower extremity reconstructive procedures with the TSF in 192 patients who were operated between October 2000 and October 2015. 128 procedures (67 proximal tibiae, 51 distal femora, and 10 distal tibiae) in 117 children (median age 14 (4-18) years; 59 girls) fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
June 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463624/evaluation-of-robot-guided-minimally-invasive-implantation-of-2067-pedicle-screws
#8
Naureen Keric, Christian Doenitz, Amer Haj, Izabela Rachwal-Czyzewicz, Mirjam Renovanz, Dominik M A Wesp, Stephan Boor, Jens Conrad, Alexander Brawanski, Alf Giese, Sven R Kantelhardt
Objective Recent studies have investigated the role of spinal image guidance for pedicle screw placement. Many authors have observed an elevated placement accuracy and overall improvement of outcome measures. This study assessed a bi-institutional experience following introduction of the Renaissance miniature robot for spinal image guidance in Europe. Methods The medical records and radiographs of all patients who underwent robot-guided implantation of spinal instrumentation using the novel system (between October 2011 and March 2015 in Mainz and February 2014 and February 2016 in Regensburg) were reviewed to determine the efficacy and safety of the newly introduced robotic system...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460028/evolutionary-history-of-chemosensory-related-gene-families-across-the-arthropoda
#9
Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B Munro, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C Silva, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive dataset. In particular, odorant receptors (ORs) were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445464/burgess-shale-fossils-illustrate-the-origin-of-the-mandibulate-body-plan
#10
Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron
Retracing the evolutionary history of arthropods has been one of the greatest challenges in biology. During the past decade, phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have coalesced towards the conclusion that Mandibulata, the most diverse and abundant group of animals, is a distinct clade from Chelicerata, in that its members possess post-oral head appendages specialized for food processing, notably the mandible. The origin of the mandibulate body plan, however, which encompasses myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods, has remained poorly documented...
May 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428035/evaluation-of-the-external-fixator-truelok-hexapod-system-for-tibial-deformity-correction-in-children
#11
Sébastien Pesenti, Christopher A Iobst, Franck Launay
BACKGROUND: Tibial deformities are common in paediatric orthopaedic practice. Correcting multiplanar tibial deformities associated with lower limb length discrepancycan be challenging. Hexapod external fixation with gradual correction has been proven effective in this situation. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and radiological outcomes of gradual tibial deformity correction using the external fixator TL-HEX(TM)(Orthofix) in children. HYPOTHESIS: TL-HEX™ is effective in correcting tibial deformities in children...
April 17, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422047/template-for-the-neural-control-of-directed-stepping-generalized-to-all-legs-of-mantisbot
#12
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Roger D Quinn
We previously developed a neural controller for one leg of our six-legged robot, MantisBot, that could direct locomotion toward a goal by modulating leg-local reflexes with simple descending commands from a head sensor. In this work, we successfully apply an automated method to tune the control network for all three pairs of legs of our hexapod robot MantisBot in only 90 s with a desktop computer. Each foot's motion changes appropriately as the body's intended direction of travel changes. In addition, several results from studies of walking insects are captured by this model...
June 8, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385547/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-stimulation-of-toll-like-receptor-9-by-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotides-incorporated-into-polypod-like-dna-nanostructures
#13
Yosuke Takahashi, Tatsuoki Maezawa, Yuki Araie, Yuki Takahashi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) DNA is known to increase the potency of vaccines. Here, in vitro and in vivo stimulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) by CpG DNA incorporated into polypod-like DNA nanostructures was evaluated by measuring the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) released from macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells and plasma interleukin (IL)-12p40 in vivo following intravenous injection into mice. Phosphodiester CpG1668 was selected as the CpG DNA, and tripodna and hexapodna, which were CpG1668-containing tripod and hexapod-like DNA nanostructures, respectively, were designed...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357471/mechanical-load-exerted-by-pet-g-aligners-during-mesial-and-distal-derotation-of-a-mandibular-canine-an-in-vitro-study
#14
F Elkholy, B Mikhaiel, F Schmidt, B G Lapatki
INTRODUCTION: The six force-moment (F/M) components exerted by aligners of different thickness during simulated mesiorotation and distorotation of a mandibular canine were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acrylic mandibular model with a separated right canine mounted on a hexapod via a 3D F/M sensor was used. Duran+(®) aligners (Scheu Dental, Germany) of thickness 0.5, 0.625, and 0.75 mm were fabricated on plaster models with the measurement tooth in its neutral position...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342821/correction-of-axial-deformity-during-lengthening-in-fibular-hypoplasia-hexapodal-versus-monorail-external-fixation
#15
Antoine Chalopin, Loïc Geffroy, Sébastien Pesenti, Antoine Hamel, Franck Launay
INTRODUCTION: Childhood fibular hypoplasia is a rare pathology which may or may not involve limb-length discrepancy and axial deformity in one or more dimensions. The objective of the present study was to compare the quality of the axial correction achieved in lengthening procedures by hexapodal versus monorail external fixators. The hypothesis was that the hexapodal fixator provides more precise correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 52 children with fibular hypoplasia...
March 22, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#16
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316142/evolutionary-ecology-of-beta-lactam-gene-clusters-in-animals
#17
Wouter Suring, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Blanke, Janine Mariën, Tim Schol, Valeria Agamennone, Anna Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Matty P Berg, Abraham Brouwer, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs
Beta-lactam biosynthesis was thought to occur only in fungi and bacteria, but we recently reported the presence of isopenicillin N synthase in a soil-dwelling animal, Folsomia candida. However, it has remained unclear whether this gene is part of a larger beta-lactam biosynthesis pathway and how widespread the occurrence of penicillin biosynthesis is among animals. Here, we analysed the distribution of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes throughout the animal kingdom and identified a beta-lactam gene cluster in the genome of F...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290669/coordination-controlled-one-dimensional-molecular-chains-in-hexapodal-adenine-silver-ultrathin-films
#18
R Kamal Saravanan, Prithwidip Saha, Viruthakasi Venkatesh, Thiruvancheril G Gopakumar, Sandeep Verma
Growth of a silver coordination polymer of a C3-symmetric hexaadenine ligand is studied on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), using high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM). This unusual ligand offers 6-fold multidentate coordination sites, and consequently, a multidimensional growth of coordination polymer is expected. Notably, each discrete hexapodal unit is bridged by two silver ions along one of the crystallographic directions, resulting in high interaction energy along this direction. When the polymer was deposited on an HOPG surface from a dilute solution, we observed abundant one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer chains, with a minimum width of approximately 4...
April 3, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273908/specialized-adaptations-for-springtail-predation-in-mesozoic-beetles
#19
Zi-Wei Yin, Chen-Yang Cai, Di-Ying Huang, Li-Zhen Li
Insects exhibit a variety of morphological specializations specific to particular behaviors, and these permit the reconstruction of palaeobiological traits. Despite the critical importance of predator-prey strategies in insect evolution, the appearance of particular aspects of predation are often difficult to determine from the fossil record of hexapods. Here we report the discovery of highly specialized, mid-Cretaceous ant-like stone beetles (Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) displaying morphological modifications unknown among living scydmaenids and associated with predation on springtails (Collembola), a widespread and abundant group of significantly greater geological age...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267607/amalga-like-virus-infecting-antonospora-locustae-a-microsporidian-pathogen-of-grasshoppers-plus-related-viruses-associated-with-other-arthropods
#20
Jesse D Pyle, Patrick J Keeling, Max L Nibert
A previously reported Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library from spores of microsporidian Antonospora locustae includes a number of clones with sequence similarities to plant amalgaviruses. Reexamining the sequence accessions from that library, we found additional such clones, contributing to a 3247-nt contig that approximates the length of an amalga-like virus genome. Using A. locustae spores stored from that previous study, and new ones obtained from the same source, we newly visualized the putative dsRNA genome of this virus and obtained amplicons yielding a 3387-nt complete genome sequence...
April 2, 2017: Virus Research
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