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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715837/experimental-investigation-in-nodal-aberration-theory-nat-with-a-customized-ritchey-chr%C3%A3-tien-system-third-order-coma
#1
Nan Zhao, Jonathan C Papa, Kyle Fuerschbach, Yanfeng Qiao, Kevin P Thompson, Jannick P Rolland
Nodal aberration theory (NAT) describes the aberration properties of optical systems without symmetry. NAT was fully described mathematically and investigated through real-ray tracing software, but an experimental investigation is yet to be realized. In this study, a two-mirror Ritchey-Chrétien telescope was designed and built, including testing of the mirrors in null configurations, for experimental investigation of NAT. A feature of this custom telescope is a high-precision hexapod that controls the secondary mirror of the telescope to purposely introduce system misalignments and quantify the introduced aberrations interferometrically...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707059/posteromedial-bowing-of-the-tibia-a-benign-condition-or-a-case-for-limb-reconstruction
#2
J Wright, R A Hill, D M Eastwood, A Hashemi-Nejad, P Calder, S Tennant
Purpose: To review the initial deformity and subsequent remodelling in posteromedial bowing of the tibia and the outcome of limb reconstruction in this condition. Patients and Methods: In all, 38 patients with posteromedial bowing of the tibia presenting between 2000 and 2016 were identified. Mean follow-up from presentation was 78 months. A total of 17 patients underwent lengthening and deformity correction surgery, whilst three further patients are awaiting lengthening and deformity correction procedures...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674453/multiple-large-scale-gene-and-genome-duplications-during-the-evolution-of-hexapods
#3
Zheng Li, George P Tiley, Sally R Galuska, Chris R Reardon, Thomas I Kidder, Rebecca J Rundell, Michael S Barker
Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) is a major contributor to genome evolution and diversity. Although polyploidy is recognized as an important component of plant evolution, it is generally considered to play a relatively minor role in animal evolution. Ancient polyploidy is found in the ancestry of some animals, especially fishes, but there is little evidence for ancient WGDs in other metazoan lineages. Here we use recently published transcriptomes and genomes from more than 150 species across the insect phylogeny to investigate whether ancient WGDs occurred during the evolution of Hexapoda, the most diverse clade of animals...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653265/proteomic-analysis-of-chemosensory-organs-in-the-honey-bee-parasite-varroa-destructor-a-comprehensive-examination-of-the-potential-carriers-for-semiochemicals
#4
Immacolata Iovinella, Alison McAfee, Guido Mastrobuoni, Stefan Kempa, Leonard J Foster, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
We have performed a proteomic analysis on chemosensory organs of Varroa destructor, the honey bee mite, in order to identify putative soluble carriers for pheromones and other olfactory cues emitted by the host. In particular, we have analysed forelegs, mouthparts (palps, chelicera and hypostome) and the second pair of legs (as control tissue) in reproductive and phoretic stages of the Varroa life cycle. We identified 958 Varroa proteins, most of them common to the different organs and stages. Sequence analysis shows that four proteins can be assigned to the odorant-binding protein (OBP)-like class, which bear some similarity to insect OBPs, but so far have only been reported in some Chelicerata...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651555/larval-neurogenesis-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-californicus-tetraconata-multicrustacea
#5
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
April 12, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607929/enhanced-activity-of-immunosuppressive-oligodeoxynucleotides-by-incorporating-them-into-hexapod-like-nanostructured-dna
#6
Yuki Araie, Yosuke Takahashi, Yuki Takahashi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
A151 and other immunosuppressive oligodeoxynucleotides that act as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 antagonists are candidate agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in which TLR9 activation leads to harmful immune responses. Their efficient delivery to TLR9-positive target cells will increase their potency, but few attempts have been made to enhance their delivery. We previously reported that hexapod-like nanostructured DNA (hexapodna) enhanced the activity of immunostimulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) DNA by efficiently delivering it to immune cells...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550582/a-deep-learning-approach-for-pose-estimation-from-volumetric-oct-data
#7
Nils Gessert, Matthias Schlüter, Alexander Schlaefer
Tracking the pose of instruments is a central problem in image-guided surgery. For microscopic scenarios, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used as an imaging modality. OCT is suitable for accurate pose estimation due to its micrometer range resolution and volumetric field of view. However, OCT image processing is challenging due to speckle noise and reflection artifacts in addition to the images' 3D nature. We address pose estimation from OCT volume data with a new deep learning-based tracking framework...
May 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531709/chemical-signaling-and-insect-attraction-is-a-conserved-trait-in-yeasts
#8
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489831/simple-analytical-model-reveals-the-functional-role-of-embodied-sensorimotor-interaction-in-hexapod-gaits
#9
Yuichi Ambe, Shinya Aoi, Timo Nachstedt, Poramate Manoonpong, Florentin Wörgötter, Fumitoshi Matsuno
Insects have various gaits with specific characteristics and can change their gaits smoothly in accordance with their speed. These gaits emerge from the embodied sensorimotor interactions that occur between the insect's neural control and body dynamic systems through sensory feedback. Sensory feedback plays a critical role in coordinated movements such as locomotion, particularly in stick insects. While many previously developed insect models can generate different insect gaits, the functional role of embodied sensorimotor interactions in the interlimb coordination of insects remains unclear because of their complexity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466382/mating-and-aggregative-behaviors-among-basal-hexapods-in-the-early-cretaceous
#10
Alba Sánchez-García, Enrique Peñalver, Xavier Delclòs, Michael S Engel
Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403068/cpap3-proteins-in-the-mineralized-cuticle-of-a-decapod-crustacean
#11
Shai Abehsera, Shir Zaccai, Binyamin Mittelman, Lilah Glazer, Simy Weil, Isam Khalaila, Geula Davidov, Ronit Bitton, Raz Zarivach, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang, Rivka Manor, Eliahu D Aflalo, Amir Sagi
The pancrustacean theory groups crustaceans and hexapods (once thought to comprise separate clades within the Arthropoda) into a single clade. A key feature common to all pancrustaceans is their chitinous exoskeleton, with a major contribution by cuticular proteins. Among these, are the CPAP3's, a family of cuticular proteins, first identified in the hexapod Drosophila melanogaster and characterized by an N-terminal signaling peptide and three chitin-binding domains. In this study, CPAP3 proteins were mined from a transcriptomic library of a decapod crustacean, the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376344/highly-stable-spherical-metallo-capsule-from-a-branched-hexapodal-terpyridine-and-its-self-assembled-berry-type-nanostructure
#12
Mingzhao Chen, Jun Wang, Die Liu, Zhilong Jiang, Qianqian Liu, Tun Wu, Haisheng Liu, Weidong Yu, Jun Yan, Pingshan Wang
Discrete spherical metallo-organic capsules at the nanometer scale, especially those constructed from unique building blocks, have received significant attention recently because of their fascinating molecular aesthetics and potential applications due to their compact cavities. Here, the synthesis and characterization of a hexapodal, branched terpyridine ligand are presented along with the nearly quantitative self-assembly of the resulting tetrameric metallo-nanosphere. This metallo-nanosphere exhibited four quasi-triangular and six rhombus-like facets, all of which were made by the same hook-like bis-terpyridine...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363013/the-tibial-bayonet-method-of-wound-closure
#13
Peter O'Farrell, Annette-Christi Barnard, Franz Birkholtz
Management of open lower limb fractures with soft tissue defects can be a technically challenging orthopaedic problem. Limited availability of orthoplastic services means that alternatives to the fix and flap concept are required in order to prevent infected non-unions from developing. The proposed 'bayonet apposition' allows the surgeon to temporarily shorten the limb without angulating the limb or creating a bone defect and removing viable bone. The viable bone edges are overlapped in a bayonet-like manner in order to appose the wound and skin edges...
January 24, 2018: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357911/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-triatomines-reveals-common-first-line-and-inducible-immunity-related-genes-and-the-absence-of-imd-canonical-components-among-hemimetabolous-arthropods
#14
Federico Alonso Zumaya-Estrada, Jesús Martínez-Barnetche, Andrés Lavore, Rolando Rivera-Pomar, Mario Henry Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Insects operate complex humoral and cellular immune strategies to fend against invading microorganisms. The majority of these have been characterized in Drosophila and other dipterans. Information on hemipterans, including Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease remains incomplete and fractionated. RESULTS: We identified putative immune-related homologs of three Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease, Triatoma pallidipennis, T. dimidiata and T. infestans (TTTs), using comparative transcriptomics based on established immune response gene references, in conjunction with the predicted proteomes of Rhodnius prolixus, Cimex lecticularis and Acyrthosiphon pisum hemimetabolous...
January 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352317/optic-flow-detection-is-not-influenced-by-visual-vestibular-congruency
#15
Vivian Holten, Paul R MacNeilage
Optic flow patterns generated by self-motion relative to the stationary environment result in congruent visual-vestibular self-motion signals. Incongruent signals can arise due to object motion, vestibular dysfunction, or artificial stimulation, which are less common. Hence, we are predominantly exposed to congruent rather than incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. If the brain takes advantage of this probabilistic association, we expect observers to be more sensitive to visual optic flow that is congruent with ongoing vestibular stimulation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315109/update-on-treatment-of-adolescent-blount-disease
#16
Julio de Pablos, Lucas Arbeloa-Gutierrez, Antonio Arenas-Miquelez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatments available to correct adolescent Blount disease deformities differ in terms of features, advantages, and disadvantages. Each is indicated, therefore, for different scenarios of severity, physeal condition, and maturity. The purpose of this review is to update basic concepts, surgical treatments, and controversies concerning this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: The cause of Blount disease is unknown although etiologic factors as morbid obesity and hypovitaminosis D are thought to be associated with it...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311682/phylogenomics-illuminates-the-backbone-of-the-myriapoda-tree-of-life-and-reconciles-morphological-and-molecular-phylogenies
#17
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168742/turning-and-radius-deviation-correction-for-a-hexapod-walking-robot-based-on-an-ant-inspired-sensory-strategy
#18
Yaguang Zhu, Tong Guo, Qiong Liu, Qianwei Zhu, Xiangmo Zhao, Bo Jin
Abstract : In order to find a common approach to plan the turning of a bio-inspired hexapod robot, a locomotion strategy for turning and deviation correction of a hexapod walking robot based on the biological behavior and sensory strategy of ants. A series of experiments using ants were carried out where the gait and the movement form of ants was studied. Taking the results of the ant experiments as inspiration by imitating the behavior of ants during turning, an extended turning algorithm based on arbitrary gait was proposed...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158971/the-ultimate-legs-of-chilopoda-myriapoda-a-review-on-their-morphological-disparity-and-functional-variability
#19
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156162/the-evolution-of-limb-deformity-what-has-changed-over-the-past-ten-years
#20
REVIEW
Jessica L Wilczek, Guido A LaPorta
Limb deformity correction has been widely discussed in orthopedic literature with an increasing interest in technologically based surgical strategies. However, principles described by Ilizarov and Paley still form the basis of these newly developing surgical systems. The recent advances and increased use of computers and mobile devices in the medical arena, along with the application of dynamic hexapod external fixation, have allowed for easier and more convenient strategies, leading to a greater outreach and more confidence in the newer surgeon when faced with addressing a patient with a limb deformity...
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
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