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Nils Gessert, Matthias Schlüter, Alexander Schlaefer
Tracking the pose of instruments is a central problem in image-guided surgery. For microscopic scenarios, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used as an imaging modality. OCT is suitable for accurate pose estimation due to its micrometer range resolution and volumetric field of view. However, OCT image processing is challenging due to speckle noise and reflection artifacts in addition to the images' 3D nature. We address pose estimation from OCT volume data with a new deep learning-based tracking framework...
March 10, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yuichi Ambe, Shinya Aoi, Timo Nachstedt, Poramate Manoonpong, Florentin Wörgötter, Fumitoshi Matsuno
Insects have various gaits with specific characteristics and can change their gaits smoothly in accordance with their speed. These gaits emerge from the embodied sensorimotor interactions that occur between the insect's neural control and body dynamic systems through sensory feedback. Sensory feedback plays a critical role in coordinated movements such as locomotion, particularly in stick insects. While many previously developed insect models can generate different insect gaits, the functional role of embodied sensorimotor interactions in the interlimb coordination of insects remains unclear because of their complexity...
2018: PloS One
Alba Sánchez-García, Enrique Peñalver, Xavier Delclòs, Michael S Engel
Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca...
2018: PloS One
Shai Abehsera, Shir Zaccai, Binyamin Mittelman, Lilah Glazer, Simy Weil, Isam Khalaila, Geula Davidov, Ronit Bitton, Raz Zarivach, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang, Rivka Manor, Eliahu D Aflalo, Amir Sagi
The pancrustacean theory groups crustaceans and hexapods (once thought to comprise separate clades within the Arthropoda) into a single clade. A key feature common to all pancrustaceans is their chitinous exoskeleton, with a major contribution by cuticular proteins. Among these, are the CPAP3's, a family of cuticular proteins, first identified in the hexapod Drosophila melanogaster and characterized by an N-terminal signaling peptide and three chitin-binding domains. In this study, CPAP3 proteins were mined from a transcriptomic library of a decapod crustacean, the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingzhao Chen, Jun Wang, Die Liu, Zhilong Jiang, Qianqian Liu, Tun Wu, Haisheng Liu, Weidong Yu, Jun Yan, Pingshan Wang
Discrete spherical metallo-organic capsules at the nanometer scale, especially those constructed from unique building blocks, have received significant attention recently because of their fascinating molecular aesthetics and potential applications due to their compact cavities. Here, the synthesis and characterization of a hexapodal, branched terpyridine ligand is presented along with the nearly quantitative self-assembly of the resulting tetrameric metallo-nanosphere. This metallo-nanosphere exhibited four quasi-triangular and six rhombus-like facets, all of which were made by the same hook-like bisterpyridine...
January 27, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Peter O'Farrell, Annette-Christi Barnard, Franz Birkholtz
Management of open lower limb fractures with soft tissue defects can be a technically challenging orthopaedic problem. Limited availability of orthoplastic services means that alternatives to the fix and flap concept are required in order to prevent infected non-unions from developing. The proposed 'bayonet apposition' allows the surgeon to temporarily shorten the limb without angulating the limb or creating a bone defect and removing viable bone. The viable bone edges are overlapped in a bayonet-like manner in order to appose the wound and skin edges...
January 24, 2018: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
Federico Alonso Zumaya-Estrada, Jesús Martínez-Barnetche, Andrés Lavore, Rolando Rivera-Pomar, Mario Henry Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Insects operate complex humoral and cellular immune strategies to fend against invading microorganisms. The majority of these have been characterized in Drosophila and other dipterans. Information on hemipterans, including Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease remains incomplete and fractionated. RESULTS: We identified putative immune-related homologs of three Triatominae vectors of Chagas disease, Triatoma pallidipennis, T. dimidiata and T. infestans (TTTs), using comparative transcriptomics based on established immune response gene references, in conjunction with the predicted proteomes of Rhodnius prolixus, Cimex lecticularis and Acyrthosiphon pisum hemimetabolous...
January 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Vivian Holten, Paul R MacNeilage
Optic flow patterns generated by self-motion relative to the stationary environment result in congruent visual-vestibular self-motion signals. Incongruent signals can arise due to object motion, vestibular dysfunction, or artificial stimulation, which are less common. Hence, we are predominantly exposed to congruent rather than incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. If the brain takes advantage of this probabilistic association, we expect observers to be more sensitive to visual optic flow that is congruent with ongoing vestibular stimulation...
2018: PloS One
Julio de Pablos, Lucas Arbeloa-Gutierrez, Antonio Arenas-Miquelez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatments available to correct adolescent Blount disease deformities differ in terms of features, advantages, and disadvantages. Each is indicated, therefore, for different scenarios of severity, physeal condition, and maturity. The purpose of this review is to update basic concepts, surgical treatments, and controversies concerning this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: The cause of Blount disease is unknown although etiologic factors as morbid obesity and hypovitaminosis D are thought to be associated with it...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Rosa Fernández, Gregory D Edgecombe, Gonzalo Giribet
The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda-Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla-Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yaguang Zhu, Tong Guo, Qiong Liu, Qianwei Zhu, Xiangmo Zhao, Bo Jin
Abstract: In order to find a common approach to plan the turning of a bio-inspired hexapod robot, a locomotion strategy for turning and deviation correction of a hexapod walking robot based on the biological behavior and sensory strategy of ants. A series of experiments using ants were carried out where the gait and the movement form of ants was studied. Taking the results of the ant experiments as inspiration by imitating the behavior of ants during turning, an extended turning algorithm based on arbitrary gait was proposed...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
Jessica L Wilczek, Guido A LaPorta
Limb deformity correction has been widely discussed in orthopedic literature with an increasing interest in technologically based surgical strategies. However, principles described by Ilizarov and Paley still form the basis of these newly developing surgical systems. The recent advances and increased use of computers and mobile devices in the medical arena, along with the application of dynamic hexapod external fixation, have allowed for easier and more convenient strategies, leading to a greater outreach and more confidence in the newer surgeon when faced with addressing a patient with a limb deformity...
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
Gabriella Hannah Wolff, Hanne Halkinrud Thoen, Justin Marshall, Marcel E Sayre, Nicholas James Strausfeld
Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects...
September 26, 2017: ELife
Björn M von Reumont, Eivind A B Undheim, Robin-Tobias Jauss, Ronald A Jenner
We report the first integrated proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of a crustacean venom. Remipede crustaceans are the venomous sister group of hexapods, and the venom glands of the remipede Xibalbanus tulumensis express a considerably more complex cocktail of proteins and peptides than previously thought. We identified 32 venom protein families, including 13 novel peptide families that we name xibalbins, four of which lack similarities to any known structural class. Our proteomic data confirm the presence in the venom of 19 of the 32 families...
July 26, 2017: Toxins
Tomoya Yata, Yuki Takahashi, Mengmeng Tan, Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Shozo Ohtsuki, Tatsuya Murakami, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuka Umeki, Tomoki Shiomi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles resulted in the formation of composite-type gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogels. Laser irradiation of the hydrogel resulted in the release of hexapodna, which efficiently stimulated immune cells to release proinflammatory cytokines...
November 2017: Biomaterials
Susanne Neupert, Pawel Marciniak, Rene Köhler, Ronald J Nachman, Charles P-C Suh, Reinhard Predel
Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs...
August 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
September 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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