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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810906/atypical-presentation-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-two-case-reports
#1
Maria Cristina Maggio, Greta Mastrangelo, Aldo Skabar, Alessandro Ventura, Marco Carrozzi, Giuseppe Santangelo, Francesca Vanadia, Giovanni Corsello, Rolando Cimaz
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by severe neurological and psychiatric symptoms and a difficult diagnosis. The disease is often secondary to a neoplastic lesion, seldom diagnosed years later. Psychiatric symptoms are prevalent in adults; neurologic symptoms are more evident in children, who typically present primarily with neurological symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, the association with juvenile idiopathic arthritis has not been described...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808978/the-role-of-negative-conductances-in-neuronal-subthreshold-properties-and-synaptic-integration
#2
REVIEW
Cesar C Ceballos, Antonio C Roque, Ricardo M Leão
Based on passive cable theory, an increase in membrane conductance produces a decrease in the membrane time constant and input resistance. Unlike the classical leak currents, voltage-dependent currents have a nonlinear behavior which can create regions of negative conductance, despite the increase in membrane conductance (permeability). This negative conductance opposes the effects of the passive membrane conductance on the membrane input resistance and time constant, increasing their values and thereby substantially affecting the amplitude and time course of postsynaptic potentials at the voltage range of the negative conductance...
August 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808577/transition-from-intravenous-to-enteral-ketamine-for-treatment-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#3
Michael A Pizzi, Prasuna Kamireddi, William O Tatum, Jerry J Shih, Daniel A Jackson, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a diagnosis that is often challenging and one that may progress to refractory NCSE. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist that increasingly has been used to treat refractory status epilepticus. Current Neurocritical Care Society guidelines recommend intravenous (IV) ketamine infusion as an alternative treatment for refractory status epilepticus in adults. On the other hand, enteral ketamine use in NCSE has been reported in only 6 cases (1 adult and 5 pediatric) in the literature to date...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807795/d-cycloserine-facilitates-extinction-learning-and-enhances-extinction-related-brain-activation
#4
Anne Klass, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff, Silke Lissek
Extinction learning is modulated by N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) particularly in prefrontal and hippocampal brain regions. The use of of NMDA agonists in exposure therapy of anxiety disorders has been investigated in various patient groups. Behavioral results showed beneficial effects of pre-learning administration of the partial NMDAR agonist D-Cycloserine (DCS) on therapy success. However, the impact of DCS upon non-fear-related contextual extinction, and associated recruitment of extinction-relevant brain regions is as yet unknown...
August 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807674/phenylglycine-analogs-are-inhibitors-of-the-neutral-amino-acid-transporters-asct1-and-asct2-and-enhance-nmda-receptor-mediated-ltp-in-rat-visual-cortex-slices
#5
Alan C Foster, Natalie Rangel-Diaz, Ursula Staubli, Jia-Ying Yang, Mahmud Penjwini, Veena Viswanath, Yong-Xin Li
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) co-agonist d-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 (SLC1A4) and ASCT2 (SLC1A5). We identified l-phenylglycine (PG) and its analogs as inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2. PG analogs were shown to be non-substrate inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 with a range of activities relative to other amino acid transport systems, including sodium-dependent glutamate transporters, the sodium-independent d-serine transporter asc-1 and system L. L-4-chloroPG was the most potent and selective ASCT1/2 inhibitor identified...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803978/intraperitoneal-injection-of-d-serine-inhibits-high-fat-diet-intake-and-preference-in-male-mice
#6
Tsutomu Sasaki, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Sho Matsui, Hiromi Yokota-Hashimoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Tadahiro Kitamura
d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs)...
August 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803849/characteristics-of-ethanol-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats-molecular-mediators-and-cross-sensitization-between-ethanol-and-cocaine
#7
Shijie Xu, Ung Gu Kang
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can induce a progressive increase in locomotor activity, known as behavioral sensitization. However, little is known about behavioral sensitization to ethanol. We examined whether ethanol could induce behavioral sensitization and investigated several molecular changes accompanying sensitization. We also assessed whether "cross-sensitization" occurred between ethanol and cocaine, another abused drug. Ethanol-induced sensitization was examined in rats after ethanol treatment (0...
August 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#8
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802070/memantine-for-the-treatment-of-general-neuropathic-pain-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Gisèle Pickering, Véronique Morel
Neuropathic pain (NP) is difficult to treat and is associated with a decline in quality of life. NP aetiologies are numerous and a number of pathologies display neuropathic characteristics. Of the various N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonists that are alternatives to recommended in first-line NP treatment, memantine has the safest side-effect profile and has long been approved in Alzheimer's disease. The review covers memantine studies in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic pain, postoperative pain, complex regional pain syndrome, chronic phantom limb pain, opioid refractory pain, and fibromyalgia...
August 12, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#10
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799954/effects-of-systemic-glutamatergic-manipulations-on-conditioned-eyeblink-responses-and-hyperarousal-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791385/sigma-1-receptor-activation-ameliorates-anxiety-like-behavior-through-nr2a-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-submitted-to-single-prolonged-stress
#12
Li-Li Ji, Jun-Bo Peng, Chang-Hai Fu, Lei Tong, Zhen-Yu Wang
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the σ-1 receptor (σ‑1R) possesses neuroprotective effects and is a potential novel therapeutic target for certain psychiatric diseases, including post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied with anxiety disorder. It has been reported that σ‑1R agonist treatment could be modulated by the brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF and its upstream regulator are mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of σ‑1R in PTSD...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782587/prolonged-ketamine-exposure-induces-increased-activity-of-the-glun2b-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-neonatal-rats
#13
Saurabh S Kokane, Kerui Gong, Jianhui Jin, Qing Lin
Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic among pediatric patients due to its high efficacy. However, it has been demonstrated by several preclinical studies that, widespread accelerated programmed death of neurons (neuroapoptosis) occurs due to prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine specifically in the neonatal brain. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective vulnerability of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis becomes important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets, which would help prevent or at least ameliorate this neuroapoptosis...
August 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780967/cell-and-single-molecule-based-methods-to-detect-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-from-the-optimise-project
#14
Julie Jézéquel, Véronique Rogemond, Thomas Pollak, Marilyn Lepleux, Leslie Jacobson, Hélène Gréa, Conrad Iyegbe, Rene Kahn, Philip McGuire, Angela Vincent, Jérôme Honnorat, Marion Leboyer, Laurent Groc
Circulating autoantibodies against glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have been reported in a proportion of patients with psychotic disorders, raising hopes for more appropriate treatment for these antibody-positive patients. However, the prevalence of circulating autoantibodies against glutamatergic NMDAR in psychotic disorders remains controversial, with detection prevalence rates and immunoglobulin classes varying considerably between studies, perhaps because of different detection methods...
July 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780732/assessment-of-the-target-engagement-and-d-serine-biomarker-profiles-of-the-d-amino-acid-oxidase-inhibitors-sodium-benzoate-and-pgm030756
#15
Eimear Howley, Michael Bestwick, Rosa Fradley, Helen Harrison, Mathew Leveridge, Kengo Okada, Charlotte Fieldhouse, Will Farnaby, Hannah Canning, Andy P Sykes, Kevin Merchant, Katherine Hazel, Catrina Kerr, Natasha Kinsella, Louise Walsh, David G Livermore, Isaac Hoffman, Jonathan Ellery, Phillip Mitchell, Toshal Patel, Mark Carlton, Matt Barnes, David J Miller
Irregular N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function is one of the main hypotheses employed to facilitate understanding of the underlying disease state of schizophrenia. Although direct agonism of the NMDAR has not yielded promising therapeutics, advances have been made by modulating the NMDAR co-agonist site which is activated by glycine and D-serine. One approach to activate the co-agonist site is to increase synaptic D-serine levels through inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), the major catabolic clearance pathway for this and other D-amino acids...
August 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777260/persistence-of-parenchymal-and-perivascular-t-cells-in-treatment-refractory-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#16
Alexander Filatenkov, Timothy E Richardson, Elena Daoud, Sarah F Johnson-Welch, Denise M Ramirez, Jose Torrealba, Benjamin Greenberg, Nancy L Monson, Veena Rajaram
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease mediated by IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies to the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR, resulting in downregulation of NMDARs. Early diagnosis, prompt reduction of anti-NMDAR antibodies, and removal of associated ovarian tumors when identified are important drivers of prognosis. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out to evaluate B cell, plasma cell, and T-cell infiltrates in the brain of a 3-year-old patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who failed to show improvement after plasma exchange and Rituximab treatment...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777252/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-driven-calcium-influx-potentiates-the-adverse-effects-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-ex-vivo
#17
Zi-You Liu, Shou Hu, Qin-Wen Zhong, Cheng-Nan Tian, Hou-Mou Ma, Jun-Jian Yu
BACKGROUND: Despite the adverse effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in cardiomyocytes, no study has yet examined the effects of NMDAR activity under ex vivo ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) conditions. Therefore, our aim was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of NMDAR activity through an ex vivo myocardial I/R rat model. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were randomly segregated into six groups (n=20 in each group): (i) an untreated control group; (ii) a NMDA-treated control group; (iii) an untreated I/R group; (iv) an I/R+NMDA group treated with NMDA; (v) an I/R+NMDA+MK-801 group treated with NMDA and the NMDAR inhibitor MK-801; and (vi) an I/R+NMDA+[Ca]-free group treated with NMDA and [Ca]-free buffer...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772090/nmda-receptors-in-the-dorsal-hippocampal-area-are-involved-in-tramadol-state-dependent-memory-of-passive-avoidance-learning-in-mice
#18
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Hamed Mofidi, Mohammad-Sadegh Attarian-Khosroshahi
The neurobiological mechanisms of tramadol abuse underlying the cognitive function are still imprecise. Considering these, the aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of intra-CA1 injections of NMDA, an N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) agonist and DL-AP5, a competitive NMDAR antagonist, on tramadol state-dependent memory. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retrieval in adult male NMRI mice. Post-training i.p. administration of an atypical MOR agonist, tramadol (2...
August 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771575/zl006-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-psd-95-nnos-interaction-does-not-induce-antidepressant-like-effects-in-two-genetically-predisposed-rat-models-of-depression-and-control-animals
#19
Sandra Tillmann, Vitor Silva Pereira, Nico Liebenberg, Anne Karina Christensen, Gregers Wegener
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists and nitric oxide inhibitors have shown promising efficacy in depression but commonly induce adverse events. To circumvent these, a more indirect disruption of the nitric oxide synthase/postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa complex at the NMDA-R has been proposed. This disruption can be achieved using small molecule inhibitors such as ZL006, which has attracted attention as ischemic stroke therapy in rodents and has been proposed as a potential novel treatment for depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770438/differential-effects-of-low-and-high-dose-zinc-supplementation-on-synaptic-plasticity-and-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-control-and-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#20
Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
In the present study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation on the adult hippocampus in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mouse model. Four-weeks after HFD- and control diet (CD)-feeding, mice were provided with low (15 ppm) or high (60 ppm) doses of Zn in their drinking water for additional 4 more weeks along with their respective diets. Compared to the CD-fed mice, HFD-feeding elicited the reduction of neurogenic markers such as nestin, Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the dentate gyrus...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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