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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#1
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791729/applications-of-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-seizure-circuits-where-to-go-next
#2
REVIEW
Patrick A Forcelli
Epilepsy is the quintessential circuit disorder, with seizure activity propagating through anatomically constrained pathways. These pathways, necessary for normal sensory, motor, and cognitive function, are hijacked during seizures. Understanding the network architecture at the level of both local microcircuits and distributed macrocircuits may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of epilepsy. Over the past decade, optogenetic and chemogenetic tools have enabled previously impossible levels of functional circuit mapping in neuroscience...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#3
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780312/losing-ground-frontostriatal-atrophy-disrupts-language-embodiment-in-parkinson-s-and-huntington-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Giselle Kozono, Agustina Legaz, Agustín Ibáñez, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García
Within the language domain, movement disorders triggered by frontostriatal damage are characterized by deficits in action verbs, motor-language coupling, and syntax. However, these impairments have not been jointly interpreted under a unifying rationale or integratively assessed in terms of possible clinical implications. To bridge these gaps, here we introduce the "disrupted motor grounding hypothesis", a new framework to conceive such impairments as disturbances of embodied mechanisms (high-order domains based on the recycling of functionally germane sensorimotor circuits)...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777170/brain-circuitry-controlling-sleep-and-wakefulness
#5
Richard L Horner, John H Peever
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article outlines the fundamental brain mechanisms that control sleep-wake patterns and reviews how pathologic changes in these control mechanisms contribute to common sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Discrete but interconnected clusters of cells located within the brainstem and hypothalamus comprise the circuits that generate wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. These clusters of cells use specific neurotransmitters, or collections of neurotransmitters, to inhibit or excite their respective sleep- and wake-promoting target sites...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774738/divergent-structural-responses-to-pharmacological-interventions-in-orbitofronto-striato-thalamic-and-premotor-circuits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Qiming Lv, Zhen Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Qing Fan, Qing Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Zeping Xiao, Zheng Wang
Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value) in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18-55) compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18-63), then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18-57) and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18-61)...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772097/what-have-we-learned-about-movement-disorders-from-functional-neurosurgery
#7
Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison, Suneil K Kalia
Modern functional neurosurgery for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia involves the placement of focal lesions or the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within circuits that modulate motor function. Precise targeting of these motor structures can be further refined by the use of electrophysiological approaches. In particular, microelectrode recordings enable the delineation of neuroanatomic structures. In the course of these operations, there is an opportunity not only to map basal ganglia structures but also to gain insights into how disturbances in neural activity produce movement disorders...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769748/mechanism-of-cerebralcare-granule%C3%A2-for-improving-cognitive-function-in-resting-state-brain-functional-networks-of-sub-healthy-subjects
#8
Jing Li, Hao Guo, Ling Ge, Long Cheng, Junjie Wang, Hong Li, Kerang Zhang, Jie Xiang, Junjie Chen, Hui Zhang, Yong Xu
Cerebralcare Granule® (CG), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741401/trans-diagnostic-comparison-of-response-inhibition-in-tourette-s-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Siyan Fan, Danielle C Cath, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Stella de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVES: Impaired response inhibition is related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Unlike OCD, in which neural correlates of response inhibition have been extensively studied, TD literature is limited. By using a Stop-Signal task, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition deficits in TD compared to OCD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HCs were scanned (3T MRI)...
July 25, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730570/structural-connectivity-differences-in-essential-tremor-with-and-without-resting-tremor
#10
Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Gaetano Barbagallo, Angela Lupo, Maurizio Morelli, Rita Nisticò, Fabiana Novellino, Andrea Quattrone, Maria Salsone, Basilio Vescio, Andrea Cherubini, Aldo Quattrone
In this work, we investigated motor network structure in patients affected by essential tremor (ET) with or without resting tremor, using probabilistic tractography of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop. Twenty-five patients with ET, twenty-two patients with ET associated with resting tremor (rET), and twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent whole-brain 3D T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI, and DAT-SPECT. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion data in network mode, reconstructing connections between the different structures of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705440/inhibition-of-trkb-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-using-ana-12-regulates-basal-and-stress-induced-orexin-a-expression-within-the-mesolimbic-system-and-affects-anxiety-sociability-and-motivation
#11
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system...
July 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#12
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658048/increased-activation-of-the-hippocampus-during-a-chinese-character-subvocalization-task-in-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate-palatoplasty-and-speech-therapy
#13
Wenjing Zhang, Chunlin Li, Long Chen, Xiyue Xing, Xiangyang Li, Zhi Yang, Haiyan Zhang, Renji Chen
This study aimed to explore brain activation in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) using a Chinese character subvocalization task, in which the stimuli were selected from a clinical articulation evaluation test. CLP is a congenital disability. Individuals with CLP usually have articulation disorder caused by abnormal lip and palate structure. Previous studies showed that primary somatosensory and motor areas had a significant difference in activation in patients with CLP. However, whether brain activation was restored to a normal level after palatoplasty and speech rehabilitation is not clear...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629285/acute-movement-disorders-in-the-medical-setting
#14
Ifrah Zawar, Mario A Caro, Lara Feldman, Xavier F Jimenez
Objective Psychosomatic medicine psychiatrists are often tasked with the evaluation and treatment of complex neuropsychiatric states which may be motoric in phenotype. Little energy has been dedicated to understanding acute movement disorders in the hospital environment. Method Recognizing the importance of frontal-subcortical (corticostriatothalamocortical) circuitry and basal ganglia structures, we present a case series of acute movement disorder phenotypes resulting from underlying medical conditions, commonly-administered medications, or the interaction of both...
July 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607173/tactile-defensiveness-and-impaired-adaptation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-fmr1-knock-out-mouse-model-of-autism
#15
Cynthia X He, Daniel A Cantu, Shilpa S Mantri, William A Zeiger, Anubhuti Goel, Carlos Portera-Cailliau
Sensory hypersensitivity is a common symptom in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including fragile X syndrome (FXS), and frequently leads to tactile defensiveness. In mouse models of ASDs, there is mounting evidence of neuronal and circuit hyperexcitability in several brain regions, which could contribute to sensory hypersensitivity. However, it is not yet known whether or how sensory stimulation might trigger abnormal sensory processing at the circuit level or abnormal behavioral responses in ASD mouse models, especially during an early developmental time when experience-dependent plasticity shapes such circuits...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601961/basal-ganglia-movement-disorders-and-deep-brain-stimulation-advances-made-through-non-human-primate-research
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Wichmann, Hagai Bergman, Mahlon R DeLong
Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582324/sleep-related-movement-disorders-and-disturbances-of-motor-control
#17
Panagiotis Bargiotas, Claudio L Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review of the literature pertaining to clinical presentation, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders and disturbances of motor control. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep-related movement disorders and disturbances of motor control are typically characterized by positive motor symptoms and are often associated with sleep disturbances and consequent daytime symptoms (e.g. fatigue, sleepiness)...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511253/pathophysiology-and-management-of-parkinsonian-tremor
#18
Rick C Helmich, Michiel F Dirkx
Parkinson's tremor is one of the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology of Parkinson's tremor is different from that of other motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity. In this review, the authors discuss evidence suggesting that tremor is a network disorder that arises from distinct pathophysiological changes in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellothalamocortical circuit. They also discuss how interventions in this circuitry, for example, deep brain surgery and noninvasive brain stimulation, can modulate or even treat tremor...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509681/neuroimaging-as-a-tool-to-study-the-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-huntington-s-disease
#19
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Estela Camara, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. There is great variability regarding the prominence and evolution of each type of clinical sign. One possible source of phenotypic heterogeneity could be the more prominent degeneration of specific brain circuits. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent neuroimaging studies that have analysed the relationship between brain changes and motor, cognitive and psychiatric alterations in Huntington's disease...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#20
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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