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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#1
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#2
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#3
Rosanna Palmeri, Lo Viviana Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Di Giuseppe Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068619/characterization-of-brain-blood-flow-and-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#4
Wenbin Li, Ziqi Chen, Min Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Lei Gu, Youjin Zhao, Weihong Kuang, Feng Bi, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects, there is an association between amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). To date, no published meta-analysis has investigated changes in the regional ALFF in medication-free depressed patients. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to explore whether resting-state rCBF and ALFF changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Using signed differential mapping (SDM), we conducted two meta-analyses, one of rCBF studies and one of ALFF studies, involving medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063757/-no-motor-signs-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Jean-Philippe Azulay, Tatiana Witjas, Alexandre Eusebio
In Parkinson's disease, motor signs have long been the main targets of the management of the disease. In recent years, non-motor disorders have elicited increasing interest. These disorders are under diagnosed and managed more difficultly than motor signs and are sometimes perceived as more disturbing by the patients. These signs are polymorphous, sometimes occurring before the motor symptoms but increase with the disease duration and complicating always the late stages. They may fluctuate as the motor signs, while being under the control of dopaminergic pathways, or be linked to the degeneration of other neuronal circuits...
January 4, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031220/pathological-ponto-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-activations-in-primary-orthostatic-tremor-during-lying-and-stance
#6
Florian Schöberl, Katharina Feil, Guoming Xiong, Peter Bartenstein, Christian la Fougére, Klaus Jahn, Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Marianne Dieterich, Andreas Zwergal
Primary orthostatic tremor is a rare neurological disease characterized mainly by a high frequency tremor of the legs while standing. The aim of this study was to identify the common core structures of the oscillatory circuit in orthostatic tremor and how it is modulated by changes of body position. Ten patients with orthostatic tremor and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects underwent a standardized neurological and neuro-ophthalmological examination including electromyographic and posturographic recordings...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007991/genetic-inactivation-of-glutamate-neurons-in-the-rat-sublaterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-recapitulates-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#7
Sara Valencia Garcia, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Michael Lazarus, Daniela Grassi, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997702/impulse-control-disorder-lysosomal-malfunction-and-atp13a2-insufficiency-in-parkinsonism
#8
REVIEW
Jun-Ping Liu, Jianfeng Li, Yanhua Lu, Lihui Wang, Gang Chen
Lysosomal transport of cargos in neurons is essential for neuronal proteostasis, transmission and functional motors and behaviors. Lysosomal malfunction including storage disorders is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the unclear molecular mechanisms of diverse defects in PD phenotypes, especially behavioral deficits, this mini review explores the cellular contexts of PD impulse control disorders and the molecular aspects of lysosomal cross-membrane transports. Focuses are paid to trace metal involvements in α-synuclein assembly in Lewy bodies, the functions and molecular interactions of ATP13A2 as ATPase transporters in lysosomal membranes for cross-membrane trafficking and lysosomal homeostasis, and our current understandings of the neural circuits in ICD...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982134/tracmouse-a-computer-aided-movement-analysis-script-for-the-mouse-inverted-horizontal-grid-test
#9
W Niewiadomski, E Palasz, M Skupinska, M Zylinski, M Steczkowska, A Gasiorowska, G Niewiadomska, G Riedel
In rodents, detection and quantification of motor impairments is difficult. The traction test (inverted grid with mice clinging to the underside) currently has no objective rating system. We here developed and validated the semi-automatic MATLAB script TracMouse for unbiased detection of video-recorded movement patterns. High precision videos were analyzed by: (i) principal identification of anatomical paw details frame-by-frame by an experimentally blinded rater; (ii) automatic retrieval of proxies by TracMouse for individual paws...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935605/evolution-of-the-circuitry-for-conscious-color-vision-in-primates
#10
J Neitz, M Neitz
There are many ganglion cell types and subtypes in our retina that carry color information. These have appeared at different times over the history of the evolution of the vertebrate visual system. They project to several different places in the brain and serve a variety of purposes allowing wavelength information to contribute to diverse visual functions. These include circadian photoentrainment, regulation of sleep and mood, guidance of orienting movements, detection and segmentation of objects. Predecessors to some of the circuits serving these purposes presumably arose before mammals evolved and different functions are represented by distinct ganglion cell types...
December 9, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917685/phosphodiesterase-10-inhibitors-in-clinical-development-for-cns-disorders
#11
Hugo Geerts, Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts
Phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors (PDE10-I), are conceptually attractive drugs with a potential great therapeutic window as their enriched striatal localization may likely stimulate D1R and reduce D2R downstream effects. However, so far selective PDE10-I with efficacy in animal models have not shown benefit in clinical trials and unexpectedly revealed a substantial dyskinesia motor side-effect. Areas covered: This paper reviews the underlying biological rationale of PDE10 as a target in schizophrenia, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease based on peer-reviewed published articles, the status of the different PDE10-I in clinical development for various CNS indications and explores possible reasons for the clinical trial failures and translational disconnect...
December 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915073/a-mathematical-model-of-reward-and-executive-circuitry-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Anca Rǎdulescu, Rachel Marra
The neuronal circuit that controls obsessive and compulsive behaviors involves a complex network of brain regions (some with known involvement in reward processing). Among these are cortical regions, the striatum and the thalamus (which compose the CSTC pathway), limbic areas such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, as well as dopamine pathways. Abnormal dynamic behavior in this brain network is a hallmark feature of patients with increased anxiety and motor activity, like the ones affected by OCD. There is currently no clear understanding of precisely what mechanisms generate these behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#13
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#14
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#15
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847324/developmental-specification-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#16
REVIEW
Kathryn C Allaway, Robert Machold
Striatal cholinergic interneurons and basal forebrain cholinergic projection neurons, which together comprise the forebrain cholinergic system, regulate attention, memory, reward pathways, and motor activity through the neuromodulation of multiple brain circuits. The importance of these neurons in the etiology of neurocognitive disorders has been well documented, but our understanding of their specification during embryogenesis is still incomplete. All forebrain cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons appear to share a common developmental origin in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, a region that also gives rise to GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons...
January 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843470/childhood-neurogenic-stuttering-due-to-bilateral-congenital-abnormality-in-globus-pallidus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Mohammad Javad Saeedi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Mostafa Almasi Dooghaee
Objective The basal ganglia are a group of structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Some speech disorders such as stuttering can resulted from disturbances in the circuits between the basal ganglia and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Stuttering consists of blocks, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of speech. We present a 7.5 -year-old male child with bilateral basal ganglia lesion in globus pallidus with unclear reason...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758681/deep-brain-stimulation-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
David S Xu, Francisco Ponce
High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that was introduced in the late 1980s for the treatment of movement disorders. It is a reversible, adjustable, and non-ablative therapy that has been used in over 100,000 people worldwide. The surgical procedure used to implant the DBS system, as well as the effects of chronic electrical stimulation, have been shown to be safe and effective through many clinical trials. The ability to therapeutically modulate the motor circuits of the brain in this manner has resulted in consideration of use of this surgical strategy for other neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders involving non-motor circuits, including appetite, mood, and cognition...
October 14, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725660/interrogating-the-mouse-thalamus-to-correct-human-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#19
L I Schmitt, M M Halassa
While localizing sensory and motor deficits is one of the cornerstones of clinical neurology, behavioral and cognitive deficits in psychiatry remain impervious to this approach. In psychiatry, major challenges include the relative subtlety by which neural circuits are perturbed, and the limited understanding of how basic circuit functions relate to thought and behavior. Neurodevelopmental disorders offer a window to addressing the first challenge given their strong genetic underpinnings, which can be linked to biological mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719879/imaging-studies-of-functional-neurologic-disorders
#20
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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