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Motor circuit disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770150/effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-a-child-with-involuntary-movement-after-hypoxic-encephalopathy
#1
Mayumi Nagai, Naofumi Tanaka, Yutaka Oouchida, Shin-Ichi Izumi
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area to inhibit involuntary movements of a child. An 8-year-old boy who developed hypoxic encephalopathy after asphyxia at the age of 2 had difficulty in remaining standing without support because of involuntary movements. He was instructed to remain standing with his plastic ankle-foot orthosis for 10 s at three time points by leaning forward with his forearms on a desk. He received cathodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area at 1 mA for 10 min...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750732/the-patchy-tremor-landscape-recent-advances-in-pathophysiology
#2
Freek Nieuwhof, Pattamon Panyakaew, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Cecile Gallea, Rick C Helmich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on new insights in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease tremor, essential tremor, tremor in dystonia, and orthostatic tremor. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging findings suggest that Parkinson's disease resting tremor is associated with dopaminergic dysfunction, serotonergic dysfunction, or both. Not all tremors in Parkinson's disease have the same pathophysiology: postural tremor in Parkinson's disease can be subdivided into pure postural tremor, which involves nondopaminergic mechanisms, and re-emergent tremor, which has a dopaminergic basis...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750731/movement-disorders-in-mitochondrial-disease-a-clinicopathological-correlation
#3
Irene H Flønes, Charalampos Tzoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The scope of this review is to give an updated account of movement disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, with a particular focus on recently discovered clinicopathological correlations. RECENT FINDINGS: Movement disorders are common clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases, in part because of the high vulnerability of neurons controlling motor circuits to mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and energy failure. Intriguingly, the clinicopathological correlations of movement disorders in mitochondrial disease do not always conform to established neurophysiological knowledge...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746896/insights-into-cerebellar-development-and-connectivity
#4
REVIEW
Jaclyn Beckinghausen, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum has a well-established role in controlling motor functions such coordination, balance, posture, and skilled learning. There is mounting evidence that it might also play a critical role in non-motor functions such as cognition and emotion. It is therefore not surprising that cerebellar deficits are associated with a wide array of diseases including ataxia, dystonia tremor, schizophrenia, dyslexia, and autism spectrum disorder. What is intriguing is that a seemingly uniform circuit that is often described as being "simple" should carry out all of these behaviors...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735113/anatomy-physiology-and-clinical-syndromes-of-the-basal-ganglia-a-brief-review
#5
Arash Fazl, Jori Fleisher
Movement disorders typically arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, or both. The BG-a group of deep, subcortical structures-form complex circuits that shape motor control and motor learning, as well as limbic and associative functions. In this article, we summarize the anatomy and physiology of the BG and cerebellum, and briefly highlight the clinical syndromes that may arise in the context of their injury or dysfunction.
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728527/disrupted-hypothalamic-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-pd-and-autonomic-dysfunction
#6
Eran Dayan, Miriam Sklerov, Nina Browner
OBJECTIVE: To test whether symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease (PD) are associated with alterations in intrinsic hypothalamic functional connectivity, given the regulatory role of the hypothalamus (HTH) in the autonomic nervous system. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI scans from patients with PD were analyzed, comparing patients with the highest (n = 24) and lowest (n = 28) quartile scores in a questionnaire assessing autonomic dysfunction in PD (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic [SCOPA-AUT]), obtained from a larger pool of patients (n = 93)...
May 4, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719672/abnormal-coherence-and-sleep-composition-in-children-with-angelman-syndrome-a-retrospective-eeg-study
#7
Hanna den Bakker, Michael S Sidorov, Zheng Fan, David J Lee, Lynne M Bird, Catherine J Chu, Benjamin D Philpot
Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, speech and motor impairments, epilepsy, abnormal sleep, and phenotypic overlap with autism. Individuals with AS display characteristic EEG patterns including high-amplitude rhythmic delta waves. Here, we sought to quantitatively explore EEG architecture in AS beyond known spectral power phenotypes. We were motivated by studies of functional connectivity and sleep spindles in autism to study these EEG readouts in children with AS...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706874/sensorimotor-and-neurocognitive-dysfunctions-parallel-early-telencephalic-neuropathology-in-fucosidosis-mice
#8
Stijn Stroobants, Heike Wolf, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Thomas Dierks, Torben Lübke, Rudi D'Hooge
Fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by lysosomal α-L-fucosidase deficiency. Insufficient α-L-fucosidase activity triggers accumulation of undegraded, fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in various tissues. The human phenotype is heterogeneous, but progressive motor and cognitive impairments represent the most characteristic symptoms. Recently, Fuca1-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting techniques, constituting a novel animal model for human fucosidosis. These mice display widespread LSD pathology, accumulation of secondary storage material and neuroinflammation throughout the brain, as well as progressive loss of Purkinje cells...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615862/serotonergic-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-parkinson-s-disease-similar-mechanisms-dissimilar-outcomes
#9
Yannick Vermeiren, Jana Janssens, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) share similar pathophysiological mechanisms. From a neurochemical point of view, the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) dysfunction in both movement disorders-related to probable lesioning of the raphe nuclei-is profound, and, therefore, may be partially responsible for motor as well as non-motor disturbances. More specifically, in ALS, it has been hypothesized that serotonergic denervation leads to loss of its inhibitory control on glutamate release, resulting into glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in lower and/or upper motor neurons, combined with a detrimental decrease of its facilitatory effects on glutamatergic motor neuron excitation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#10
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the 1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560834/comparison-of-structural-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-depressive-symptoms-versus-non-depressed-a-diffusion-mri-connectometry-study
#11
Mina Ansari, Sahand Adib Moradi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Abozar Hedayatnia, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
OBJECTIVE: Research on psychobiological markers of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a hot topic. Non-motor symptoms such as depression and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) each attribute to a particular neurodegenerative cluster in PD, and might enlighten the way for early prediction/detection of PD. The neuropathology of mood disturbances remains unclear. In fact, a few studies have investigated depression using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI). METHOD: Diffusion MRI of PD patients without comorbid RBD was used to assess whether microstructural abnormalities are detectable in the brain of 40 PD patients with depression compared to 19 patients without depression...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554249/closing-in-phenomenon-in-huntington-s-disease-a-neuropsychological-marker-of-frontal-executive-dysfunction
#12
Natascia De Lucia, Silvio Peluso, Alessandro Roca, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Marco Massarelli, Giovanna De Michele, Luigi Di Maio, Elena Salvatore, Giuseppe De Michele
Objective: In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical marker of the frontal/executive dysfunctions in the early examination of HD patients...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551459/unilateral-deep-brain-stimulation-suppresses-alpha-and-beta-oscillations-in-sensorimotor-cortices
#13
Omid Abbasi, Jan Hirschmann, Lena Storzer, Tolga Esat Özkurt, Saskia Elben, Jan Vesper, Lars Wojtecki, Georg Schmitz, Alfons Schnitzler, Markus Butz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy to treat motor symptoms in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms leading to the high therapeutic effectiveness of DBS are poorly understood so far, but modulation of oscillatory activity is likely to play an important role. Thus, investigating the effect of DBS on cortical oscillatory activity can help clarifying the neurophysiological mechanisms of DBS. Here, we aimed at scrutinizing changes of cortical oscillatory activity by DBS at different frequencies using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519473/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-of-the-parietal-lobe-for-improving-neurologic-neuropsychologic-and-neuropsychiatric-deficits
#14
Nadia Bolognini, Carlo Miniussi
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503331/deep-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Syam Krishnan, Krishnakumar Kesava Pisharady, K P Divya, Kuldeep Shetty, Asha Kishore
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) was introduced into clinical practice nearly four decades ago and is currently the standard of care for patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing motor complications. Apart from this, it has several other established and emerging applications in movement disorders. The exact mechanisms by which DBS provides relief in movement disorders are still unclear; disruption of pathological neuronal synchrony and abnormal information flow through the neuronal circuits involved, are the most likely underlying mechanisms...
March 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502255/pathophysiology-of-dyskinesia-and-behavioral-disorders-in-non-human-primates-the-role-of-serotonergic-fibers
#16
REVIEW
Véronique Sgambato, Léon Tremblay
The MPTP monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) has allowed huge advances regarding the understanding of the pathological mechanisms of PD and L-DOPA-induced adverse effects. Among the main findings were the imbalance between the efferent striatal pathways in opposite directions between the hypokinetic and hyperkinetic states of PD. In both normal and parkinsonian monkeys, the combination of behavioral and anatomical studies has allowed the deciphering of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits involved in both movement and behavioral disorders...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488257/animal-models-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
M Angela Cenci, Alan R Crossman
Understanding the biological mechanisms of l-dopa-induced motor complications is dependent on our ability to investigate these phenomena in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The most common motor complications consist in wearing-off fluctuations and abnormal involuntary movements appearing when plasma levels of l-dopa are high, commonly referred to as peak-dose l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. Parkinsonian models exhibiting these features have been well-characterized in both rodent and nonhuman primate species...
February 28, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481966/value-encoding-in-the-globus-pallidus-fmri-reveals-an-interaction-effect-between-reward-and-dopamine-drive
#18
Vincenzo G Fiore, Tobias Nolte, Francesco Rigoli, Peter Smittenaar, Xiaosi Gu, Raymond J Dolan
The external part of the globus pallidus (GPe) is a core nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG) whose activity is disrupted under conditions of low dopamine release, as in Parkinson's disease. Current models assume decreased dopamine release in the dorsal striatum results in deactivation of dorsal GPe, which in turn affects motor expression via a regulatory effect on other nuclei of the BG. However, recent studies in healthy and pathological animal models have reported neural dynamics that do not match with this view of the GPe as a relay in the BG circuit...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473778/assessment-of-the-praxis-circuit-in-glioma-surgery-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-postoperative-and-long-term-apraxia-a-new-intraoperative-test
#19
Marco Rossi, Luca Fornia, Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Gianmarco Zuccon, Enrica Fava, Daniela Milani, Alessandra Casarotti, Marco Riva, Federico Pessina, Gabriella Cerri, Lorenzo Bello
OBJECTIVE Apraxia is a cognitive-motor deficit affecting the execution of skilled movements, termed praxis gestures, in the absence of primary sensory or motor disorders. In patients affected by stroke, apraxia is associated with lesions of the lateral parietofrontal stream, connecting the posterior parietal areas with the ventrolateral premotor area and subserving sensory-motor integration for the hand movements. In the neurosurgical literature to date, there are few reports regarding the incidence of apraxia after glioma surgery...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473661/facial-emotion-recognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-and-new-hypotheses
#20
REVIEW
Soizic Argaud, Marc Vérin, Paul Sauleau, Didier Grandjean
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder classically characterized by motor symptoms. Among them, hypomimia affects facial expressiveness and social communication and has a highly negative impact on patients' and relatives' quality of life. Patients also frequently experience nonmotor symptoms, including emotional-processing impairments, leading to difficulty in recognizing emotions from faces. Aside from its theoretical importance, understanding the disruption of facial emotion recognition in PD is crucial for improving quality of life for both patients and caregivers, as this impairment is associated with heightened interpersonal difficulties...
April 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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