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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188914/connectivity-based-parcellation-reveals-distinct-cortico-striatal-connectivity-fingerprints-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Joshua H Balsters, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186666/impaired-intracortical-transmission-in-g2019s-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-parkinson-patients
#2
Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Livia Brusa, Tommaso Schirinzi, Stefania Battistini, Claudia Ricci, Manolo Sambucci, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVES: A mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is the most common cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the neural mechanisms and the circuitry potentially involved are poorly understood. METHODS: We used different transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols to explore in the primary motor cortex the activity of intracortical circuits and cortical plasticity (long-term potentiation) in patients with the G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutation when compared with idiopathic PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176009/dopamine-and-serotonin-modulation-of-motor-and-non-motor-functions-of-the-non-human-primate-striato-pallidal-circuits-in-normal-and-pathological-states
#3
REVIEW
Véronique Sgambato-Faure, Léon Tremblay
Thanks to the non-human primate (NHP), we have shown that the pharmacological disturbance of the anterior striatum or of external globus pallidus triggers a set of motivation and movement disorders, depending on the functional subterritory involved. One can, therefore, assume that the aberrant activity of the different subterritories of basal ganglia (BG) could lead to different behavioral disorders in neuropsychiatric disorders as Tourette's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. We are now addressing in the NHP the impact of modulating dopamine or serotonin within the BG on behavioral disorders...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159574/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-neurochemistry
#4
REVIEW
A Stefani, V Trendavilof, C Liguori, E Fedele, S Galati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a standard therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is also currently under investigation for other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although many scientific, clinical and ethical issues are still unresolved, DBS delivered into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has improved the quality of life of several thousands of patients. The mechanisms underlying STN-DBS have been debated extensively in several reviews; less investigated are the biochemical consequences, which are still under scrutiny...
January 31, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150698/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Mary M Robertson, Valsamma Eapen, Harvey S Singer, Davide Martino, Jeremiah M Scharf, Peristera Paschou, Veit Roessner, Douglas W Woods, Marwan Hariz, Carol A Mathews, Rudi Črnčec, James F Leckman
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder...
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149392/engaging-cognitive-circuits-to-promote-motor-recovery-in-degenerative-disorders-exercise-as-a-learning-modality
#6
Michael W Jakowec, Zhou Wang, Daniel Holschneider, Jeff Beeler, Giselle M Petzinger
Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118989/perspectives-on-fronto-fugal-circuitry-from-human-imaging-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
Descriptions of the cognitive functions affected by alcohol use disorders (AUD) often highlight dysfunction of executive processes such attention, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Such complex cognitive functions have historically been ascribed to the prefrontal cortex. AUD, however, disrupts extensive areas of the brain. Structural and functional MRI studies suggest a central role for degradation of circuitry originating in the prefrontal cortex including nodes in widespread brain regions...
January 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115057/optogenetic-demonstration-of-functional-innervation-of-mouse-colon-by-neurons-derived-from-transplanted-neural-cells
#8
Lincon A Stamp, Rachel M Gwynne, Jaime P P Foong, Alan E Lomax, Marlene M Hao, David I Kaplan, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou, Andrew M Allen, Joel C Bornstein, Heather M Young
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cell therapy offers the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseased or absent enteric neurons. We examined whether neurons generated from transplanted enteric neural cells provide a functional innervation of bowel smooth muscle in mice. METHODS: Enteric neural cells expressing the light-sensitive ion channel, channelrhodopsin, were isolated from the fetal or postnatal mouse bowel and transplanted into the distal colon of 3-4 week old wild-type recipient mice...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114421/immediate-effects-of-repetitive-magnetic-stimulation-on-single-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#9
Jineta Banerjee, Mary E Sorrell, Pablo A Celnik, Galit Pelled
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been successfully used as a non-invasive therapeutic intervention for several neurological disorders in the clinic as well as an investigative tool for basic neuroscience. rTMS has been shown to induce long-term changes in neuronal circuits in vivo. Such long-term effects of rTMS have been investigated using behavioral, imaging, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, but there is limited understanding of the immediate effects of TMS on neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#10
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#11
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#12
Rosanna Palmeri, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068619/characterization-of-brain-blood-flow-and-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#13
Wenbin Li, Ziqi Chen, Min Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Lei Gu, Youjin Zhao, Weihong Kuang, Feng Bi, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects, there is an association between amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). To date, no published meta-analysis has investigated changes in the regional ALFF in medication-free depressed patients. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to explore whether resting-state rCBF and ALFF changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Using signed differential mapping (SDM), we conducted two meta-analyses, one of rCBF studies and one of ALFF studies, involving medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063757/-no-motor-signs-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jean-Philippe Azulay, Tatiana Witjas, Alexandre Eusebio
In Parkinson's disease, motor signs have long been the main targets of the management of the disease. In recent years, non-motor disorders have elicited increasing interest. These disorders are under diagnosed and managed more difficultly than motor signs and are sometimes perceived as more disturbing by the patients. These signs are polymorphous, sometimes occurring before the motor symptoms but increase with the disease duration and complicating always the late stages. They may fluctuate as the motor signs, while being under the control of dopaminergic pathways, or be linked to the degeneration of other neuronal circuits...
January 4, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031220/pathological-ponto-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-activations-in-primary-orthostatic-tremor-during-lying-and-stance
#15
Florian Schöberl, Katharina Feil, Guoming Xiong, Peter Bartenstein, Christian la Fougére, Klaus Jahn, Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Marianne Dieterich, Andreas Zwergal
Primary orthostatic tremor is a rare neurological disease characterized mainly by a high frequency tremor of the legs while standing. The aim of this study was to identify the common core structures of the oscillatory circuit in orthostatic tremor and how it is modulated by changes of body position. Ten patients with orthostatic tremor and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects underwent a standardized neurological and neuro-ophthalmological examination including electromyographic and posturographic recordings...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007991/genetic-inactivation-of-glutamate-neurons-in-the-rat-sublaterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-recapitulates-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#16
Sara Valencia Garcia, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Michael Lazarus, Daniela Grassi, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997702/impulse-control-disorder-lysosomal-malfunction-and-atp13a2-insufficiency-in-parkinsonism
#17
REVIEW
Jun-Ping Liu, Jianfeng Li, Yanhua Lu, Lihui Wang, Gang Chen
Lysosomal transport of cargos in neurons is essential for neuronal proteostasis, transmission and functional motors and behaviors. Lysosomal malfunction including storage disorders is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the unclear molecular mechanisms of diverse defects in PD phenotypes, especially behavioral deficits, this mini review explores the cellular contexts of PD impulse control disorders and the molecular aspects of lysosomal cross-membrane transports. Focuses are paid to trace metal involvements in α-synuclein assembly in Lewy bodies, the functions and molecular interactions of ATP13A2 as ATPase transporters in lysosomal membranes for cross-membrane trafficking and lysosomal homeostasis, and our current understandings of the neural circuits in ICD...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982134/tracmouse-a-computer-aided-movement-analysis-script-for-the-mouse-inverted-horizontal-grid-test
#18
W Niewiadomski, E Palasz, M Skupinska, M Zylinski, M Steczkowska, A Gasiorowska, G Niewiadomska, G Riedel
In rodents, detection and quantification of motor impairments is difficult. The traction test (inverted grid with mice clinging to the underside) currently has no objective rating system. We here developed and validated the semi-automatic MATLAB script TracMouse for unbiased detection of video-recorded movement patterns. High precision videos were analyzed by: (i) principal identification of anatomical paw details frame-by-frame by an experimentally blinded rater; (ii) automatic retrieval of proxies by TracMouse for individual paws...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935605/evolution-of-the-circuitry-for-conscious-color-vision-in-primates
#19
J Neitz, M Neitz
There are many ganglion cell types and subtypes in our retina that carry color information. These have appeared at different times over the history of the evolution of the vertebrate visual system. They project to several different places in the brain and serve a variety of purposes allowing wavelength information to contribute to diverse visual functions. These include circadian photoentrainment, regulation of sleep and mood, guidance of orienting movements, detection and segmentation of objects. Predecessors to some of the circuits serving these purposes presumably arose before mammals evolved and different functions are represented by distinct ganglion cell types...
February 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917685/phosphodiesterase-10-inhibitors-in-clinical-development-for-cns-disorders
#20
Hugo Geerts, Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts
Phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors (PDE10-I), are conceptually attractive drugs with a potential great therapeutic window as their enriched striatal localization may likely stimulate D1R and reduce D2R downstream effects. However, so far selective PDE10-I with efficacy in animal models have not shown benefit in clinical trials and unexpectedly revealed a substantial dyskinesia motor side-effect. Areas covered: This paper reviews the underlying biological rationale of PDE10 as a target in schizophrenia, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease based on peer-reviewed published articles, the status of the different PDE10-I in clinical development for various CNS indications and explores possible reasons for the clinical trial failures and translational disconnect...
December 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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