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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705440/inhibition-of-trkb-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-using-ana-12-regulates-basal-and-stress-induced-orexin-a-expression-within-the-mesolimbic-system-and-affects-anxiety-sociability-and-motivation
#1
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system...
July 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#2
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658048/increased-activation-of-the-hippocampus-during-a-chinese-character-subvocalization-task-in-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate-palatoplasty-and-speech-therapy
#3
Wenjing Zhang, Chunlin Li, Long Chen, Xiyue Xing, Xiangyang Li, Zhi Yang, Haiyan Zhang, Renji Chen
This study aimed to explore brain activation in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) using a Chinese character subvocalization task, in which the stimuli were selected from a clinical articulation evaluation test. CLP is a congenital disability. Individuals with CLP usually have articulation disorder caused by abnormal lip and palate structure. Previous studies showed that primary somatosensory and motor areas had a significant difference in activation in patients with CLP. However, whether brain activation was restored to a normal level after palatoplasty and speech rehabilitation is not clear...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629285/acute-movement-disorders-in-the-medical-setting
#4
Ifrah Zawar, Mario A Caro, Lara Feldman, Xavier F Jimenez
Objective Psychosomatic medicine psychiatrists are often tasked with the evaluation and treatment of complex neuropsychiatric states which may be motoric in phenotype. Little energy has been dedicated to understanding acute movement disorders in the hospital environment. Method Recognizing the importance of frontal-subcortical (corticostriatothalamocortical) circuitry and basal ganglia structures, we present a case series of acute movement disorder phenotypes resulting from underlying medical conditions, commonly-administered medications, or the interaction of both...
July 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607173/tactile-defensiveness-and-impaired-adaptation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-fmr1-knockout-mouse-model-of-autism
#5
Cynthia X He, Daniel A Cantu, Shilpa S Mantri, William A Zeiger, Anubhuti Goel, Carlos Portera-Cailliau
Sensory hypersensitivity is a common symptom in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), and frequently leads to tactile defensiveness. In mouse models of ASDs, there is mounting evidence of neuronal and circuit hyperexcitability in several brain regions, which could contribute to sensory hypersensitivity. However, it is not yet known whether or how sensory stimulation might trigger abnormal sensory processing at the circuit level or abnormal behavioral responses in ASD mouse models, especially during an early developmental time when experience-dependent plasticity shapes such circuits...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601961/basal-ganglia-movement-disorders-and-deep-brain-stimulation-advances-made-through-non-human-primate-research
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Wichmann, Hagai Bergman, Mahlon R DeLong
Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582324/sleep-related-movement-disorders-and-disturbances-of-motor-control
#7
Panagiotis Bargiotas, Claudio L Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review of the literature pertaining to clinical presentation, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders and disturbances of motor control. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep-related movement disorders and disturbances of motor control are typically characterized by positive motor symptoms and are often associated with sleep disturbances and consequent daytime symptoms (e.g. fatigue, sleepiness)...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511253/pathophysiology-and-management-of-parkinsonian-tremor
#8
Rick C Helmich, Michiel F Dirkx
Parkinson's tremor is one of the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology of Parkinson's tremor is different from that of other motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity. In this review, the authors discuss evidence suggesting that tremor is a network disorder that arises from distinct pathophysiological changes in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellothalamocortical circuit. They also discuss how interventions in this circuitry, for example, deep brain surgery and noninvasive brain stimulation, can modulate or even treat tremor...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509681/neuroimaging-as-a-tool-to-study-the-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-huntington-s-disease
#9
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Estela Camara, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. There is great variability regarding the prominence and evolution of each type of clinical sign. One possible source of phenotypic heterogeneity could be the more prominent degeneration of specific brain circuits. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent neuroimaging studies that have analysed the relationship between brain changes and motor, cognitive and psychiatric alterations in Huntington's disease...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#10
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485644/impairment-of-triad-conditioned-facilitation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Stefan J Groiss, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Ritsuko Hanajima, Carlos Trenado, Setsu Nakatani-Enomoto, Koji Otani, Yoshikazu Ugawa
OBJECTIVES: The triad conditioned facilitation (TCF) technique has been shown to detect motor cortical intrinsic rhythms depending on the functioning of specific cortical layers by measuring motor evoked potential (MEP) enhancement after a triad of conditioning TMS pulses at a certain interval. However, the influence of cortical degeneration on TCF is still undetermined. We therefore studied TCF in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by degeneration of the motor cortex...
May 9, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476642/properties-of-the-corticostriatal-long-term-depression-induced-by-medial-prefrontal-cortex-high-frequency-stimulation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Barbara Y Braz, Juan E Belforte, M Gustavo Murer, Gregorio L Galiñanes
Repetitive stimulation of cognitive forebrain circuits at frequencies capable of inducing corticostriatal long term plasticity is increasingly being used with therapeutic purposes in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. However, corticostriatal plasticity is rarely studied in the intact brain. Our aim was to study the mechanisms of corticostriatal long term depression (LTD) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the medial prefrontal cortex in vivo. Our main finding is that the LTD induced in the dorsomedial striatum by medial prefrontal cortex HFS in vivo (prefrontostriatal LTD) is not affected by manipulations that block or reduce the LTD induced in the dorsolateral striatum by motor cortex HFS in brain slices, including pharmacological dopamine receptor and CB1 receptor blockade, chronic nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, CB1 receptor genetic deletion and selective striatal cholinergic interneuron (SCIN) ablation...
May 2, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476484/organization-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-system-anatomical-and-functional-mapping-of-monosynaptic-inputs-using-rabies-virus
#13
REVIEW
Sachie K Ogawa, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine and serotonin play critical roles in flexible behaviors and are related to various psychiatric and motor disorders. This paper reviews the global organization of dopamine and serotonin systems through recent findings using a modified rabies virus. We first introduce methods for comprehensive mapping of monosynaptic inputs. We then describe quantitative comparisons across the data regarding monosynaptic inputs to dopamine neurons versus serotonin neurons. There is surprising similarity between the input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the input to serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR), suggesting functional interactions between these systems...
May 2, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468816/novel-mutations-in-synaptic-transmission-genes-suppress-neuronal-hyperexcitation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Katherine A McCulloch, Yingchuan B Qi, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Yishi Jin, Salvatore J Cherra
Acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (AChR) regulate neural circuit activity in multiple contexts. In humans, mutations in ionotropic acetylcholine receptor (iAChR) genes can cause neurological disorders, including myasthenia gravis and epilepsy. In Caenorhabditis elegans, iAChRs play multiple roles in the locomotor circuit. The cholinergic motor neurons express an ACR-2-containing pentameric AChR (ACR-2R) comprised of ACR-2, ACR-3, ACR-12, UNC-38, and UNC-63 subunits. A gain-of-function mutation in the non-α subunit gene acr-2 [acr-2(gf)] causes defective locomotion as well as spontaneous convulsions...
July 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463835/neurodegeneration-and-the-cerebellum
#15
Margot Samson, Daniel O Claassen
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum modulates diverse neuronal networks, regulating motor, cognitive, behavioral, and limbic circuits. Structural and functional changes to the cerebellum that occur with neurodegenerative conditions have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: We synthesize the current understanding of cerebellar somatotopy and function with previously described cerebellar changes in neurodegenerative diseases not associated with primary cerebellar pathology...
May 3, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457650/orthostatic-myoclonus-after-brain-tumor-radiation-insights-from-two-lesional-cases
#16
Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Julie E Hammack, Joseph Y Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic myoclonus (OM) is a recognized syndrome of gait unsteadiness accompanied by lower limb myoclonus provoked by the assumption of an upright posture. OM typically affects the elderly and is often associated with neurodegenerative disease. We sought to review the clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of OM due to brain tumor treatment, the first reported lesional cases of this rare disorder. METHODS: The database of the Mayo Clinic Rochester Movement Disorders Laboratory was searched for all patients diagnosed with OM from January 2007 to December 2016...
April 26, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450060/endocannabinoid-modulation-of-dopamine-neurotransmission
#17
REVIEW
Dan P Covey, Yolanda Mateo, David Sulzer, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) is a major catecholamine neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain that controls neural circuits involved in the cognitive, emotional, and motor aspects of goal-directed behavior. Accordingly, perturbations in DA neurotransmission play a central role in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Somewhat surprisingly given its prominent role in numerous behaviors, DA is released by a relatively small number of densely packed neurons originating in the midbrain. The dopaminergic midbrain innervates numerous brain regions where extracellular DA release and receptor binding promote short- and long-term changes in postsynaptic neuron function...
April 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445782/the-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-in-the-human-thalamus
#18
H J Waldvogel, M Munkle, W van Roon-Mom, H Mohler, R L M Faull
The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,3- and γ2- subunits which combine to form a benzodiazepine sensitive GABAA receptor showed the most intense levels of staining and were the most common subunits found throughout the human thalamus especially in the ventral and posterior nuclear groups...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427306/prefrontal-tdcs-and-sertraline-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Ulrich Palm, Bianka Leitner, Beatrice Kirsch, Nora Behler, Ulrike Kumpf, Linda Wulf, Frank Padberg, Alkomiet Hasan
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size...
April 21, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419527/the-rectosigmoid-brake-review-of-an-emerging-neuromodulation-target-for-colorectal-functional-disorders
#20
Anthony Y Lin, Phil G Dinning, Tony Milne, Ian P Bissett, Gregory O'Grady
The regulation of gastrointestinal motility encompasses several overlapping mechanisms including highly regulated and coordinated neurohormonal circuits. Various feedback mechanisms or 'brakes' have been proposed. While duodenal, jejunal, and ileal brakes are well described, a putative distal colonic brake is less well defined. Despite the high prevalence of colonic motility disorders, there is little knowledge of colonic motility owing to difficulties with organ access and technical difficulties in recording detailed motor patterns along its entire length...
April 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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