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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331264/altered-levels-of-the-splicing-factor-muscleblind-modifies-cerebral-cortical-function-in-mouse-models-of-myotonic-dystrophy
#2
Gang Chen, Russell E Carter, John D Cleary, Tammy S Reid, Laura P Ranum, Maurice S Swanson, Timothy J Ebner
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a progressive, multisystem disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, and central nervous system. In both DM1 and DM2, microsatellite expansions of CUG and CCUG RNA repeats, respectively, accumulate and disrupt functions of alternative splicing factors, including muscleblind (MBNL) proteins. Grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the corpus callosum, likely underlie cognitive and executive function deficits in DM patients. However, little is known how cerebral cortical circuitry changes in DM...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298733/progressive-striatonigral-degeneration%C3%A2-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-multiple-system-atrophy-translational-implications-for-interventional-therapies
#3
Violetta Refolo, Francesco Bez, Alexia Polissidis, Daniela Kuzdas-Wood, Edith Sturm, Martina Kamaratou, Werner Poewe, Leonidas Stefanis, M Angela Cenci, Marina Romero-Ramos, Gregor K Wenning, Nadia Stefanova
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions of filamentous α-synuclein, and neuronal loss in autonomic centres, basal ganglia and cerebellar circuits. It has been suggested that primary oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy may represent a trigger in the pathogenesis of MSA, but the mechanisms underlying selective vulnerability and disease progression are unclear. The post-mortem analysis of MSA brains provides a static final picture of the disease neuropathology, but gives no clear indication on the sequence of pathogenic events in MSA...
January 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298648/optogenetics-of-the-spinal-cord-use-of-channelrhodopsin-proteins-for-interrogation-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#4
Habibur Rahman, Youngpyo Nam, Jae-Hong Kim, Won-Ha Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Spinal cord circuits play a key role in receiving and transmitting somatosensory information from the body and the brain. They also contribute to the timing and coordination of complex patterns of movement. Under disease conditions, such as spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain, spinal cord circuits receive pain signals from peripheral nerves, and are involved in pain development via neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators released from neurons and glial cells. Despite the importance of spinal cord circuits in sensory and motor functions, many questions remain regarding the relationship between activation of specific cells and behavioral responses...
December 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282616/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-moving-towards-clinical-applications-for-cerebellar-and-extra-cerebellar-disorders
#5
EDITORIAL
Kim van Dun, Mario Manto
The field of non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum is quickly expanding. The anatomical structure of the cerebellum with a high density of neurons in the superficial layer, its electrical properties, and its participation in numerous closed-loop circuits involved in motor, cognitive, and affective operations both in children and in adults make of the cerebellum a target with very high potential for neuromodulation of both cerebellar and extra-cerebellar disorders, in neurology, psychiatry, and neurosurgery...
December 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238972/the-functional-anatomy-of-the-cerebrocerebellar-circuit-a-review-and-new-concepts
#6
REVIEW
Vincenzo Benagiano, Anna Rizzi, Loredana Lorusso, Paolo Flace, Matteo Saccia, Raffaele Cagiano, Domenico Ribatti, Luisa Roncali, Glauco Ambrosi
The cerebrocerebellar circuit is a feedback circuit that bidirectionally connects the neocortex and the cerebellum. According to the classic view, the cerebrocerebellar circuit is specifically involved in the functional regulation of the motor areas of the neocortex. In recent years, studies carried out in experimental animals by morphological and physiological methods, and in humans by magnetic resonance imaging, have indicated that the cerebrocerebellar circuit is also involved in the functional regulation of the non-motor areas of the neocortex, including the prefrontal, associative, sensory and limbic areas...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201041/decoding-of-human-movements-based-on-deep-brain-local-field-potentials-using-ensemble-neural-networks
#7
Mohammad S Islam, Khondaker A Mamun, Hai Deng
Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) for robust movement decoding of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198273/the-neuropsychology-of-movement-and-movement-disorders-neuroanatomical-and-cognitive-considerations
#8
Kathleen Y Haaland, Richard P Dum, Pratik K Mutha, Peter L Strick, Alexander I Tröster
This paper highlights major developments over the past two to three decades in the neuropsychology of movement and its disorders. We focus on studies in healthy individuals and patients, which have identified cognitive contributions to movement control and animal work that has delineated the neural circuitry that makes these interactions possible. We cover advances in three major areas: (1) the neuroanatomical aspects of the "motor" system with an emphasis on multiple parallel circuits that include cortical, corticostriate, and corticocerebellar connections; (2) behavioral paradigms that have enabled an appreciation of the cognitive influences on the preparation and execution of movement; and (3) hemispheric differences (exemplified by limb praxis, motor sequencing, and motor learning)...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183233/complex-dynamics-in-the-basal-ganglia-health-and-disease-beyond-the-motor-system
#9
Daniela S Andres, Olivier Darbin
The rate and oscillatory hypotheses are the two main current frameworks of basal ganglia pathophysiology. Both hypotheses have emerged from research on movement disorders sharing similar conceptualizations. These pathological conditions are classified either as hypokinetic or hyperkinetic, and the electrophysiological hallmarks of basal ganglia dysfunction are categorized as prokinetic or antikinetic. Although nonmotor symptoms, including neurobehavioral symptoms, are a key manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction, they are uncommonly accounted for in these models...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177509/repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-are-linked-to-imbalance-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-a-functional-connectivity-mri-study
#10
Angela E Abbott, Annika Linke, Aarti Nair, Afrooz Jahedi, Laura A Alba, Christopher L Keown, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
The neural underpinnings of repetitive behaviors (RBs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), ranging from cognitive to motor characteristics, remain unknown. We assessed RB symptomatology in 50 ASD and 52 typically developing (TD) children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years), examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of corticostriatal circuitry, which is important for reward-based learning and integration of emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, and considered impaired in ASDs. Connectivity analyses were performed for three functionally distinct striatal seeds (limbic, frontoparietal, motor)...
November 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173175/imaging-the-role-of-inflammation-in-mood-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#11
Jennifer C Felger
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have reported evidence that inflammation and release of inflammatory cytokines affect circuitry relevant to both reward and threat sensitivity to contribute to behavioral change. Of relevance to mood and anxiety-related disorders, biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151060/genetics-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Pei-Lan Zhang, Yan Chen, Chen-Hao Zhang, Yu-Xin Wang, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurological condition characterised mainly by bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability, symptoms that together comprise the parkinsonian syndrome. Non-motor symptoms preceding and following clinical onset are also helpful diagnostic markers revealing a widespread and progressive pathology. Many other neurological conditions also include parkinsonism as primary or secondary symptom, confounding their diagnosis and treatment. Although overall disease course and end-stage pathological examination single out these conditions, the significant overlaps suggest that they are part of a continuous disease spectrum...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124784/dysfunction-in-emotion-processing-underlies-functional-psychogenic-dystonia
#13
Alberto J Espay, Thomas Maloney, Jennifer Vannest, Matthew M Norris, James C Eliassen, Erin Neefus, Jane B Allendorfer, Robert Chen, Jerzy P Szaflarski
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether abnormalities in emotion processing underlie functional (psychogenic) dystonia, one of the most common functional movement disorders. METHODS: Motor and emotion circuits were examined in 12 participants with functional dystonia, 12 with primary organic dystonia, and 25 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 4T and a finger-tapping task (motor task), a basic emotion-recognition task (emotional faces task), and an intense-emotion stimuli task...
November 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119634/the-cerebral-basis-of-parkinsonian-tremor-a-network-perspective
#14
Rick C Helmich
Tremor in Parkinson's disease is a poorly understood sign. Although it is one of the clinical hallmarks of the disease, its pathophysiology remains unclear. It is clear that tremor involves different neural mechanisms than bradykinesia and rigidity, the other core motor signs of Parkinson's disease. In particular, the role of dopamine in tremor has been heavily debated given clinical observations that tremor has a variable response to dopaminergic medication. From a neuroscience perspective, tremor is also a special sign; unlike other motor signs, it has a clear electrophysiological signature (frequency, phase, and power)...
November 9, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#15
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099407/ocular-motor-dysfunction-due-to-brainstem-disorders
#16
Seung-Han Lee, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The brainstem contains numerous structures including afferent and efferent fibers that are involved in generation and control of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: These structures give rise to distinct patterns of abnormal eye movements when damaged. Defining these ocular motor abnormalities allows a topographic diagnosis of a lesion within the brainstem. RESULTS: Although diverse patterns of impaired eye movements may be observed in lesions of the brainstem, medullary lesions primarily cause various patterns of nystagmus and impaired vestibular eye movements without obvious ophthalmoplegia...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079343/from-meaning-to-categorization-the-hierarchical-recruitment-of-brain-circuits-selective-for-action-verbs
#17
Riccardo Dalla Volta, Pietro Avanzini, Doriana De Marco, Maurizio Gentilucci, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro
Sensorimotor and affective brain systems are known to be involved in language processing. However, to date it is still debated whether this involvement is a crucial step of semantic processing or, on the contrary, it is dependent on the specific context or strategy adopted to solve a task at hand. The present electroencephalographic (EEG) study is aimed at investigating which brain circuits are engaged when processing written verbs. By aligning event-related potentials (ERPs) both to the verb onset and to the motor response indexing the accomplishment of a semantic task of categorization, we were able to dissociate the relative stimulus-related and response-related cognitive components at play, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074330/motor-dysfunction-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-across-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-progress-and-perspectives
#18
Dusan Hirjak, Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf
Primary motor abnormalities (PMA), as found in patients with schizophrenia, are quantitatively and qualitatively distinct markers of motor system abnormalities. PMA have been often referred to phenomena that are present across schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A dysfunction of frontoparietal and subcortical networks has been proposed as core pathophysiological mechanism underlying the expression of PMA. However, it is unclear at present if such mechanisms are a common within schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders...
October 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065207/cerebellar-gray-matter-reductions-associate-with-decreased-functional-connectivity-in-nicotine-dependent-individuals
#19
Zhujing Shen, Peiyu Huang, Chao Wang, Wei Qian, Yihong Yang, Minming Zhang
Introduction: Nicotine dependence (ND) is a chronic, relapsing mental disorder characterized by compulsive cigarette seeking and smoking. Although the cerebellum plays an increasingly implicated role in ND, the exact cerebellar alterations in ND remain unclear. Identifying the localization of these cerebellar abnormalities in ND may help to further understand the role of the cerebellum in ND. Thus, we investigated the structural and functional alterations in the cerebellum in a large sample of smokers using the spatially unbiased infratentorial template (SUIT)...
July 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#20
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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