keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Premotor

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634888/saccades-evoked-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-bank-of-the-arcuate-sulcus
#1
E Neromyliotis, A K Moschovakis
To test the hypothesis that the premotor cortex in and behind the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus can generate saccades, we stimulated electrically the periarcuate region of alert rhesus monkeys. We were able to produce saccades from sites of the premotor cortex that were contiguous with the frontal eye fields and extended up to 2 mm behind the smooth pursuit area. However, premotor sites often elicited saccades with ipsiversive characteristic vectors, lower peak velocities, and flatter velocity profiles when compared to saccades evoked from the frontal eye field...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631489/an-update-on-the-recognition-and-treatment-of-autonomic-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Wolfgang H Jost
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor, autonomic, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. These occur in varying degrees in all stages of the disease. Among the autonomic disorders, cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal and thermoregulatory disorders are the most relevant. Within cardiovascular disorders drop of blood pressure after orthostasis and non-dipper behavior are very important; but also the influence of cardiovascular medication. Urgency, nocturia, and incontinence are of particular note within the urological problems...
June 20, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625609/oxidative-stress-induced-by-cumene-hydroperoxide-produces-synaptic-depression-and-transient-hyperexcitability-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#3
R Pardillo-Diaz, L Carrascal, G Barrionuevo, P Nunez-Abades
Pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex are selectively degenerated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms underlying neuronal death in ALS are not well established. In the absence of useful biomarkers, the early increased neuronal excitability seems to be the unique characteristic of ALS. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress has been postulated as one of the possible mechanisms involved in degeneration motor cortex pyramidal neurons. This paper examines the effect of lipid peroxidation on layer V pyramidal neurons induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH) in brain slices from wild type rats...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622282/towards-a-neurobiological-understanding-of-alexithymia
#4
REVIEW
Nicolás Meza-Concha, Marcelo Arancibia, Felicia Salas, Rosa Behar, Germán Salas, Hernán Silva, Rocío Escobar
Although the specialized literature on the etiology of alexithymia is controversial, neurobiological research has shown relevant advances. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence regarding the neurophysiological bases of alexithymia. A comprehensive review of available articles from Medline/PubMed, EBSCO and SciELO was conducted. Previously, alexithymia was linked to a reduced interhemispheric brain connection. From a childhood traumatic perspective, the right prefrontal cortex and the default mode network would experience alterations, first hypermetabolic (dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysregulation) and then hypometabolic-dissociative (serotonergic and opioid dysregulation), resulting in a distorted interoceptive and emotional awareness...
May 29, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617829/rhythmic-syllable-related-activity-in-a-songbird-motor-thalamic-nucleus-necessary-for-learned-vocalizations
#5
Husain H Danish, Dmitriy Aronov, Michale S Fee
Birdsong is a complex behavior that exhibits hierarchical organization. While the representation of singing behavior and its hierarchical organization has been studied in some detail in avian cortical premotor circuits, our understanding of the role of the thalamus in adult birdsong is incomplete. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological studies, we seek to expand on earlier work showing that the thalamic nucleus Uvaeformis (Uva) is necessary for the production of stereotyped, adult song in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611616/differential-functional-connectivity-alterations-of-two-subdivisions-within-the-right-dlpfc-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Julian Caspers, Christian Mathys, Felix Hoffstaedter, Martin Südmeyer, Edna C Cieslik, Christian Rubbert, Christian J Hartmann, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Christian Grefkes, Jochen Michely, Bernd Turowski, Alfons Schnitzler, Simon B Eickhoff
Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611387/visuotactile-integration-modulates-motor-performance-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#7
Klaudia Grechuta, Jelena Guga, Giovanni Maffei, Belen Ballester Rubio, Paul F M J Verschure
Body ownership is critically dependent on multimodal integration as for instance revealed in the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) and a number of studies which have addressed the neural correlates of the processes underlying this phenomenon. Both experimental and clinical research have shown that the structures underlying body ownership seem to significantly overlap with those of motor control including the parietal and ventral premotor cortices, Temporal Parietal Junction (TPJ) and the insula. This raises the question of whether this structural overlap between body ownership and motor control structures is of any functional significance...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607750/noninvasive-tongue-stimulation-combined-with-intensive-cognitive-and-physical-rehabilitation-induces-neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#8
Gabriel Leonard, Yves Lapierre, Jen-Kai Chen, Rima Wardini, Joelle Crane, Alain Ptito
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have central nervous system (CNS) lesions that may impede cognitive and sensorimotor function. Few rehabilitative therapies are available. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to study effects of noninvasive tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS™) combined with intensive cognitive and physical rehabilitation on working memory, gait, balance and concomitant changes in the brain...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606388/the-role-of-dorsal-premotor-cortex-in-mental-rotation-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#9
Giorgia Cona, Giulia Panozzo, Carlo Semenza
Although activation of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been consistently observed in the neuroimaging studies of mental rotation, the functional meaning of PMd activation is still unclear and multiple alternative explanations have been suggested. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of PMd in mental rotation. Two tasks were used, involving mental rotation of hands and abstract objects, with either matching (same stimuli) or mirror stimuli. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS over right and left PMd regions significantly affected accuracy in the object task, specifically for the same stimuli...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603516/iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine-myocardial-scintigraphy-in-isolated-autonomic-failure-potential-red-flag-for-future-multiple-system-atrophy
#10
Francesca Baschieri, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Annagrazia Cecere, Giorgio Barletta, Manuela Contin, Piero Parchi, Pietro Cortelli
Pure autonomic failure is challenging as it can be the presenting feature of a central nervous system syncleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or multiple system atrophy (MSA). Because the prognosis of MSA and PD is so different, predictive features for a possible conversion can be extremely valuable. In this paper, we report three cases (two with autopsy-proven diagnosis) that had isolated AF for many years before converting to MSA or PD. Of all the tests that were performed during the premotor stage, Iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was predictive of the conversion to MSA...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602887/cross-modal-recruitment-of-auditory-and-orofacial-areas-during-sign-language-in-a-deaf-subject
#11
Juan Martino, Carlos Velasquez, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Enrique Marco de Lucas, Elsa Gomez
BACKGROUND: Modern signed languages of the deaf are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually.The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we describe an original case of a deaf-mute patient with a left temporo-insular low-grade glioma that was operated. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing for the first time in the literature, to directly study the cortical and subcortical organization of signed language...
June 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602689/empathic-care-and-distress-predictive-brain-markers-and-dissociable-brain-systems
#12
Yoni K Ashar, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Sona Dimidjian, Tor D Wager
Encountering another's suffering can elicit both empathic distress and empathic care-the warm desire to affiliate. It remains unclear whether these two feelings can be accurately and differentially predicted from neural activity and to what extent their neural substrates can be distinguished. We developed fMRI markers predicting moment-by-moment intensity levels of care and distress intensity while participants (n = 66) listened to true biographies describing human suffering. Both markers' predictions correlated strongly with self-report in out-of-sample participants (r = 0...
May 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601605/rapid-focal-cooling-attenuates-cortical-seizures-in-a-primate-epilepsy-model
#13
Guoping Ren, Jiaqing Yan, Guoxian Tao, Yunmeng Gan, Donghong Li, Xi Yan, Yongjuan Fu, Leiming Wang, Weimin Wang, Zhiming Zhang, Feng Yue, Xiaofeng Yang
Rapid focal cooling is an attractive nondestructive strategy to control and possibly prevent focal seizures. However, the temperature threshold necessary to abort seizures in primates is still unknown. Here, we explored this issue in a primate epilepsy model and observed the effect of rapid cooling on different electroencephalogram frequency bands, aiming at providing necessary experimental data for future clinical translational studies and exploring the mechanism of focal cooling in terminating seizures. We induced focal neocortical seizures using microinjection of 4-aminopyridine into premotor cortex in five anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594097/functional-activity-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-and-cerebellum-relates-to-cervical-dystonia-symptoms
#14
Roxana G Burciu, Christopher W Hess, Stephen A Coombes, Edward Ofori, Priyank Shukla, Jae Woo Chung, Nikolaus R McFarland, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities...
June 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590903/contributions-of-local-speech-encoding-and-functional-connectivity-to-audio-visual-speech-perception
#15
Bruno L Giordano, Robin A A Ince, Joachim Gross, Philippe G Schyns, Stefano Panzeri, Christoph Kayser
Seeing a speaker's face enhances speech intelligibility in adverse environments. We investigated the underlying network mechanisms by quantifying local speech representations and directed connectivity in MEG data obtained while human participants listened to speech of varying acoustic SNR and visual context. During high acoustic SNR speech encoding by temporally entrained brain activity was strong in temporal and inferior frontal cortex, while during low SNR strong entrainment emerged in premotor and superior frontal cortex...
June 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590584/free-water-and-free-water-corrected-fractional-anisotropy-in-primary-and-premotor-corticospinal-tracts-in-chronic-stroke
#16
Derek B Archer, Carolynn Patten, Stephen A Coombes
Measures from diffusion MRI have been used to characterize the corticospinal tract in chronic stroke. However, diffusivity can be influenced by partial volume effects from free-water, region of interest placement, and lesion masking. We collected diffusion MRI from a cohort of chronic stroke patients and controls and used a bitensor model to calculate free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT ) and free water (FW) in the primary motor corticospinal tract (M1-CST) and the dorsal premotor corticospinal tract (PMd-CST)...
June 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589287/transitive-versus-intransitive-complex-gesture-representation-a-comparison-between-execution-observation-and-imagination-by-fnirs
#17
Michela Balconi, Davide Crivelli, Livia Cortesi
The aim of the present study was to examine cortical correlates of motor execution, motor observation and motor imagery of hand complex gestures, in particular by comparing meaningful gestures implying the use of an object (transitive action) or not (intransitive action). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to verify the presence of partial overlapping between some cortical areas involved in those different tasks. Participants were instructed to observe videos of transitive vs. intransitive gestures and then to execute or imagine them...
June 6, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587545/skilled-reach-performance-correlates-with-corpus-callosum-structural-integrity-in-individuals-with-mild-motor-impairment-after-stroke-a-preliminary-investigation
#18
Jill Campbell Stewart, Michael O'Donnell, Kaci Handlery, Carolee J Winstein
BACKGROUND: Recovery of arm function after stroke is often incomplete. An improved understanding of brain structure-motor behavior relationships is needed for the development of novel and targeted rehabilitation interventions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between skilled reach performance and the integrity of two putative white matter motor pathways, corticospinal tract and corpus callosum, after stroke. METHODS: Eleven individuals with chronic stroke (poststroke duration, mean 62...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583455/brain-arteriovenous-malformations-located-in-premotor-cortex-surgical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-neurological-deficits
#19
Yuming Jiao, Fuxin Lin, Jun Wu, Hao Li, Xin Chen, Zhicen Li, Ji Ma, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECT: The premotor cortex (PMC) is known to have a dual role in both movement and language processing. Nevertheless, surgical outcomes of premotor cortex BAVMs (PMC-BAVMs) have not been well-defined. The aim of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for neurological deficits (ND) after surgery in patients with PMC-BAVMs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with PMC-BAVMs who underwent surgical resection of the nidus. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MRI, 3D time-of-flight MRA (3D TOF-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
June 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582896/adaptive-locomotor-network-activation-during-randomized-walking-speeds-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#20
Ha Yeon Kim, Eun Joo Kim, Joshua Sung H You
BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying locomotor networks has the potential to benefit the neurorehabilitation of patients with neurological locomotor deficits. However, the specific locomotor networks that mediate adaptive locomotor performance and changes in gait speed remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine patterns of cortical activation associated with the walking speeds of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 km/h on a treadmill...
May 19, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
keyword
keyword
64011
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"