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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813785/a-pilot-study-on-the-optimal-speeds-for-passive-wrist-movements-by-a-rehabilitation-robot-of-stroke-patients-a-functional-nirs-study
#1
Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo, Pyung Hun Chang
The optimal conditions inducing proper brain activation during performance of rehabilitation robots should be examined to enhance the efficiency of robot rehabilitation based on the concept of brain plasticity. In this study, we attempted to investigate differences in cortical activation according to the speeds of passive wrist movements performed by a rehabilitation robot for stroke patients. 9 stroke patients with right hemiparesis participated in this study. Passive movements of the affected wrist were performed by the rehabilitation robot at three different speeds: 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811605/spatial-and-viewpoint-selectivity-for-others-observed-actions-in-monkey-ventral-premotor-mirror-neurons
#2
Monica Maranesi, Alessandro Livi, Luca Bonini
The spatial location and viewpoint of observed actions are closely linked in natural social settings. For example, actions observed from a subjective viewpoint necessarily occur within the observer's peripersonal space. Neurophysiological studies have shown that mirror neurons (MNs) of the monkey ventral premotor area F5 can code the spatial location of live observed actions. Furthermore, F5 MN discharge can also be modulated by the viewpoint from which filmed actions are seen. Nonetheless, whether and to what extent MNs can integrate viewpoint and spatial location of live observed actions remains unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808819/separating-the-idea-from-the-action-a-sloreta-study
#3
Martin Rakusa, Pierpaolo Busan, Piero Paolo Battaglini, Janez Zidar
Simple imaginary movements activate similar cortical and subcortical areas to actual movements, chiefly in the sensory-motor network. However, only a few studies also examined the imagery of more skilful movements such as reaching. Ten volunteers performed reaching movements or imagined the same movements. EEG was simultaneously recorded and analysed with sLORETA, which compared the preparation for actual and imagined reaching with respect to their baseline and between tasks. Major differences between them were found at three time intervals after target presentation, always in favour of the actual reaching condition...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808217/electromyography-and-fos-immunostaining-study-establish-a-possible-functional-link-between-trigeminal-proprioception-and-the-oculomotor-system-in-rats
#4
Houcheng Liang, Jingdong Zhang, Pifu Luo, Hongna Zhu, Ying Qiao, Anle Su, Ting Zhang
The objective of this study was to explore whether there was a functional link between trigeminal proprioception and the oculomotor system mediated through jaw muscle afferents. Electromyography (EMG) was undertaken of the levator palpebrae (LP) and superior rectus (SR), and Fos expression was detected in the brainstem following consecutive down-stretching of the lower jaw at 2-4 Hz in rats. Retrograde tracing was undertaken of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and Darkschewitsch nucleus (INC/DN) pre-oculomotor neurons...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797109/upper-limb-movements-can-be-decoded-from-the-time-domain-of-low-frequency-eeg
#5
Patrick Ofner, Andreas Schwarz, Joana Pereira, Gernot R Müller-Putz
How neural correlates of movements are represented in the human brain is of ongoing interest and has been researched with invasive and non-invasive methods. In this study, we analyzed the encoding of single upper limb movements in the time-domain of low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Fifteen healthy subjects executed and imagined six different sustained upper limb movements. We classified these six movements and a rest class and obtained significant average classification accuracies of 55% (movement vs movement) and 87% (movement vs rest) for executed movements, and 27% and 73%, respectively, for imagined movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795529/reaction-time-can-be-measured-during-voluntary-contractions-with-electrode-array
#6
Y Le Mansec, A Nordez, S Dorel, M Jubeau
Reaction time (RT) is classically divided into premotor time (PMT) and electromechanical delay (EMD). However, the determination of the onset of electromyographic activity (EMG) during voluntary contraction remains questionable. In addition, the reliability of RT, PMT and EMD needs to be determined. Twelve participants performed two sessions of RT trials, separated by 5 min. RT was evaluated during voluntary isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, i.e., time between a light signal (stimulus) and the onset of the mechanical response...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795396/synaptic-excitation-by-climbing-fibre-collaterals-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei-of-juvenile-and-adult-mice
#7
Marion Najac, Indira M Raman
The inferior olive conveys instructive signals to the cerebellum that drive sensorimotor learning. Inferior olivary neurons transmit their signals via climbing fibres, which powerfully excite Purkinje cells, evoking complex spikes and depressing parallel fibre synapses. Additionally, however, these climbing fibres send collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei (CbN). In vivo and in vitro data suggest that climbing fibre collateral excitation is weak in adult mice, raising the question of whether the primary role of this pathway may be developmental...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793351/characterization-of-neurons-in-the-primate-medial-intraparietal-area-reveals-a-joint-representation-of-intended-reach-direction-and-amplitude
#8
Rishi Rajalingham, Sam Musallam
To support accurate memory-guided reaching, the brain must represent both the direction and amplitude of reaches in a movement plan. Several cortical areas have been shown to represent the direction of a planned reaching movement, but the neuronal representation of reach amplitude is still unclear, especially in sensory-motor integration areas. To investigate this, we recorded from neurons in the medial intraparietal area (MIP) of monkeys performing a variable amplitude memory reach task. In one monkey, we additionally recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) for direct cross-area comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791721/cortical-control-of-object-specific-grasp-relies-on-adjustments-of-both-activity-and-effective-connectivity-a-common-marmoset-study
#9
Banty Tia, Mitsuaki Takemi, Akito Kosugi, Elisa Castagnola, Alberto Ansaldo, Takafumi Nakamura, Davide Ricci, Junichi Ushiba, Luciano Fadiga, Atsushi Iriki
The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting different hand configurations: whole-hand, finger and scissor grips. The animals were then chronically implanted with 64-channel electrocorticogram arrays positioned over the left premotor, primary motor and somatosensory cortex...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790906/neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-late-evoked-and-alpha-beta-band-activity
#10
Isa S Rao, Christoph Kayser
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to record evoked responses and oscillatory responses in participants who felt the RHI...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789992/a-whole-brain-volumetric-approach-in-overweight-obese-children-examining-the-association-with-different-physical-fitness-components-and-academic-performance-the-activebrains-project
#11
Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Oren Contreras-Rodriguez, Juan Verdejo-Roman, Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Jairo H Migueles, Pontus Henriksson, Catherine L Davis, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Andrés Catena, Francisco B Ortega
Obesity, as compared to normal weight, is associated with detectable structural differences in the brain. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association of physical fitness with gray matter volume in overweight/obese children using whole brain analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the key components of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility and muscular fitness) and brain structural volume, and to assess whether fitness-related changes in brain volumes are related to academic performance in overweight/obese children...
August 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776303/premotor-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Heinz Reichmann
Typical Parkinsonian symptoms consist of bradykinesia plus rigidity and/or resting tremor. Some time later postural instability occurs. Pre-motor symptoms such as hyposmia, constipation, REM sleep behavior disorder and depression may antecede these motor symptoms for years. It would be ideal, if we had a biomarker which would allow to predict who with one or two of these pre-motor symptoms will develop the movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, it is interesting to learn that biopsies of the submandibular gland or colon biopsies may be a means to predict PD, if there is a high amout of abnormally folded alpha-synuclein and phosphorylated alpha-synuclein...
August 3, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774738/divergent-structural-responses-to-pharmacological-interventions-in-orbitofronto-striato-thalamic-and-premotor-circuits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Qiming Lv, Zhen Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Qing Fan, Qing Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Zeping Xiao, Zheng Wang
Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value) in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18-55) compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18-63), then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18-57) and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18-61)...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769786/mild-inflammatory-profile-without-gliosis-in-the-c-rel-deficient-mouse-modeling-a-late-onset-parkinsonism
#14
Vanessa Porrini, Mariana Mota, Edoardo Parrella, Arianna Bellucci, Marina Benarese, Lara Faggi, Paolo Tonin, Pier F Spano, Marina Pizzi
The impact of neuroinflammation and microglial activation to Parkinson's disease (PD) progression is still debated. Post-mortem analysis of PD brains has shown that neuroinflammation and microgliosis are key features of end-stage disease. However, microglia neuroimaging studies and evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in PD patients at earlier stages do not support the occurrence of a pronounced neuroinflammatory process. PD animal models recapitulating the motor and non-motor features of the disease, and the slow and progressive neuropathology, can be of great advantage in understanding whether and how neuroinflammation associates with the onset of symptoms and neuronal loss...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769020/activation-changes-of-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-for-the-factors-of-construction-and-scrambling-in-a-sentence
#15
Kyohei Tanaka, Shinri Ohta, Ryuta Kinno, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (L. dF3op/F3t) and left lateral premotor cortex (L. LPMC) are crucial regions for syntactic processing among the syntax-related networks. In the present study, we further examined how activations in these regions were modified by the factors of construction and scrambling (object-initial type). Using various sentence types, we clarified three major points. First, we found that the main effects of construction and scrambling consistently activated the L...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765808/altered-praxis-network-underlying-limb-kinetic-apraxia-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-fmri-study
#16
Stefanie Kübel, Katharina Stegmayer, Tim Vanbellingen, Manuela Pastore-Wapp, Manuel Bertschi, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Eugenio Abela, Bruno Weder, Sebastian Walther, Stephan Bohlhalter
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently suffer from dexterous deficits impeding activities of daily living. There is controversy whether impaired fine motor skill may stem from limb kinetic apraxia (LKA) rather than bradykinesia. Based on classical models of limb praxis LKA is thought to result when premotor transmission of time-space information of skilled movements to primary motor representations is interrupted. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we tested the hypothesis that dexterous deficits in PD are associated with altered activity and connectivity in left parieto-premotor praxis network...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762056/functional-brain-effects-of-hand-disuse-in-patients-with-trapeziometacarpal-joint-osteoarthritis-executed-and-imagined-movements
#17
Martina Gandola, Maurilio Bruno, Laura Zapparoli, Gianluca Saetta, Elena Rolandi, Antonio De Santis, Giuseppe Banfi, Alberto Zerbi, Valerio Sansone, Eraldo Paulesu
The human trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint has a crucial evolutionary importance as it permits rotation and opposition of the thumb to the other fingers. In chronic TMC joint osteoarthritis (i.e., rhizarthrosis), this motor ability, essential for pinching, grasping, and manipulating objects, may become difficult or impossible due to intolerable pain. Here, we assess whether patients with rhizarthrosis show signs of abnormal brain representation of hand movements. To this end, we studied 35 patients with rhizarthrosis, affecting predominantly one of the two hands, and 35 healthy subjects who underwent both behavioural and fMRI measures of brain activity during overtly executed or imagined thumb-to-finger-opposition movements...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761076/-embodied-body-language-an-electrical-neuroimaging-study-with-emotional-faces-and-bodies
#18
Marta Calbi, Monica Angelini, Vittorio Gallese, Maria Alessandra Umiltà
To date, most investigations in the field of affective neuroscience mainly focused on the processing of facial expressions, overlooking the exploration of emotional body language (EBL), its capability to express our emotions notwithstanding. Few electrophysiological studies investigated the time course and the neural correlates of EBL and the integration of face and body emotion-related information. The aim of the present study was to investigate both the time course and the neural correlates underlying the integration of affective information conveyed by faces and bodies...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756240/frequency-specific-modulation-of-connectivity-in-the-ipsilateral-sensorimotor-cortex-by-different-forms-of-movement-initiation
#19
Bin A Wang, Shivakumar Viswanathan, Rouhollah O Abdollahi, Nils Rosjat, Svitlana Popovych, Silvia Daun, Christian Grefkes, Gereon R Fink
A consistent finding in motor EEG research is a bilateral attenuation of oscillatory activity over sensorimotor regions close to the onset of an upcoming unilateral hand movement. In contrast, little is known about how movement initiation affects oscillatory activity, especially in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the moving hand. We here investigated the neural mechanisms modulating oscillatory activity in the ipsilateral motor cortex prior to movement onset under the control of two different initiating networks, namely, Self-initiated and Visually-cued actions...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755239/prism-adaptation-speeds-reach-initiation-in-the-direction-of-the-prism-after-effect
#20
Christopher L Striemer, Carley A Borza
Damage to the temporal-parietal cortex in the right hemisphere often leads to spatial neglect-a disorder in which patients are unable to attend to sensory input from their contralesional (left) side. Neglect has been associated with both attentional and premotor deficits. That is, in addition to having difficulty with attending to the left side, patients are often slower to initiate leftward vs. rightward movements (i.e., directional hypokinesia). Previous research has indicated that a brief period of adaptation to rightward shifting prisms can reduce symptoms of neglect by adjusting the patient's movements leftward, toward the neglected field...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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