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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774868/-seizure-susceptible-brain-regions-in-patients-with-low-grade-gliomas
#1
Yinyan Wang, Tao Jiang
Patients afflicted with low-grade glioma frequently suffer from seizures. The mechanisms for seizure initiation in these patients remain poorly understood. Tumor location is correlated with seizure initiation. However, these correlative studies rely on dichotomized data analysis which is based on arbitrary lobe assignments. As a result, the lesion-symptom correlation may be incorrectly interpreted. Categorizing patients according to tumor involvement in a single brain lobe might cause the neglect of important information, such as lesion location and lesion volume...
April 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766612/visuomotor-coordination-and-cortical-connectivity-of-modular-motor-learning
#2
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754132/recovery-of-brain-abscess-induced-stuttering-after-neurosurgical-intervention
#3
Daisuke Sudo, Youichi Doutake, Hidenori Yokota, Eiju Watanabe
Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6)...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753310/roles-of-the-right-temporo-parietal-and-premotor-cortices-in-self-location-and-body-ownership
#4
Silvia Convento, Daniele Romano, Angelo Maravita, Nadia Bolognini
In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), the feeling that a fake hand belongs to oneself can be induced by the simultaneous, congruent touch of the fake visible hand and one's own hidden hand. This condition is also associated with a recalibration of the perceived location of the real hand. A cortical network, including premotor and temporo-parietal areas, has been proposed as the basis of the RHI. However, the causal contribution of these areas to the discrete illusory components remains unclear. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to assess the contribution of the right premotor cortex (rPMc) and the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) to the RHI and explored the role of these areas in modulating the subjective experience of embodiment and the misperception of the hand position...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741595/insula-connections-with-the-parieto-frontal-circuit-for-generating-arm-actions-in-humans-and-macaque-monkeys
#5
G Di Cesare, C Pinardi, C Carapelli, F Caruana, M Marchi, M Gerbella, G Rizzolatti
It has been recently found that the human dorso-central insular cortex contributes to the execution and recognition of the affective component of hand actions, most likely through modulation of the activity of the parieto-frontal circuits. While the anatomical connections between the hand representation of the insula and, the parietal and frontal regions controlling reaching/grasping actions is well assessed in the monkey, it is unknown the existence of a homolog circuit in humans. In the present study, we performed a multifiber tractography investigation to trace the tracts possibly connecting the insula to the parieto-frontal circuits by locating seeds in the parietal, premotor, and prefrontal nodes of the reaching/grasping network, in both humans and monkeys...
May 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741242/cross-classification-of-musical-and-vocal-emotions-in-the-auditory-cortex
#6
Sébastien Paquette, Sylvain Takerkart, Shinji Saget, Isabelle Peretz, Pascal Belin
Whether emotions carried by voice and music are processed by the brain using similar mechanisms has long been investigated. Yet neuroimaging studies do not provide a clear picture, mainly due to lack of control over stimuli. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using comparable stimulus material in the voice and music domains-the Montreal Affective Voices and the Musical Emotional Bursts-which include nonverbal short bursts of happiness, fear, sadness, and neutral expressions...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740300/spectral-spatial-differentiation-of-brain-activity-during-mental-imagery-of-improvisational-music-performance-using-meg
#7
Jared Boasen, Yuya Takeshita, Shinya Kuriki, Koichi Yokosawa
Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734039/what-neuromodulation-and-lesion-studies-tell-us-about-the-function-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-embodied-cognition
#8
REVIEW
Christian Keysers, Riccardo Paracampo, Valeria Gazzola
We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new themes. First, focal perturbations of a node of that circuit lead to changes across all nodes. Second, primary somatosensory cortex is an integral part of this network suggesting embodied representations are somatosensory-motor...
April 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730492/trade-off-of-cerebello-cortical-and-cortico-cortical-functional-networks-for-planning-in-6-year-old-children
#9
Judy A Kipping, Daniel S Margulies, Simon Eickhoff, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu
Childhood is a critical period for the development of cognitive planning. There is a lack of knowledge on its neural mechanisms in children. This study aimed to examine cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity in association with planning skills in 6-year-olds (n = 76). We identified the cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks related to cognitive planning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on existing functional imaging studies on spatial planning, and data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) of children's resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725023/population-coding-of-conditional-probability-distributions-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex
#10
Joshua I Glaser, Matthew G Perich, Pavan Ramkumar, Lee E Miller, Konrad P Kording
Our bodies and the environment constrain our movements. For example, when our arm is fully outstretched, we cannot extend it further. More generally, the distribution of possible movements is conditioned on the state of our bodies in the environment, which is constantly changing. However, little is known about how the brain represents such distributions, and uses them in movement planning. Here, we record from dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1) while monkeys reach to randomly placed targets...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723681/action-affordances-and-visuo-spatial-complexity-in-motor-imagery-an-fmri-study
#11
Laura Schulz, Anja Ischebeck, Selina C Wriessnegger, David Steyrl, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Imagining a complex action requires not only motor-related processing but also visuo-spatial imagery. In the current study, we examined visuo-spatial complexity and action affordances in motor imagery (MI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural activity in MI of reach-to-grasp movements of the right hand in five conditions. Thirty participants were scanned while imagining grasping an everyday object, grasping a geometrical shape, grasping next to an everyday object, grasping next to a geometrical shape, and grasping at nothing (no object involved)...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#12
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722099/deficient-supplementary-motor-area-at-rest-neural-basis-of-limb-kinetic-deficits-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Stefanie Kübel, Katharina Stegmayer, Tim Vanbellingen, Sebastian Walther, Stephan Bohlhalter
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently suffer from limb kinetic apraxia (LKA) affecting quality of life. LKA denotes an impairment of precise and independent finger movements beyond bradykinesia, which is reliably assessed by coin rotation (CR) task. BOLD fMRI detected activation of a left inferior parietal-premotor praxis network in PD during CR. Here, we explored which network site is most critical for LKA using arterial spin labeling (ASL). Based on a hierarchical model, we hypothesized that LKA would predominantly affect the functional integrity of premotor areas including supplementary motor areas (SMA)...
May 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721009/biomarkers-of-rehabilitation-therapy-vary-according-to-stroke-severity
#14
Erin Burke Quinlan, Lucy Dodakian, Jill See, Alison McKenzie, Jill Campbell Stewart, Steven C Cramer
Biomarkers that capture treatment effects could improve the precision of clinical decision making for restorative therapies. We examined the performance of candidate structural, functional, and angiogenesis-related MRI biomarkers before and after a 3-week course of standardized robotic therapy in 18 patients with chronic stroke and hypothesized that results vary significantly according to stroke severity. Patients were 4.1 ± 1 months poststroke, with baseline arm Fugl-Meyer scores of 20-60. When all patients were examined together, no imaging measure changed over time in a manner that correlated with treatment-induced motor gains...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719245/corticospinal-circuits-from-the-sensory-and-motor-cortices-differentially-regulate-skilled-movements-through-distinct-spinal-interneurons
#15
Masaki Ueno, Yuka Nakamura, Jie Li, Zirong Gu, Jesse Niehaus, Mari Maezawa, Steven A Crone, Martyn Goulding, Mark L Baccei, Yutaka Yoshida
Little is known about the organizational and functional connectivity of the corticospinal (CS) circuits that are essential for voluntary movement. Here, we map the connectivity between CS neurons in the forelimb motor and sensory cortices and various spinal interneurons, demonstrating that distinct CS-interneuron circuits control specific aspects of skilled movements. CS fibers originating in the mouse motor cortex directly synapse onto premotor interneurons, including those expressing Chx10. Lesions of the motor cortex or silencing of spinal Chx10+ interneurons produces deficits in skilled reaching...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717524/oscillatory-eeg-signatures-of-postponed-somatosensory-decisions
#16
Simon Ludwig, Jan Herding, Felix Blankenburg
In recent electroencephalography (EEG) studies, the vibrotactile frequency comparison task has been used to study oscillatory signatures of perceptual decision making in humans, revealing a choice-selective modulation of premotor upper beta band power shortly before decisions were reported. Importantly, these studies focused on decisions that were (1) indicated immediately after stimulus presentation, and (2) for which a direct motor mapping was provided. Here, we investigated whether the putative beta band choice signal also extends to postponed decisions, and how such a decision signal might be influenced by a response mapping that is dissociated from a specific motor command...
May 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715510/hierarchical-organization-within-the-ventral-premotor-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#17
REVIEW
Kiyoshi Kurata
Recent studies have revealed that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of nonhuman primates plays a pivotal role in various behaviors that require the transformation of sensory cues to appropriate actions. Examples include decision-making based on various sensory cues, preparation for upcoming motor behavior, adaptive sensorimotor transformation, and the generation of motor commands using rapid sensory feedback. Although the PMv has frequently been regarded as a single entity, it can be divided into at least five functionally distinct regions: F4, a dorsal convexity region immediately rostral to the primary motor cortex (M1); F5p, a cortical region immediately rostral to F4, lying within the arcuate sulcus; F5c, a ventral convexity region rostral to F4; and F5a, located in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus inferior limb lateral to F5p...
April 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712786/encoding-of-serial-order-in-working-memory-neuronal-activity-in-motor-premotor-and-prefrontal-cortex-during-a-memory-scanning-task
#18
Adam F Carpenter, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Apostolos P Georgopoulos, Giuseppe Pellizzer
We have adapted Sternberg's context-recall task to investigate the neural mechanisms of encoding serial order information in working memory, in two male rhesus monkeys. We recorded from primary motor, premotor, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while the monkeys performed the task. In each cortical area, most neurons displayed marked modulation of activity during the list presentation period of the task, while the serial order of the stimuli needed to be encoded in working memory. The activity of many neurons changed in a consistent manner over the course of the list presentation period, without regard to the location of the stimuli presented...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709644/performance-monitoring-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex-and-related-neural-networks-from-monitoring-self-actions-to-understanding-others-actions
#19
REVIEW
Taihei Ninomiya, Atsushi Noritake, Markus Ullsperger, Masaki Isoda
Action is a key channel for interacting with the outer world. As such, the ability to monitor actions and their consequences - regardless as to whether they are self-generated or other-generated - is of crucial importance for adaptive behavior. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has long been studied as a critical node for performance monitoring in nonsocial contexts. Accumulating evidence suggests that the MFC is involved in a wide range of functions necessary for one's own performance monitoring, including error detection, and monitoring and resolving response conflicts...
April 27, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704750/active-mechanosensory-feedback-during-locomotion-in-the-zebrafish-spinal-cord
#20
REVIEW
Steven Knafo, Claire Wyart
The investigation of mechanosensory feedback to locomotion has been hindered by the challenge of recording neurons in motion. Genetic accessibility and optical transparency of zebrafish larvae provide means to revisit this question. Glutamatergic Rohon-Beard (RB) and GABAergic CSF-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are spinal mechanosensory neurons. Recent studies combining bioluminescence, silencing and optogenetic activation show that mechanosensory neurons enhance speed and stabilize posture during locomotion...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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