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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431691/sensorimotor-activity-measured-via-oscillations-of-eeg-mu-rhythms-in-speech-and-non-speech-discrimination-tasks-with-and-without-segmentation-demands
#1
David Thornton, Ashley W Harkrider, David Jenson, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Better understanding of the role of sensorimotor processing in speech and non-speech segmentation can be achieved with more temporally precise measures. Twenty adults made same/different discriminations of speech and non-speech stimuli pairs, with and without segmentation demands. Independent component analysis of 64-channel EEG data revealed clear sensorimotor mu components, with characteristic alpha and beta peaks, localized to premotor regions in 70% of participants.Time-frequency analyses of mu components from accurate trials showed that (1) segmentation tasks elicited greater event-related synchronization immediately following offset of the first stimulus, suggestive of inhibitory activity; (2) strong late event-related desynchronization in all conditions, suggesting that working memory/covert replay contributed substantially to sensorimotor activity in all conditions; (3) stronger beta desynchronization in speech versus non-speech stimuli during stimulus presentation, suggesting stronger auditory-motor transforms for speech versus non-speech stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#2
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#3
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424387/-cortical-areas-for-controlling-voluntary-movements
#4
Yoshihisa Nakayama, Eiji Hoshi
The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409112/plasticity-of-premotor-cortico-muscular-coherence-in-severely-impaired-stroke-patients-with-hand-paralysis
#5
Paolo Belardinelli, Leonard Laer, Erick Ortiz, Christoph Braun, Alireza Gharabaghi
Motor recovery in severely impaired stroke patients is often very limited. To refine therapeutic interventions for regaining motor control in this patient group, the functionally relevant mechanisms of neuronal plasticity need to be detected. Cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) may provide physiological and topographic insights to achieve this goal. Synchronizing limb movements to motor-related brain activation is hypothesized to reestablish cortico-motor control indexed by CMC. In the present study, right-handed, chronic stroke patients with right-hemispheric lesions and left hand paralysis participated in a four-week training for their left upper extremity...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#6
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402865/inhibition-versus-facilitation-of-contralesional-motor-cortices-in-stroke-deriving-a-model-to-tailor-brain-stimulation
#7
Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, Andre G Machado, Adriana B Conforto, Kelsey A Potter-Baker, David A Cunningham, Nicole M Varnerin, Xiaofeng Wang, Ken Sakaie, Ela B Plow
OBJECTIVE: The standard approach to brain stimulation in stroke is based on the premise that ipsilesional M1 (iM1) is important for motor function of the paretic upper limb, while contralesional cortices compete with iM1. Therefore, the approach typically advocates facilitating iM1 and/or inhibiting contralesional M1 (cM1). But, this approach fails to elicit much improvement in severely affected patients, who on account of extensive damage to ipsilesional pathways, cannot rely on iM1...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400816/the-cortical-activation-pattern-during-bilateral-arm-raising-movements
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Jung Pyo Seo, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Hyun Jin, Sang Seok Yeo
Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400266/eeg-mu-%C3%A2%C2%B5-rhythm-spectra-and-oscillatory-activity-differentiate-stuttering-from-non-stuttering-adults
#9
Tim Saltuklaroglu, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, David Jenson, Tiffani Kittilstved
Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397076/neural-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-auditory-cortex-during-speech-production
#10
Kayoko Okada, William Matchin, Gregory Hickok
Recent models of speech production suggest that motor commands generate forward predictions of the auditory consequences of those commands, that these forward predications can be used to monitor and correct speech output, and that this system is hierarchically organized (Hickok, Houde, & Rong, Neuron, 69(3), 407--422, 2011; Pickering & Garrod, Behavior and Brain Sciences, 36(4), 329--347, 2013). Recent psycholinguistic research has shown that internally generated speech (i.e., imagined speech) produces different types of errors than does overt speech (Oppenheim & Dell, Cognition, 106(1), 528--537, 2008; Oppenheim & Dell, Memory & Cognition, 38(8), 1147-1160, 2010)...
April 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#11
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adja Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tact, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analyzed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390148/toward-an-electrophysiological-sweet-spot-for-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#12
Andreas Horn, Wolf-Julian Neumann, Katharina Degen, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andrea A Kühn
Enhanced beta-band activity recorded in patients suffering from Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been described as a potential physiomarker for disease severity. Beta power is suppressed by Levodopa intake and STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) and correlates with disease severity across patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the promising signature of the physiomarker in the spatial domain. Based on local field potential data acquired from 54 patients undergoing STN-DBS, power values within alpha, beta, low beta, and high beta bands were calculated...
April 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387681/prevalence-of-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease-as-defined-by-mds-research-criteria-among-elderly-patients-undergoing-colonoscopy
#13
Skorvanek Matej, Ladomirjakova Zuzana, Han Vladimir, Lesko Norbert, Feketeova Eva, Jarcuskova Dominika, Repkova Barbora, Spisak Peter, Urbancikova Zuzana, Vargova Adriana, Gombosova Laura, Zakuciova Maria, Veseliny Eduard, Trebuna Frantisek, Mechirova Eva, Gdovinova Zuzana
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a well-recognized and common premotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, multiple studies have assessed the value of colonic α-synuclein as a potential marker of prodromal PD. Recently, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) defined research criteria for prodromal PD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to test the MDS research criteria in patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopies as potential candidates for inclusion in prospective trials evaluating colonic biopsies as a potential biomarker of prodromal PD...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381490/a-distributed-neural-network-model-for-the-distinct-roles-of-medial-and-lateral-hvc-in-zebra-finch-song-production
#14
Daniel Galvis, Wei Wu, Richard L Hyson, Frank Johnson, Richard Bertram
Male zebra finches produce a song consisting of a canonical sequence of syllables, learned from a tutor and repeated throughout its adult life. Much of the neural circuitry responsible for this behavior is located in the cortical premotor region HVC (acronym is name). In a recent study from our lab, we found that partial bilateral ablation of the medial portion of HVC has effects on the song that are qualitatively different from those of bilateral ablation of the lateral portion. In this report we describe a neural network organization that can explain these data, and in so doing suggests key roles for other brain nuclei in the production of song...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373554/posterior-parietal-cortex-contains-a-command-apparatus-for-hand-movements
#15
Jean-Alban Rathelot, Richard P Dum, Peter L Strick
Mountcastle and colleagues proposed that the posterior parietal cortex contains a "command apparatus" for the operation of the hand in immediate extrapersonal space [Mountcastle et al. (1975) J Neurophysiol 38(4):871-908]. Here we provide three lines of converging evidence that a lateral region within area 5 has corticospinal neurons that are directly linked to the control of hand movements. First, electrical stimulation in a lateral region of area 5 evokes finger and wrist movements. Second, corticospinal neurons in the same region of area 5 terminate at spinal locations that contain last-order interneurons that innervate hand motoneurons...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373091/motor-planning-and-performance-in-transitive-and-intransitive-gesture-execution-and-imagination-does-eeg-rp-activity-predict-hemodynamic-fnirs-response
#16
Michela Balconi, Livia Cortesi, Davide Crivelli
The interplay between neural structures and processes underlying motor planning and proper movement initiation and guidance is still a matter of debate. The present study aimed at investigating cortical correlates of motor planning and production when execution and imagery of real-life gestures are performed, with an additional focus on potential specificities of meaningful transitive/intransitive gestures. Electrophysiological (Readiness Potential - RP) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures were analyzed to investigate the relationship between processes supporting action planning, execution and imagination...
March 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370498/bilateral-rolandic-operculum-processing-underlying-heartbeat-awareness-reflects-changes-in-bodily-self-consciousness
#17
Maria Laura Blefari, Roberto Martuzzi, Roy Salomon, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Bruno Herbelin, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive, and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. the premotor cortex, the angular gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370449/the-role-of-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders-pushing-the-boundaries-forward
#18
REVIEW
Stéphane Lehericy, David E Vaillancourt, Klaus Seppi, Oury Monchi, Irena Rektorova, Angelo Antonini, Martin J McKeown, Mario Masellis, Daniela Berg, James B Rowe, Simon J G Lewis, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Alessandro Tessitore, Hartwig R Siebner
Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has contributed little to the study of Parkinson's disease (PD), but modern MRI approaches have unveiled several complementary markers that are useful for research and clinical applications. Iron- and neuromelanin-sensitive MRI detect qualitative changes in the substantia nigra. Quantitative MRI markers can be derived from diffusion weighted and iron-sensitive imaging or volumetry. Functional brain alterations at rest or during task performance have been captured with functional and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369235/uniformity-and-diversity-of-cortical-projections-to-precuneate-areas-in-the-macaque-monkey-what-defines-area-pgm
#19
Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Sophia Bakola, Michela Gamberini, Katrina H Worthy, Patrizia Fattori, Claudio Galletti
We report on the corticocortical connections of areas on the mesial surface of the macaque posterior parietal cortex, based on 10 retrograde tracer injections targeting different parts of the precuneate gyrus. Analysis of afferent connections supported the existence of two areas: PGm (also known as 7 m) and area 31. Both areas received major afferents from the V6A complex and from the external subdivision of area 23, but they differed in most other aspects. Area 31 showed greater emphasis on connections with premotor and parietal sensorimotor areas, whereas PGm received a greater proportion of its afferents from visuomotor structures involved in spatial cognition (including the lateral intraparietal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and the putative visual areas in the ventral part of the precuneus)...
March 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365848/attenuation-of-cortical-activity-triggering-descending-pain-inhibition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-patients-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Yohei Matsuo, Jiro Kurata, Miho Sekiguchi, Katsuhiro Yoshida, Takuya Nikaido, Shin-Ichi Konno
PURPOSE: A considerable portion of chronic low back pain (cLBP) patients lack anatomical abnormality, resist conventional therapeutic interventions, and their symptoms are often complicated with psychological and social factors. Such patients have been reported to show cerebral abnormalities both in anatomy and function by neuroimaging studies. Here we examined differences in cerebral reactivity to a simulated low back pain stimulus between cLBP patients and healthy controls by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and their behavioral correlates from a psychophysical questionnaire...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
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