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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140533/come-together-human-avatar-on-line-interactions-boost-joint-action-performance-in-apraxic-patients
#1
Matteo Candidi, Lucia M Sacheli, Vanessa Era, Loredana Canzano, Gaetano Tieri, Salvatore M Aglioti
Limb apraxia (LA) is a high-order motor disorder linked to left-hemisphere damage. It is characterized by defective execution of purposeful actions upon delayed imitation, or verbal command when the actions are performed in isolated, non-naturalistic, conditions. Whether interpersonal interactions provide social affordances that activate neural resources different from those requested by individual action execution, which may improve LA performance, is unknown. To fill this gap, we measured interaction performance, behavioral and kinematic indexes of left-brain damaged patients with/without LA in a social reach-to-grasp task involving two different degrees of spatio-temporal interactivity with an avatar...
November 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133428/intact-hemisphere-and-corpus-callosum-compensate-for-visuomotor-functions-after-early-visual-cortex-damage
#2
Alessia Celeghin, Matteo Diano, Beatrice de Gelder, Lawrence Weiskrantz, Carlo A Marzi, Marco Tamietto
Unilateral damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) leads to clinical blindness in the opposite visual hemifield, yet nonconscious ability to transform unseen visual input into motor output can be retained, a condition known as "blindsight." Here we combined psychophysics, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and tractography to investigate the functional and structural properties that enable the developing brain to partly overcome the effects of early V1 lesion in one blindsight patient. Visual stimuli appeared in either the intact or blind hemifield and simple responses were given with either the left or right hand, thereby creating conditions where visual input and motor output involve the same or opposite hemisphere...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#3
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130452/augmenting-intracortical-brain-machine-interface-with-neurally-driven-error-detectors
#4
Nir Even-Chen, Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
OBJECTIVE: Making mistakes is inevitable, but identifying them allows us to correct or adapt our behavior to improve future performance. Current brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) make errors that need to be explicitly corrected by the user, thereby consuming time and thus hindering performance. We hypothesized that neural correlates of the user perceiving the mistake could be used by the BMI to automatically correct errors. However, it was unknown whether intracortical outcome error signals were present in the premotor and primary motor cortices, brain regions successfully used for intracortical BMIs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130054/multimodal-integration-of-spontaneously-produced-representational-co-speech-gestures-an-fmri-study
#5
Jill Weisberg, Amy Lynn Hubbard, Karen Emmorey
To examine whether more ecologically valid co-speech gesture stimuli elicit brain responses consistent with those found by studies that relied on scripted stimuli, we presented participants with spontaneously produced, meaningful co-speech gesture during fMRI scanning (n = 28). Speech presented with gesture (versus either presented alone) elicited heightened activity in bilateral posterior superior temporal, premotor, and inferior frontal regions. Within left temporal and premotor, but not inferior frontal regions, we identified small clusters with superadditive responses, suggesting that these discrete regions support both sensory and semantic integration...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#6
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123475/cerebello-cortical-differences-in-effective-connectivity-of-the-dominant-and-non-dominant-hand-during-a-visuomotor-paradigm-of-grip-force-control
#7
Eric Moulton, Cécile Galléa, Claire Kemlin, Romain Valabregue, Marc A Maier, Pavel Lindberg, Charlotte Rosso
Structural and functional differences are known to exist within the cortical sensorimotor networks with respect to the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Similarly, the cerebellum, a key structure in the sensorimotor network with its cerebello-cortical connections, has been reported to respond differently when using the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Several groups have already investigated causal interactions during diverse motor paradigms using effective connectivity but few have studied the larger visuomotor network, including key structures such as the parietal cortex and the cerebellum, with both hands...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117296/polygenic-risk-of-spasmodic-dysphonia-is-associated-with-vulnerable-sensorimotor-connectivity
#8
Gregory Garbès Putzel, Giovanni Battistella, Anna F Rumbach, Laurie J Ozelius, Mert R Sabuncu, Kristina Simonyan
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is an isolated task-specific dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology that selectively affects speech production. Using next-generation whole-exome sequencing in SD patients, we computed polygenic risk score from 1804 genetic markers based on a genome-wide association study in another form of similar task-specific focal dystonia, musician's dystonia. We further examined the associations between the polygenic risk score, resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities within the sensorimotor network, and SD clinical characteristics...
November 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116158/optical-mapping-of-the-dominant-frequency-of-brain-signal-oscillations-in-motor-systems
#9
Feng-Mei Lu, Yi-Feng Wang, Juan Zhang, Hua-Fu Chen, Zhen Yuan
Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the dominant frequency of neural oscillations is brain-region-specific and can vary with frequency-specific reorganization of brain networks during cognition. In this study, we examined the dominant frequency in low-frequency neural oscillations represented by oxygenated hemoglobin measurements after the hemodynamic response function (HRF) deconvolution. Twenty-nine healthy college subjects were recruited to perform a serial finger tapping task at the frequency of 0...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115213/maintained-avalanche-dynamics-during-task-induced-changes-of-neuronal-activity-in-nonhuman-primates
#10
Shan Yu, Tiago L Ribeiro, Christian Meisel, Samantha Chou, Andrew Mitz, Richard Saunders, Dietmar Plenz
Sensory events, cognitive processing and motor actions correlate with transient changes in neuronal activity. In cortex, these transients form widespread spatiotemporal patterns with largely unknown statistical regularities. Here, we show that activity associated with behavioral events carry the signature of scale-invariant spatiotemporal clusters, neuronal avalanches. Using high-density microelectrode arrays in nonhuman primates, we recorded extracellular unit activity and the local field potential (LFP) in premotor and prefrontal cortex during motor and cognitive tasks...
November 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111411/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-imitating-and-opposing-facial-movements
#11
Detre A Godinez, Daniel S Lumian, Tanisha Crosby-Attipoe, Ana M Bedacarratz, Paree Zarolia, Kateri McRae
Previous studies have demonstrated that imitating a face can be relatively automatic and reflexive. In contrast, opposing facial expressions may require engaging flexible, cognitive control. However, few studies have examined the degree to which imitation and opposition of facial movements recruit overlapping and distinct neural regions. Furthermore, little work has examined whether opposition and imitation of facial movements differ between emotional and averted eye gaze facial expressions. This study utilized a novel task with 40 participants to compare passive viewing, imitation and opposition of emotional faces looking forward and neutral faces with averted eye gaze [(3: Look, Imitate, Oppose) x (2: Emotion, Averted Eye)]...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102686/functional-and-structural-neural-alterations-in-internet-gaming-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Yuan-Wei Yao, Lu Liu, Shan-Shan Ma, Xin-Hui Shi, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Marc N Potenza
This meta-analytic study aimed to identify the common and specific neural alterations in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) across different domains and modalities. Two separate meta-analyses for functional neural activation and gray-matter volume were conducted. Sub-meta-analyses for the domains of reward, cold-executive, and hot-executive functions were also performed, respectively. IGD subjects, compared with healthy controls, showed: (1) hyperactivation in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, caudate, posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which were mainly associated with studies measuring reward and cold-executive functions; and, (2) hypoactivation in the anterior IFG in relation to hot-executive function, the posterior insula, somatomotor and somatosensory cortices in relation to reward function...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097700/long-latency-interhemispheric-interactions-between-motor-related-areas-and-the-primary-motor-cortex-a-dual-site-tms-study
#14
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Matteo Candidi, Vincenzo Romei, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
The primary motor cortex (M1) is highly influenced by premotor/motor areas both within and across hemispheres. Dual site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) has revealed interhemispheric interactions mainly at early latencies. Here, we used dsTMS to systematically investigate long-latency causal interactions between right-hemisphere motor areas and the left M1 (lM1). We stimulated lM1 using a suprathreshold test stimulus (TS) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right hand. Either a suprathreshold or a subthreshold conditioning stimulus (CS) was applied over the right M1 (rM1), the right ventral premotor cortex (rPMv), the right dorsal premotor cortex (rPMd) or the supplementary motor area (SMA) prior to the TS at various CS-TS inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs: 40-150 ms)...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097688/diverse-coordinate-frames-on-sensorimotor-areas-in-visuomotor-transformation
#15
Yusuke Fujiwara, Jongho Lee, Takahiro Ishikawa, Shinji Kakei, Jun Izawa
The visuomotor transformation during a goal-directed movement may involve a coordinate transformation from visual 'extrinsic' to muscle-like 'intrinsic' coordinate frames, which might be processed via a multilayer network architecture composed of neural basis functions. This theory suggests that the postural change during a goal-directed movement task alters activity patterns of the neurons in the intermediate layer of the visuomotor transformation that recieves both visual and proprioceptive inputs, and thus influence the multi-voxel pattern of the blood oxygenation level dependent signal...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094500/the-left-supramarginal-gyrus-contributes-to-finger-positioning-for-object-use-a-neuronavigated-tms-study
#16
Michael Andres, Barbara Pelgrims, Etienne Olivier, Gilles Vannuscorps
In everyday actions, we grasp dozens of different manipulable objects in ways that accommodate their functional use. Neuroimaging studies showed that grasping objects in a way that is appropriate for their use involves a left-lateralized network including the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). However, because previous works premised their conclusions on tasks requiring action execution, it has remained difficult to discriminate between the areas involved in specifying the position of fingers onto the object from those implementing the motor program required to perform the action...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094187/area-specific-processing-of-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical-information-in-primates
#17
Abdulraheem Nashef, Hannes Rapp, Martin P Nawrot, Yifat Prut
The cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC) system plays a major role in controlling timing and coordination of voluntary movements. However, the functional impact of this system on motor cortical sites has not been documented in a systematic manner. We addressed this question by implanting a chronic stimulating electrode in the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and recording evoked multiunit activity (MUA) and the local field potential (LFP) in the primary motor cortex ([Formula: see text]), the premotor cortex ([Formula: see text]) and the somatosensory cortex ([Formula: see text])...
November 2, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093171/electroencephalographic-connectivity-measures-predict-learning-of-a-motor-sequencing-task
#18
Jennifer Wu, Franziska Knapp, Steven C Cramer, Ramesh Srinivasan
Individuals vary significantly with respect to rate and degree of improvement with motor practice. While the regions that underlie motor learning have been well described, neurophysiological factors underlying differences in response to motor practice are less well understood. The present study examined both resting state and event-related EEG coherence measures of connectivity as predictors of response to motor practice on a motor sequencing task using the dominant hand. Thirty-two healthy, young, right-handed participants underwent resting EEG prior to motor practice...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093069/predicting-clinical-decline-in-progressive-agrammatic-aphasia-and-apraxia-of-speech
#19
Jennifer L Whitwell, Stephen D Weigand, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Anthony J Spychalla, Matthew L Senjem, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether baseline clinical and MRI features predict rate of clinical decline in patients with progressive apraxia of speech (AOS). METHODS: Thirty-four patients with progressive AOS, with AOS either in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia, were followed up longitudinally for up to 4 visits, with clinical testing and MRI at each visit. Linear mixed-effects regression models including all visits (n = 94) were used to assess baseline clinical and MRI variables that predict rate of worsening of aphasia, motor speech, parkinsonism, and behavior...
November 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092081/novel-findings-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-study-of-corpus-callosum-volumetry-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-sensorimotor-network
#20
Kishore Kislay, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya Ishwar Bhat, Dhaval Prem Shukla, Arun Kumar Gupta, Rajanikant Panda
BACKGROUND: The response of the brain to obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is not clearly understood. We propose that even a peripheral insult at the developmental stage may result in changes in the volume of white matter of the brain, which we studied using corpus callosum volumetry and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) of sensorimotor network. OBJECTIVE: To study the central neural effects in OBPP. METHODS: We performed an MRI study on a cohort of 14 children who had OBPP and 14 healthy controls...
October 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
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