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Foucher Jack René, Zhang Yi Fan, Roser Mathilde, Lamy Julien, De Sousa Paulo Loureiro, Weibel Sébastien, Vidailhet Pierre, Mainberger Olivier, Berna Fabrice
Schizophrenia as a single liability model was confronted to the multiple psychotic phenotypes model proposed by the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard school, focusing on two: periodic catatonia (PC) and cataphasia (C). Both are stable and heritable psychotic phenotypes with no crossed liability and are coming with the buildup of specific residual symptoms: impairment of psychomotricity for PC and a specific disorganization of thought and language in C. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was used as a biomarker. We attempted to refute the single phenotype model by looking at relevant and specific rCBF anomalies for PC and C, that would exceed anomalies in common relative to controls (CTR), i...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Pei-Pei Sun, Fu-Lun Tan, Zong Zhang, Yi-Han Jiang, Yang Zhao, Chao-Zhe Zhu
The mirror neuron system (MNS), mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jakub Limanowski, Felix Blankenburg
Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one's real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
J Michely, L J Volz, F Hoffstaedter, M Tittgemeyer, S B Eickhoff, G R Fink, C Grefkes
Older individuals typically display stronger regional brain activity than younger subjects during motor performance. However, knowledge regarding age-related changes of motor network interactions between brain regions remains scarce. We here investigated the impact of ageing on the interaction of cortical areas during movement selection and initiation using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). We found that age-related psychomotor slowing was accompanied by increases in both regional activity and effective connectivity, especially for 'core' motor coupling targeting primary motor cortex (M1)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mary E Orczykowski, Kevin R Arndt, Lauren E Palitz, Brian C Kramer, Monica A Pessina, Adrian L Oblak, Seth P Finklestein, Farzad Mortazavi, Douglas L Rosene, Tara L Moore
Stroke results in enduring damage to the brain which is accompanied by innate neurorestorative processes, such as reorganization of surviving circuits. Nevertheless, patients are often left with permanent residual impairments. Cell based therapy is an emerging therapeutic that may function to enhance the innate neurorestorative capacity of the brain. We previously evaluated human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in our non-human primate model of cortical injury limited to the hand area of primary motor cortex...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Adonis K Moschovakis
We studied the phasic saccade related discharges of single neurons (S neurons) of the premotor cortex of female rhesus monkeys, mostly in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus. As described in previous work from our laboratory (Neromyliotis and Moschovakis, 2017b), some of these cells emitted phasic discharges for coordinated movements of the eyes and hand as well as for movements of either effector executed in isolation (motor equivalence -Meq). Other cells (S), did not emit phasic discharges for hand movements unaccompanied by saccades...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Frank E Garcea, Quanjing Chen, Roger Vargas, Darren A Narayan, Bradford Z Mahon
A whole-brain network of regions collectively supports the ability to recognize and use objects-the Tool Processing Network. Little is known about how functional interactions within the Tool Processing Network are modulated in a task-dependent manner. We designed an fMRI experiment in which participants were required to either generate object pantomimes or to carry out a picture matching task over the same images of tools, while holding all aspects of stimulus presentation constant across the tasks. The Tool Processing Network was defined with an independent functional localizer, and functional connectivity within the network was measured during the pantomime and picture matching tasks...
March 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Anne Keitel, Joachim Gross, Christoph Kayser
During online speech processing, our brain tracks the acoustic fluctuations in speech at different timescales. Previous research has focused on generic timescales (for example, delta or theta bands) that are assumed to map onto linguistic features such as prosody or syllables. However, given the high intersubject variability in speaking patterns, such a generic association between the timescales of brain activity and speech properties can be ambiguous. Here, we analyse speech tracking in source-localised magnetoencephalographic data by directly focusing on timescales extracted from statistical regularities in our speech material...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Biology
Jon H Kaas, Hui-Xin Qi, Iwona Stepniewska
Many of the adaptive changes in the functional organization of parietal cortex of humans emerged in past in the early primates as they depended on visually guided forelimb use to grasp branches and food. Currently, human, apes and some monkeys have four well-defined subdivisions of anterior parietal cortex, areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2 of Brodmann. In some of the smaller monkeys, and in stepsirrine primates (galagos, lemurs, and lorises), especially areas 1 and 2 are less developed, and the existence of an area 2 is questionable...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ying Chen, Simona Monaco, Douglas J Crawford
Targets for goal-directed action can be encoded in allocentric coordinates (relative to another visual landmark), but it is not known how these are converted into egocentric commands for action. Here, we investigated this using a slow event-related fMRI paradigm, based on our previous behavioral finding that the Allocentric to Egocentric (Allo-Ego) conversion for reach is done at the first possible opportunity. Participants were asked to remember (and eventually reach toward) the location of a briefly presented target relative to another visual landmark...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Viorica Chelban, Ekawat Vichayanrat, Lucia Schottlaende, Valeria Iodice, Henry Houlden
The discovery of genetic links between alpha-synuclein and PD has opened unprecedented opportunities for research into a new group of diseases, now collectively known as synucleinopathies. Autonomic dysfunction, including cardiac sympathetic denervation, has been reported in familial forms of synucleinopathies that have Lewy bodies at the core of their pathogenesis. SNCA mutations and multiplications, LRRK2 disease with Lewy bodies as well as other common, sporadic forms of idiopathic PD, MSA, pure autonomic failure, and dementia with Lewy bodies have all been associated with dysautonomia...
March 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Jing Chen, Mingli Liu, Dalong Sun, Yan Jin, Tianrao Wang, Chuancheng Ren
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of leading diseases causing adult death and disability worldwide. Home-based telerehabilitation has become a novel approach for stroke patients as effective as conventional rehabilitation, and more convenient and economical than conventional rehabilitation. However, there is no study assessing the mechanism of home-based telerehabilitation in promoting motor recovery among stroke patients with hemiplegic. AIMS: This study is designed to determine the efficacy and explore the mechanism of motor recovery after home-based telerehabilitation in stroke patients with motor deficits...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Crawford I P Winlove, Fraser Milton, Jake Ranson, Jon Fulford, Matthew MacKisack, Fiona Macpherson, Adam Zeman
Visual imagery is a form of sensory imagination, involving subjective experiences typically described as similar to perception, but which occur in the absence of corresponding external stimuli. We used the Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm (ALE) to identify regions consistently activated by visual imagery across 40 neuroimaging studies, the first such meta-analysis. We also employed a recently developed multi-modal parcellation of the human brain to attribute stereotactic co-ordinates to one of 180 anatomical regions, the first time this approach has been combined with the ALE algorithm...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Yifei He, Miriam Steines, Gebhard Sammer, Arne Nagels, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube
Language and action have been thought of as closely related. Comprehending words or phrases that are related to actions commonly activates motor and premotor areas, and this comprehension process interacts with action preparation and/or execution. However, it remains unclear whether comprehending action-related language interacts with action observation. In the current study, we examined whether the observation of tool-use gesture subjects to interaction with language. In an electroencephalography (EEG) study (n = 20), participants were presented with video clips of an actor performing tool-use (TU, e...
March 2, 2018: Brain Topography
Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas
Cortical area 1 is a non-primary somatosensory area in the primate anterior parietal cortex that is critical to tactile discrimination. The corticocortical projections to area 1 in squirrel monkeys were determined by placing multiple injections of anatomical tracers into separate body part representations defined by multiunit microelectrode mapping in area 1. The pattern of labeled cells in the cortex indicated that area 1 has strong intrinsic connections within each body part representation, and has inputs from somatotopically matched regions of areas 3b, 3a, 2, and 5...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Giorgio M Innocenti, Roberto Caminiti, Eric M Rouiller, Graham Knott, Tim B Dyrby, Maxime Descoteaux, Jean-Philippe Thiran
The axonal composition of cortical projections originating in premotor, supplementary motor (SMA), primary motor (a4), somatosensory and parietal areas and descending towards the brain stem and spinal cord was characterized in the monkey with histological tract tracing, electron microscopy (EM) and diffusion MRI (dMRI). These 3 approaches provided complementary information. Histology provided accurate assessment of axonal diameters and size of synaptic boutons. dMRI revealed the topography of the projections (tractography), notably in the internal capsule...
February 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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