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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141399/factors-affecting-cognitive-function-according-to-gender-of-in-community-dwelling-elderly
#1
Kim Miwon, Jeongmo Park
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the cognitive function of elderly people in a community by gender. Methods: 4,878 of secondary data of people aged ≥65 years in 2016 at a dementia prevention center in Geyangu in Incheon. Data were obtained through MMSE-DS and a questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and hierarchical regression. Results: There were significant differences in cognitive function according to sex, and the differences were significant even when age was controlled, but gender differences disappeared when education was controlled...
November 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141001/the-associations-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-and-low-back-pain-a-10-year-longitudinal-analysis
#2
Juichi Tonosu, Hiroyuki Oka, Akiro Higashikawa, Hiroshi Okazaki, Sakae Tanaka, Ko Matsudaira
PURPOSE: To conduct a 10-year longitudinal analysis of the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and low back pain (LBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one volunteers with a history of LBP, but without current LBP were recruited between 2005 and 2006. Participants' baseline demographics and MRI findings were recorded. All volunteers were invited for a follow-up MRI in 2016; of these, 49 volunteers (53.8%) participated in the follow-up. We enquired whether they had LBP history during the 10 years between the baseline and follow-up examinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140988/sex-difference-in-the-interaction-of-alcohol-intake-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-on-the-risk-of-cirrhosis
#3
Tommaso Stroffolini, Evangelista Sagnelli, Angelo Andriulli, Guido Colloredo, Caterina Furlan, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Filomena Morisco, Mario Pirisi, Floriano Rosina, Caterina Sagnelli, Antonina Smedile, Piero Luigi Almasio
BACKGROUND: The joint effect of the interaction of alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the risk of cirrhosis is still unexplored because a large sample size is required for this investigation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of interaction of HBV, HCV and alcohol abuse on the risk of cirrhosis. DESIGN: We analysed 12,262 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease of various aetiologies referring to 95 Italian liver units in 2001 or 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140913/sex-differences-in-aerobic-fitness-in-top-class-soccer-referees
#4
Carlo Castagna, Mario Bizzini, Stefano DʼOttavio, Susana C Araújo Póvoas
Castagna, C, Bizzini, M, D'Ottavio, S, and Araújo Póvoas, SC. Gender differences in aerobic fitness in top-class soccer referees. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The aim of this study was to assess the aerobic-fitness differences between male and female top-class soccer field referees (FRs). This with the purpose to provide cutoff values useful for training prescription in female FRs. Forty female top-class FRs (age 34.18 ± 3.50 years and 5 ± 3.9 years international refereeing experience) and 52 male FRs (age 38...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140908/heart-rate-monitoring-in-basketball-applications-player-responses-and-practical-recommendations
#5
Daniel M Berkelmans, Vincent J Dalbo, Crystal O Kean, Zoran Milanović, Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Aaron T Scanlan
The aims of this review were to collate the existing literature encompassing heart rate (HR) monitoring in basketball to: (i) identify the applications of HR measurement; (ii) report HR responses in male and female players during training and game-play; (iii) evaluate use of current HR-based training load models; and (iv) provide recommendations for future research and best practice approaches for basketball practitioners. HR monitoring in basketball carries three primary applications: (i) monitoring exercise intensity; (ii) assessing player fatigue status; and (iii) quantifying internal training load...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140898/a-construct-validation-study-of-playfun
#6
John Cairney, Scott Veldhuizen, Jeffrey D Graham, Christine Rodriguez, Chloe Bedard, Emily Bremer, Dean Kriellaars
INTRODUCTION: PLAYfun is a measure of motor competence, comprehension and confidence which is part of a suite of scales used to assess physical literacy in children and youth. However, its measurement properties have not been reported in the published literature. The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of PLAYfun, in addition to variations in PLAYfun subscale results by age and sex. METHOD: In this study, we use a sample of children and youth aged 7 to 14 years (n=215) to test a proposed factor structure for the motor competence component of PLAYfun and to examine age and sex differences in subscale and total scores...
November 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#7
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140872/an-experimental-investigation-of-implicit-hiv-and-prep-stigma-evidence-for-ancillary-benefits-of-prep-use
#8
Sarit A Golub, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Anthony Surace
BACKGROUND: PrEP stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward PrEP users) has been widely documented and is considered a significant barrier to implementation. However, few studies have examined PrEP stigma using implicit measures designed to reduce demand characteristics in responding. This study examined implicit PrEP- and HIV-related stigma among gay and bisexual men using geospatial social networking applications (i.e., "hookup apps"). METHODS: Participants were presented with four simulated online profiles (pre-tested for comparability) paired with each of the following characteristics: HIV-negative, HIV-positive, on PrEP, or Substance User...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140811/prevalence-of-spondylolysis-in-symptomatic-adolescent-athletes-an-assessment-of-sport-risk-in-nonelite-athletes
#9
Mitchell Selhorst, Anastasia Fischer, James MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of spondylolysis by sport in nonelite adolescent athletes with low back pain (LBP). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Hospital-based sports medicine clinic. PATIENTS: The medical charts of 1025 adolescent athletes with LBP (age 15 ± 1.8 years) were examined; 308 (30%) were diagnosed with a spondylolysis. ASSESSMENT OF RISK: Risk of spondylolysis was assessed in 11 sports for males and 14 sports for females...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140738/do-outcomes-of-osteochondral-allograft-transplantation-differ-based-on-age-and-sex-a-comparative-matched-group-analysis
#10
Rachel M Frank, Eric J Cotter, Simon Lee, Sarah Poland, Brian J Cole
BACKGROUND: The effect of patient age or sex on outcomes after osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) has not been assessed. PURPOSE: To determine clinical outcomes for male and female patients aged ≥40 years undergoing OCA compared with a group of patients aged <40 years. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: A review of prospectively collected data of consecutive patients who underwent OCA by a single surgeon with a minimum follow-up of 2 years was conducted...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140376/evaluating-maxillary-sinus-septa-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography-is-there-a-difference-in-frequency-and-type-between-the-dentate-and-edentulous-posterior-maxilla
#11
Martina Schriber, Thomas von Arx, Pedram Sendi, Reinhilde Jacobs, Valerie Ga Suter, Michael M Bornstein
PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the frequency, type, and location of maxillary sinus septa in patients with a dentate and an edentulous posterior maxilla using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 100 maxillary sinuses: 50 from patients with a dentate and 50 from patients with an edentulous posterior maxilla. The aim was to assess the frequency, morphology, and location of maxillary sinus septa in axial, sagittal, and coronal CBCT images...
November 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140150/radiotherapy-for-cervical-cancer-impact-on-the-vaginal-epithelium-and-sexual-function
#12
Alexandra Hofsjö, Karin Bergmark, Bo Blomgren, Helen Jahren, Nina Bohm-Starke
BACKGROUND: Women who have been treated for cervical cancer have persistent changes in their sexual function, which result in considerable distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the vaginal epithelium in cervical cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and its correlation to serum levels of sex steroid hormones and sexual function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 34 patients treated for cervical cancer with radiotherapy and 37 healthy age-matched control women scheduled for benign gynecological surgery...
November 15, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139651/the-risk-for-fall-and-functional-dependence-in-polish-adults-60%C3%A2-87-years-old
#13
Jaroslaw Domaradzki, Slawomir Koziel, Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Anna Skrzek, Małgorzata Kołodziej
The constantly rising percentage of the elderly (60+), who are particularly at risk of the dangerous consequence of falls, results not only in the loss of independence in daily life, but also in a serious threat to health and life. Therefore, many authors emphasize the necessity of conducting prophylaxis and prevention among senior citizens. The most important aspect of fall prophylaxis is care about the optimum level of agility. Exercise should focus on increasing muscular strength, balance and dexterity. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between functional fitness and the risk for falls of older people in the light of maintaining physical independence...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139647/is-increased-facial-asymmetry-associated-with-the-use-of-hormonal-contraceptive-among-polish-young-women-in-wroclaw
#14
Slawomir Koziel, Raja Chakraborty, Dariusz Danel, Krzysztof Borysławski
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the small random deviations from a perfect bilateral symmetry in a morphological trait. It is considered as an indicator of biological quality and developmental stability of individual. Adverse environmental conditions and high levels of sex steroids may increase FA. Symmetry in women was found to be related with phases of the menstrual cycles (MC). This cross sectional study aimed to compare facial symmetry between women using and not using hormonal contraceptives with reference to the phases of their fertile and non-fertile phases of MC...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139646/physical-fitness-and-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-male-students-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#15
Slawomir Koziel, Marek Kociuba Mail, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak
There is sex-difference in humans as regards aerobic efficiency, physical strength and endurance and the sex difference is greatly dependent upon differential concentration of testosterone during different phases of growth and development including the intrauterine phase or prenatal growth. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an putative indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosterone exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139316/association-of-gastrocnemius-muscle-stiffness-with-passive-ankle-joint-stiffness-and-sex-related-difference-in-the-joint-stiffness
#16
Kintaro Chino, Hideyuki Takashi
Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139169/sex-differences-in-the-phagocytic-and-migratory-activity-of-microglia-and-their-impairment-by-palmitic-acid
#17
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Andrea Crespo-Castrillo, Maria L de Ceballos, Julie A Chowen, Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
Sex differences in the incidence, clinical manifestation, disease course, and prognosis of neurological diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders or Alzheimer's disease, have been reported. Obesity has been postulated as a risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease and, during pregnancy, increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Obesity is associated with increased serum and brain levels of free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, which activate microglial cells triggering a potent inflammatory cascade...
November 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139168/hunter-gatherer-dental-pathology-do-historic-accounts-of-aboriginal-australians-correspond-to-the-archeological-record-of-dental-disease
#18
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: Studies of hunter-gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139158/macro-anatomical-and-morphometric-studies-of-the-hindlimb-of-grasscutter-thryonomys-swinderianus-temminck-1827
#19
K T Onwuama, S A Ojo, J O Hambolu, T Dzenda, F O Zakari, S O Salami
The hindlimb of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck-1827) was studied using 12 adult (≥6 months) rats of either sex with the mean weights of 1.42 ± 0.20 kg and 0.82 ± 0.13 kg for buck (n = 6) and doe (n = 6), respectively (p < .05). Characteristics of the bones were studied by gross observation after their preparation. Measurements of different segments of the hindlimb were also taken, giving a total average length of 31.80 cm. Correlation coefficients between length of bone and weight of rats were positive (p < ...
November 14, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139129/reproductive-biology-of-female-striped-marlin-kajikia-audax-in-the-western-pacific-ocean
#20
H-Y Chang, C-L Sun, S-Z Yeh, Y-J Chang, N-J Su, G DiNardo
Length and mass data for 1260 (536 females, 683 males, 41 sex unknown) striped marlin Kajikia audax were collected at the fish markets of Tungkang, Singkang and Nanfangao from July 2004 to September 2010. Of these samples, 534 gonads (236 females and 298 males) ranging from 95 to 206 cm in eye-to-fork length (LEF ) and 8 to 88 kg in round mass (MR ), were collected. Chi-square tests indicated sex ratios were homogeneous among months in 2004 and 2006-2008, but not in 2005, 2009 and 2010; and there were significant differences in sex ratio by size...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
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