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DOACs guidelines

Paul P Dobesh Pharm D, John Fanikos Mba R Ph
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and increases risk of stroke by nearly 5-fold. While warfarin has been employed successfully to reduce the risk of stroke in these patients, there are a number of challenges with therapy. These include the need for therapeutic monitoring due to variability in patient response, frequent dose adjustments, numerous drug-drug, drug-food, and drug-disease interactions, and a heightened risk of thrombosis and bleeding due to these issues. Current guidelines recommend that the vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) should be used for thromboprophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular AF at risk for stroke or systemic embolic events...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Pantep Angchaisuksiri
Thrombosis is a common complication in cancer patients. Although the major inherited risk factors for thrombophilia are different between Asians and Caucasians, the main acquired risk factors that are associated with the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Asians appear to be similar to those for Caucasians. Malignancy is the most important acquired risk factor for VTE in Asians. Recent studies have shown that the incidence of VTE is significant in Asian patients with cancer, particularly those in an advanced stage...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Siavash Piran, Sam Schulman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which constitutes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Landmark trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are as effective as conventional anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in prevention of VTE recurrence and associated with less bleeding. This has paved the way for the recently published guidelines to change their recommendations in favor of DOACs in acute and long-term treatment of VTE in patients without cancer...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Benilde Cosmi
Idiopathic or unprovoked venous thromboembolism is an event occurring in the absence of any apparent provoking or triggering environmental risk factors, such as surgery, trauma, and immobilization. Areas covered: Unprovoked VTE can be associated with occult cancer, but only limited, and not extensive cancer screening, may be warranted, as the rate of occult cancer is low in such patients. Routine thrombophilia testing is not currently recommended as it does not influence the management of the disease. The duration of anticoagulation for unprovoked VTE after the first three months is still debated as the disease tends to recur regardless of treatment duration...
December 2016: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Menno V Huisman, John Fanikos
As expected with all antithrombotic agents, there is a risk of bleeding complications in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) because of the DOAC itself, acute trauma, invasive procedures, or underlying comorbidities. For many bleeding events, a prudent course of action will be to withdraw the DOAC, then "wait and support" the patient, with the expectation that the bleeding event should resolve with time. Likewise, DOAC therapy may be interrupted ahead of a planned procedure, the stopping time being dependent on the agent involved and the patient's renal function...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emanuel Raschi, Matteo Bianchin, Walter Ageno, Roberto De Ponti, Fabrizio De Ponti
Since 2008, the direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have expanded the therapeutic options of cardiovascular diseases with recognized clinical and epidemiological impact, such as non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), and also in the preventive setting of orthopedic surgical patients. The large body of evidence, not only from pivotal clinical trials but also from 'real-world' postmarketing observational findings (e.g. analytical epidemiological studies and registry data) gathered to date allow for a first attempt at verifying a posteriori whether or not the pharmacological advantages of the DOACs actually translate into therapeutic innovation, with relevant implications for clinicians, regulators and patients...
December 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Daniel K Nishijima, Samuel Gaona, Trent Waechter, Ric Maloney, Troy Bair, Adam Blitz, Andrew R Elms, Roel D Farrales, Calvin Howard, James Montoya, Jeneita M Bell, Victor C Coronado, David E Sugerman, Dustin W Ballard, Kevin E Mackey, David R Vinson, James F Holmes
OBJECTIVE: Prehospital provider assessment of the use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications in older adults with head trauma is important. These patients are at increased risk for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and therefore field triage guidelines recommend transporting these patients to centers capable of rapid evaluation and treatment. Our objective was to evaluate EMS ascertainment of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication use in older adults with head trauma. METHODS: A retrospective study of older adults with head trauma was conducted throughout Sacramento County...
September 16, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Jeffrey I Weitz, Iqbal H Jaffer
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are rapidly replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The DOACs include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa. When compared with conventional VTE treatment consisting of a parenteral anticoagulant followed by a VKA, the DOACs were equally effective for prevention of recurrence, but were associated with less bleeding. With similar efficacy, better safety, and the convenience of fixed dosing without the need for routine coagulation monitoring, guidelines now recommend DOACs over VKAs for VTE treatment in patients without active cancer...
September 5, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
K M Musgrave, J Powell
There is limited guidance available to clinicians regarding the management of antithrombotic therapy during epistaxis, whilst there has been an increase in the use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. In addition, the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, over the last decade has significantly increased the complexity of managing the anticoagulated epistaxis patient. We undertook a systemic literature review investigating potential management strategies for each class of anti-thrombotic therapy during epistaxis...
September 4, 2016: Rhinology
Menno V Huisman, John Fanikos
As expected with all antithrombotic agents, there is a risk of bleeding complications in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) because of the DOAC itself, acute trauma, invasive procedures, or underlying comorbidities. For many bleeding events, a prudent course of action will be to withdraw the DOAC, then "wait and support" the patient, with the expectation that the bleeding event should resolve with time. Likewise, DOAC therapy may be interrupted ahead of a planned procedure, the stopping time being dependent on the agent involved and the patient's renal function...
November 2016: American Journal of Medicine
M J R Desborough, S Pavord, B J Hunt
We welcome the recent guidelines from the Women's Health Issues SSC of the ISTH which provide much needed guidance on the management of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in women of childbearing potential [1]. We agree with the guidance except for one area and feel there would be benefit in reconsidering one of the recommendations: "Should pregnancy be desired, we recommend that the DOAC is switched to an alternative anticoagulant preconceptually, with the main alternative anticoagulant options vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) (to be switched to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as soon as possible when pregnant and before 6 weeks of gestation), or LMWH, with cognizance that the latter may result in prolonged subcutaneous injections until pregnancy is achieved...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
F A Klok, M V Huisman
Recent American, European and Dutch guidelines recommend lifelong anticoagulation after a diagnosis of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the absence of high bleeding risk. Major bleeding events may, however, be devastating, and are reported to have a higher case fatality rate than recurrent venous thromboembolism itself. Unfortunately, there are no validated risk assessment tools for major bleeding that help physicians determine the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy after VTE. Furthermore, the scarce studies on this subject have focused on vitamin K antagonist treatment regimens only, covering mainly the initial weeks and first month, during which period the level of anticoagulation is unstable...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Wen-Shi Shieh, Jayanth Sridhar, Bryan K Hong, Joseph I Maguire, Ehsan Rahimy, Abtin Shahlaee, Allen C Ho, Jason Hsu, Carl D Regillo, Allen Chiang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features and management of six patients with ocular complications associated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: The medical records of all adult patients known to be taking a DOAC and with an unusual bleeding event at a large tertiary referral center over a one-year period were reviewed. Patients with less than one-month follow-up were excluded. Data collection included relevant clinic notes, operative reports, surgical videos, and clinical images (fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, B-scan ultrasonography, and fluorescein angiography)...
July 1, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Joshua D Lenchus, Michelle Biehl, Jorge Cabrera, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Cameron Dezfulian
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of particular relevance for intensivists and hospitalists. Acute VTE is usually managed with parenteral unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by an oral vitamin K antagonist. Data are lacking for optimal treatment of less common occurrences, such as upper extremity DVT, and for approaches such as thrombolysis for PE associated with early signs of hemodynamic compromise or inferior vena cava filters when anticoagulation is contraindicated...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Michael P Gulseth
PURPOSE: Strategies for the management of bleeding complications and facilitation of an invasive procedure in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are reviewed. SUMMARY: The DOACs provide clinical advantages versus vitamin K antagonists, including fixed dosing with no routine coagulation monitoring and evidence of a lower risk of bleeding. However, as with all anticoagulants, there is a risk of bleeding complications in patients receiving DOACs, so urgent reversal of their anticoagulant activity may be required for spontaneous or traumatic bleeding events and in patients undergoing emergency invasive procedures...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
M Nou, J-P Laroche
Cancer and venous thrombo-embolic disease (VTE) are closely related. Indeed, cancer can reveal VTE and VTE can be the first sign of cancer. Low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) is now the first line treatment in cancer patients. Compliance with marketing authorizations and guidelines are crucial for patient-centered decision-making. This work deals with the prescription of LWMH in patients who develop VTE during cancer in order to better recognize what should or should not be done. The patient's wishes must be taken into consideration when making the final therapeutic decision...
May 2016: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
Rachel Forster, Marlene Stewart
BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of thromboprophylaxis after total hip or knee replacement, or hip fracture repair remains controversial. It is common practice to administer prophylaxis using low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) until discharge from hospital, usually seven to 14 days after surgery. International guidelines recommend extending thromboprophylaxis for up to 35 days following major orthopaedic surgery but the recommendation is weak due to moderate quality evidence...
March 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zachary Stacy, Sara Richter
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a significant risk factor for stroke and peripheral thromboembolic events (TEs). Preventing blood clots in the heart to reduce stroke and TE risk is a key goal of AF therapy. Traditional stroke risk assessment tools for patients with nonvalvular AF include the CHADS2 and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores, while long-term outcome data with the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are emerging. The goals of this review were to assess traditional therapies and existing treatment guidelines and to discuss key pharmacologic properties of the DOACS, noting how these may benefit at-risk patients with AF...
March 17, 2016: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Horst Olschewski
A new European guideline for the diagnostics and therapy of venous thromboembolism has been published in 2014. As previously, high-risk and low-risk pulmonary embolism is distinguished, however, in the new guideline there is also a definition of intermediate risk PE. The risk finally decides about the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.Previously, nearly only heparinoids were available for therapy of acute venous thromboembolism and after some days they were switched to a vitamin K antagonist. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) represent a group of drugs that start working as rapidly as heparinoids and can be applied as long-term oral medication...
March 16, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Pierre Fontana, Helia Robert-Ebadi, Henri Bounameaux, Françoise Boehlen, Marc Righini
In recent years, small oral compounds that specifically block activated coagulation factor X (FXa) or thrombin (FIIa) have become alternatives to the anticoagulants that had been used for several decades. As of today, these direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) include dabigatran etexilate (thrombin inhibitor) and apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban (inhibitors of FXa). While there is no doubt that DOACs represent a major step forward in the management of patients with venous thromboembolic disease and atrial fibrillation, new challenges have arisen...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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