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Stephanie J Watts-Williams, Timothy R Cavagnaro, Stephen D Tyerman
Association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can impact on plant water relations; mycorrhizal plants can exhibit increased stomatal conductance (gs ) and root hydraulic conductance (normalised to root dry weight, Lo ), and altered expression of aquaporins (AQP). Many factors regulate such responses, however, plant intraspecific diversity effects have yet to be explored. Twenty geographically diverse accessions of Medicago truncatula were inoculated with the AMF Funneliformis mosseae or mock-inoculated, and grown under well-watered conditions...
June 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Keizo Kohno, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Akira Harashima, Toshio Ariyasu, Shimpei Ushio
NK-4 is the main component of the antiallergic drug Lumin, which has been in popular usage since the early 1950s. In this study, we examined whether NK-4 exerts a regulatory effect on the activation and effector function of Th2 cells. NK-4 inhibited IL-4 production by anti-CD3ε mAb-stimulated BALB/c mouse spleen cells, whereas NK-4 had little effect on IFN-γ production. IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by anti-CD3ε mAb- or antigen-stimulated Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) was abrogated by NK-4 without affecting cell numbers, whereas IFN-γ secretion by activated Th1 cells was unchanged...
2018: PloS One
Qian Chen, Chaoying Hu, Yanmei Liu, Rong Song, Wenjing Zhu, Hongxin Zhao, Antonio Nino, Fan Zhang, Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, a cytokine essential for the formation, function and survival of osteoclasts. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of single-dose denosumab (60 and 120 mg) in healthy Chinese volunteers. METHODS: This randomized (3:3:2), single-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled healthy Chinese volunteers to receive single subcutaneous injection of denosumab 60 mg, 120 mg, or placebo...
2018: PloS One
Enza Fazio, Antonio Speciale, Salvatore Spadaro, Martina Bonsignore, Francesco Cimino, Mariateresa Cristani, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri
Tailored colloids of uniformly sized and engineered molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were produced, for the first time, by pulsed laser ablation in water. This green technique ensures the formation of contaminant-free nanostructures and the absence of by-products, very useful issues in biological applications. A selective tuning of MoO chemical bonding configurations and a suitable control of nanoparticles size distributions were achieved during the ablation processes by varying the water temperature and by applying an external electric field...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Franz W R Hippler, Dirceu Mattos-Jr, Rodrigo M Boaretto, Lorraine E Williams
Nitrate uptake by plants is mediated by specific transport proteins in roots (NRTs), which are also dependent on the activity of proton pumps that energize the reaction. Nitrogen (N) metabolism in plants is sensitive to copper (Cu) toxicity conditions. To understand how Cu affects the uptake and assimilation processes, this study assesses the inhibitory effects of elevated Cu levels on the expression of genes related to N absorption, transport and assimilation in roots of Arabidopsis. Plants were grown hydroponically for 45 days, being exposed to a range of Cu concentrations in the last 72 h or alternatively exposed to 5...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
S Dutta Gupta, A Agarwal, S Pradhan
The knowledge on the mode of action, biocompatibility and ecological tolerance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is gradually accumulating over the years with contradictory findings. Most of the studies indicated the toxic impact of AgNPs on plant growth and development, where induction of oxidative stress was considered to be one of the causal factors. The present study demonstrates the phytostimulatory effect of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) during seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Simon R Cox, Mike Allerhand, Stuart J Ritchie, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Maria Valdés Hernández, Sarah E Harris, David Alexander Dickie, Devasuda Anblagan, Benjamin S Aribisala, Zoe Morris, Roy Sherwood, N Joan Abbott, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Elevated serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of S100β, a protein predominantly found in glia, are associated with intracranial injury and neurodegeneration, although concentrations are also influenced by several other factors. The longitudinal association between serum S100β concentrations and brain health in nonpathological aging is unknown. In a large group (baseline N = 593; longitudinal N = 414) of community-dwelling older adults at ages 73 and 76 years, we examined cross-sectional and parallel longitudinal changes between serum S100β and brain MRI parameters: white matter hyperintensities, perivascular space visibility, white matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD), global atrophy, and gray matter volume...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Kim Marienhagen, Frank Lehner, Jürgen Klempnauer, Hartmut Hecker, Jürgen Borlak
Post-transplant hypertension (PTH) is a common complication in cyclosporine immunosuppressed patients; however choosing the right antihypertensive medication is challenging. In a long-term observational study (≤13y) we examined different antihypertensive medications on graft/patient survival of kidney recipients with pre-existing and PTH. Altogether thirty-three co-variables were analyzed including dose and type of immunosuppressive and antihypertensive medication, co-medications, serum biochemistries and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Valentina Di Liberto, R Maarten van Dijk, Matthias Brendel, Ann-Marie Waldron, Christina Möller, Ines Koska, Isabel Seiffert, Fabio Gualtieri, Franz Josef Gildehaus, Barbara von Ungern-Sternberg, Magdalena Lindner, Sibylle Ziegler, Rupert Palme, Rainer Hellweg, Peter Gass, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in patients with epilepsy and greatly contribute to the overall burden of disease. The availability of reliable biomarkers to diagnose epilepsy-associated comorbidities would allow for effective treatment and improved disease management. Due to their non-invasive nature, molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) are ideal tools to measure pathologic changes. In the current study we investigated the potential of [18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG) and 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-18 F-fluoro-benzamidoethylpiperazine ([18 F]MPPF) as imaging correlates of neurobehavioral comorbidities in the pilocarpine rat model of epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Anthony Sclafani, Austin S Vural, Karen Ackroff
In a nutrient self-selection study, CAST/EiJ mice consumed more carbohydrate than fat while C57BL/6J (B6) mice showed the opposite preference. The present study revealed similar strain differences in preferences for isocaloric fat (Intralipid) and carbohydrate (sucrose, maltodextrin) solutions in chow-fed mice. In initial 2-day choice tests, percent fat intakes of CAST and B6 mice were 4-9% and 71-81% respectively. In subsequent nutrient vs. water tests, CAST mice consumed considerably less fat but not carbohydrate compared to B6 mice...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Masaya Akashi, Megumi Kishimoto, Junya Kusumoto, Kimikazu Yakushijin, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Takahide Komori
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and identify factors associated with delayed socket healing after dental extraction in patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study focused on delayed healing after extraction in patients with hematologic malignancy. Sockets with delayed healing were defined as those with intense pain and bone exposure 1 week postoperatively...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Dan-Dan Zhu, Yun-Zhi Wang, Chen Zou, Xin-Ping She, Zhi Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Uric acid has been proposed as an independent risk factor of diabetic retinopathy. Although Notch signaling was reported to be affected in the presence of high concentrations of uric acid or glucose, the underlying mechanisms of hyperuricemia through the Notch signaling pathway to promote the development of diabetic retinopathy remain unknown. METHODS: We incubated human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) with high glucose, high uric acid and high glucose plus high glucose respectively and evaluated the apoptosis rate in different treated cells by Tunel staining...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiaoxiao Liu, Fangying Cao, Shuang Liu, Yuhong Mi, Jinghua Liu
Vascular calcification is extremely common and associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 has been identified as a potent metabolic regulator and a protector of the cardiovascular system. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of FGF21 on calcification of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and its mechanism. FGF21 inhibited beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) induced mineralization in VSMCs as determined by calcium concentration and Alizarin Red S. FGF21 suppressed BGP-induced BMP2/Smad signaling pathway components as well as osteoblast differentiation markers...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Asangi R Kumarapeli, William Bellamy, Ericka Olgaard, Nicole Massoll, Soheila Korourian
CONTEXT: - A thorough gross examination of specimens for breast cancer requires the tissue to be very thinly sectioned, which is often difficult in large mastectomy samples. We have implemented rapid chilling of mastectomy specimens before formalin fixation. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the effects of rapid chilling of breast tissue on subsequent biomarker and molecular testing. DESIGN: - Mastectomy specimens were chilled at -80°C for 20 minutes to facilitate uniform sectioning of tissue at 4-mm intervals and enhance proper fixation and identification of small lesions...
June 22, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Brooke N Dulka, Richa Koul-Tiwari, J Alex Grizzell, Marquinta L Harvey, Subimal Datta, Matthew A Cooper
Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Marina Bockaj, Barnabas Fung, Michael Tsoulis, Lauren Warren Foster, Leyla Soleymani
Currently, a blood test for the diagnosis of endometriosis, a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, does not exist. Recent studies suggest that circulating concentrations of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have potential for the diagnosis of endometriosis. However, at present BDNF can only be measured by ELISA which requires a clinic visit, a routine blood sample, and laboratory testing. Therefore, we developed a point-of-care device (EndoChip) for use with small blood volumes that can be collected through a finger prick...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nabil Hajji, Daniel J García-Domínguez, Lourdes Hontecillas-Prieto, Kevin O'Neill, Enrique de Álava, Nelofer Syed
One of the major obstacles to the development of effective new cancer treatments and the main factor for the increasing number of clinical trial failures appears to be the paucity of accurate, reproducible and robust drug resistance testing methods. Most research assessing the resistance of cancers to chemotherapy has concentrated on genetic-based molecular mechanisms, while the role of epigenetics in drug resistance has been generally overlooked. This is rather surprising given that an increasing body of evidence pointing to the fact that epigenetic mechanism alterations appear to play a pivotal role in cancer initiation, progression and development of chemoresistance...
June 22, 2018: Epigenomics
Dinesh Thummuri, Lalita Guntuku, Veerabhadra Swamy Challa, Ravinder Naik Ramavat, Vegi Ganga Modi Naidu
Osteoporosis is a major debilitating cause of fractures and decreases the quality of life in elderly patients. Bone homeostasis is maintained by bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorpting osteoclasts. Substantial evidences have shown that targeting osteoclasts using natural products is a promising strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis. In the current study, we investigated the osteoprotective effect of Abietic acid (AA) in in vitro and in vivo models of osteolysis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that, AA suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and F-actin ring formation in a concentration dependent manner...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Amir Avan, Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Mohammad Tajfard, Gordon Ferns
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiological studies using high-sensitivity assays for serum C-reactive protein have shown a consistent association between cardiovascular disease risk and serum C-reactive protein concentrations. C-reactive protein is a biomarker for inflammation, and has been established in clinical practice as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease events. There is evidence that serum C-reactive protein is an excellent biomarker of cardiovascular disease and is also an independent and strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular events...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sebastian Schön, Regine von Klitzing
The paper addresses additional short ranged repulsion in structural oscillation forces between silica surfaces across a suspension of silica nanoparticles. Fit and prediction of the structural oscillation forces usually involve an exponentially decreasing harmonic as introduced by Israelachvili [Israelachvili, Intermolecular & surface forces, Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1985]. Recently we demonstrated, for aqueous suspensions of silica nanoparticles at various concentrations, that this fit equation is insufficient to describe the structural oscillation forces in its whole range [Schön et al...
June 22, 2018: Soft Matter
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