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Li Zhou, Yaping Jiang, Qin Lin, Xuan Wang, Xinzhong Zhang, Jie Xu, Zongmao Chen
BACKGROUND: The carbendazim residue in tea was a public concern. The large gap in the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for carbendazim in tea made it difficult to conduct pesticide management. Therefore, a systemic evaluation of the residue and health risk of carbendazim from the tea garden to the brewed tea was investigated. RESULTS: The dissipation of carbendazim in tea shoots followed first-order rate kinetics, with a half-life (T1/2 ) of 2.6 days. In green tea manufacturing, the carbendazim decrease of 2...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hui Gao, Xiao-Xu Ma, Qian Guo, Lin-Feng Xie, Yu-Chao Zhong, Xue-Wu Zhang
To determine the expression of Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and analyze the correlation between serum Sema3A and the pathogenesis of RA. The concentration of serum Sema3A and its mRNA expression level were detected in RA patients. The association of serum Sema3A level with clinical and laboratory features of RA were analyzed. Serum Sema3A of 130 RA patients (15.89 ± 8.58 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of 150 HC (6.96 ± 2.62 ng/ml) and 215 patients with other rheumatic diseases (P < 0...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Mario Alejandro Muñoz-Nájera, Guadalupe Barrera-Escorcia, Patricia Ramírez-Romero, Felipe Omar Tapia-Silva, Ricardo Rosas-Cedillo
Oreochromis niloticus was used to determine the effects of heavy metals and their concentration in aquatic environments. Its wide distribution, resistance, and economical importance make it a suitable biomonitor. The present study was conducted in the Tenango Dam (Puebla, Mexico) to determine water quality and its impact on O. niloticus, a species that is cultured and commercialized in this area. Five samples were collected over 1 year to evaluate the water's physicochemical parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and hardness) and metal contents (cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead)...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Don-Gil Lee, Yu-Kyong Shin, Jae-Hee Park, Sang-Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Jung-Eun Yang, Hae Jo, Ki-Young Kim, Gafurjon T Mavlonov, Tae-Hoo Yi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hiziki extract on alveolar bone loss, inflammation, and osteo-biomarker expression in hPDL cells (10, 50, 100 μg/ml final concentrations in culture medium) and on a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model (50, 100, 200 mg/kg with oral administration). Hiziki extract increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation in hPDL cell. In western blot analysis, hiziki extract resulted in increased expression of osteoblast markers, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in hDPL cells...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yuqian Wang, Yuxia Qin, Tingwen Guo, Chuanxi Tang, Liyun Liu, Dianshuai Gao
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that astrocytes play an important role in a variety of biological processes, so damage to astrocytes can cause a series of related diseases. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has always been considered a protective factor for dopamine neurons. However, it remains unclear whether GDNF has a protective effect on glial cells, especially astrocytes. In this study, we put forward the hypothesis that a high concentration of GDNF in the microenvironment of astrocytes exerts an inhibitory effect on the apoptosis of astrocytes by DNA-damaging reagents...
April 13, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
L Rey-Salgueiro, E Martinez-Carballo, P Fajardo, M J Chapela, M Espiñeira, J Simal-Gandara
Cortisol and corticosterone in saliva were evaluated as pig stress biomarkers, using pig genotype (Duroc, L62 or Pietrain) and lairage time in the slaughterhouse (0, 2.0, 4.0 or 6.0 h) as controlled variables. Although some pigs were found to be carriers of stress susceptibility, all were healthy heterozygous individuals. Pre-slaughter transport increased cortisol levels in saliva above 3.0 μg/L (medium stress), and 4.0 h of lairage in the slaughterhouse raised them above 6.0 μg/L, whereas corticosterone concentrations exceeded 4 μg/L, which are suggestive of high stress...
April 9, 2018: Meat Science
Anna Kjerstine Rosenmai, Johan Lundqvist, Théo le Godec, Åsa Ohlsson, Rikard Tröger, Björn Hellman, Agneta Oskarsson
The presence of chemical pollutants in sources of drinking water is a key environmental problem threatening public health. Efficient removal of pollutants in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) is needed as well as methods for assessment of the total impact of all present chemicals on water quality. In the present study we have analyzed the bioactivity of water samples from source to tap, including effects of various water treatments in a DWTP, using a battery of cell-based bioassays, covering health-relevant endpoints...
April 6, 2018: Water Research
Shiyu Wang, Fei Liu, Wenyong Wu, Yaqi Hu, Renkuan Liao, Gaoting Chen, Jiulong Wang, Jialin Li
Reclaimed water reuse has become an important means of alleviating agricultural water shortage worldwide. However, the presence of endocrine disrupters has roused up considerable attention. Barrel test in farmland was conducted to investigate the migration of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in soil-winter wheat system simulating reclaimed water irrigation. Additionally, the health risks on humans were assessed based on US EPA risk assessment model. The migration of NP and BPA decreased from the soil to the winter wheat; the biological concentration factors (BCFs) of NP and BPA in roots, stems, leaves, and grains all decreased with their added concentrations in soils...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Anas Alfarsi, Amy Dillon, Seán McSweeney, Jacob Krüse, Brendan Griffin, Ken Devine, Patricia Sherry, Stephan Henken, Stephen Fitzpatrick, Dara Fitzpatrick
There are no rapid dissolution based tests for determining coating thickness, integrity and drug concentration in controlled release pellets either during production or post-production. The manufacture of pellets requires several coating steps depending on the formulation. The sub-coating and enteric coating steps typically take up to six hours each followed by additional drying steps. Post production regulatory dissolution testing also takes up to six hours to determine if the batch can be released for commercial sale...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mareike Siebert, Ralf G Berger, Annabel Nieter
A p-coumaroyl esterase from Rhizoctonia solani was used to decrease 5-O-chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) content in coffee powder. HPLC-UV showed a decline of up to 98% of 5-CQA after the enzyme treatment. Effects on aroma were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Flavour dilution factors of treated and control extract differed in four volatile compounds only. Effect on aroma and taste was evaluated by sensory tests. No significant differences were perceived, and no off-flavour nor off-taste was noted...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Viviane do Carmo Vasconcelos de Carvalho, Lílian Caroliny Amorim Silva, Romário Martins Araújo, Fábia Carla da Silva Soares, Maria José Ribeiro Bezerra, Sávio Augusto Vieira de Oliveira, Alex José de Melo Silva, Sérgio Tavares Montenegro, Roberto Pereira Werkhauser, Carlos Gustavo Régis da Silva, Adriana Vieira Gomes, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais, Silvia Maria Lucena Montenegro
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a multifactorial disease, including the genetic factor, caused by coronary artery obstruction by atheroma. Some genetic variants have been described as risk factors for this disease. Its early diagnosis and stratification of risk of death by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) are important. Therefore, we evaluated variants in the IL6R (c950-1722C>T), TNFa (c.-488G>A), LEPR (c.2673+1118C>T) and IL1b (c.-598T>C) genes in relation to TIMI risk, cytokine serum levels, and risk factors for ACS...
April 11, 2018: Cytokine
H Omidi-Mirzaei, A Azarfar, A Kiani, M Mirzaei, M H Ghaffari
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R M Rodney, N P Martinez, P Celi, E Block, P C Thomson, G Wijffels, D R Fraser, J E P Santos, I J Lean
Bone-derived hormones play an important role in metabolism. This study examined the hypothesis that interactions between bone and energy metabolism, particularly those involving osteocalcin, are present in dairy cattle and have feedback mechanisms over time. Associations between metabolites in blood were examined in 32 Holstein cows blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to diets containing either 0.27 mg/kg dry matter (DM) calcidiol or cholecalciferol for an anticipated intake of 3 mg/d (120,000 IU/d) at 11 kg of DM, and positive (+130 mEq/kg DM) or negative (-130 mEq/kg DM) dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) from 252 d of gestation to calving...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Z Li, H Kang, Q You, F Ossa, P Mead, M Quinton, N A Karrow
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its components are used for the prevention and treatment of enteric disease in different species; therefore, they may also be useful for preventing Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The objective of this study was to identify potential immunomodulatory S. cerevisiae components using a bovine macrophage cell line (BOMAC). The BOMAC phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species production, and immune-related gene (IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL13, IL23), transforming growth factor β, ARG1, CASP1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were investigated when BOMAC were cocultured with cell wall components from 4 different strains (A, B, C, and D) and 2 forms of dead yeast from strain A...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A L Belli, R B Reis, A Veronese, R Moreira, K Flanagan, J Driver, C D Nelson, J A Clapper, M A Ballou, K C Jeong, R C Chebel
Weaning may be associated with negative energy balance and body weight loss when calves are still immunologically immature, predisposing them to infectious diseases. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of treatment of preweaning dairy calves with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on the somatotropic axis, selected immune parameters, and hematology of calves around weaning. Thirty-six Holstein female calves were randomly assigned to receive 1.5 to 1.8 mg of rbST (Posilac, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) per kilogram of body weight or to receive injections of saline (saline solution 0...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Seung Joon Chin, Grant A Moore, Mei Zhang, Henry D Clarke, Mark J Spangehl, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for periprosthetic joint infections after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In obese patients, a larger dose of prophylactic vancomycin based on actual body weight is required to reach therapeutic concentrations. It is unclear how tissue concentrations are affected when intraosseous regional administration (IORA) is used in this population. This study compared tissue concentrations of low-dose vancomycin via IORA vs actual body weight-adjusted systemic intravenous (IV) dose in primary TKA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Ennio Iezzi, Girolama A Marfia, Ilaria Simonelli, Alessandra Musella, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Fresegna, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Roberto Furlan, Annamaria Finardi, Giorgia Mataluni, Doriana Landi, Luana Gilio, Diego Centonze, Fabio Buttari
BACKGROUND: In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lefa J Lerotholi, Sushil K Chaudhary, Weiyang Chen, Clinton G L Veale, Sandra Combrinck, Alvaro M Viljoen
Athrixia phylicoides , known as "bush tea", grows abundantly in South Africa. An infusion of the leaves is used as a beverage and to treat a multitude of health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical variation within A. phylicoides and to identify characteristic compounds for quality control. Samples from 12 locations in South Africa were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the aligned ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data indicated two groups on the resulting dendrogram, representing 48 samples...
April 13, 2018: Planta Medica
Sheng-Xing Long, Paul B Hamilton, Yang Yang, Sai Wang, Wen-da Huang, Chuan Chen, Ran Tao
Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern with the biomagnification of methylmercury (MeHg) through primary consumers (zooplankton) to fish and humans. In this study, total mercury (THg) and MeHg concentrations were analyzed in zooplankton collected from Baihua reservoir (Guizhou Province, China). Our results demonstrated that THg and MeHg concentrations were strongly correlated to zooplankton community and biomass composition. The THg concentration was significantly higher in micro-zooplankton compared to meso-zooplankton and macro-zooplankton, and MeHg concentration increased significantly as body size increased...
April 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Feng-Sheng Wang, Re-Wen Wu, Wei-Shiung Lain, Tsai-Chen Tsai, Yu-Shan Chen, Yi-Chih Sun, Huei-Jing Ke, Jui-Chen Li, Jau-Lang Hwang, Jih-Yang Ko
Sclerostin (SOST) is a Wnt signaling inhibitor detrimental to osteogenic differentiation and bone mineral acquisition. While control of SOST action delays the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders, the effects of SOST vaccination on the estrogen deficiency-induced bone deterioration remain elusive. In this study, we generated a SOST-Fc fusion protein which was composed of a SOST peptide Pro-Asn-Ala-Ile-Gly along with an IgG Fc fragment. SOST-Fc vaccination increased serum anti-SOST antibody levels and reduced serum SOST concentrations in mice...
April 10, 2018: Bone
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