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Notch-Wnt crosstalk

Vidhya Munnamalai, Donna M Fekete
The sensory cells of the mammalian organ of Corti assume a precise mosaic arrangement during embryonic development. Manipulation of Wnt signaling can modulate the proliferation of cochlear progenitors, but whether Wnts are responsible for patterning compartments, or specific hair cells within them, is unclear. To address how the precise timing of Wnt signaling impacts patterning across the radial axis, mouse cochlear cultures were initiated at embryonic day 12.5, and subjected to pharmacological treatments at different stages...
September 15, 2016: Development
Emenike K Onyido, Eloise Sweeney, Abdolrahman Shams Nateri
Over the past few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have not only emerged as integral regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level but also respond to signalling molecules to affect cell function(s). miRNAs crosstalk with a variety of the key cellular signalling networks such as Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and Notch, control stem cell activity in maintaining tissue homeostasis, while if dysregulated contributes to the initiation and progression of cancer. Herein, we overview the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the crosstalk between Wnt-signalling components (canonical and non-canonical) and miRNAs, as well as changes in the miRNA/Wnt-signalling components observed in the different forms of cancer...
2016: Molecular Cancer
Yan Wang, Xiuyun Zhang, Zhitao Zhao, Hui Xu
Overexposure to fluoride from environmental sources can cause serious public health problems. Disrupted osteoblast function and impaired bone formation were found to be associated with excessive fluoride exposure. A massive analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) was used to figure out the possible pathways in which fluoride affects osteoblast function. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with 8 mg/L of fluorine for 7 days. Total RNA of cells was extracted, and their integrity and purity were tested. RNA samples were analyzed by using miRNA array, including miRNA labeling, hybridization, scanning, and expression data analysis to compare the profiling of miRNA expression between control and fluoride-treated group...
August 31, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Mengrui Wu, Guiqian Chen, Yi-Ping Li
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis...
2016: Bone Research
Chunmei Zhou, Shuhui Li, Naikuli Wenqiguli, Li Yu, Lu Zhao, Peiling Wu, Tuerxun Nijiati
OBJECTIVE: We explored the expressions of the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways and their significance in the repair process of alveolar bone defects by establishing animal models with a composite of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) to repair bone defects in the extraction sockets of rabbits. METHODS: A total of 36 two-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, and the left mandibular incisors of all the rabbits were subjected to minimally invasive removalunder general anesthesia...
April 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Jingfang Wu, Wenyan Li, Chen Lin, Yan Chen, Cheng Cheng, Shan Sun, Mingliang Tang, Renjie Chai, Huawei Li
This work sought to determine the crosstalk between the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways in regulating supporting cell (SC) proliferation and hair cell (HC) regeneration in mouse utricles. We cultured postnatal day (P)3 and P60 mouse utricles, damaged the HCs with gentamicin, and treated the utricles with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to inhibit the Notch pathway and with the Wnt agonist QS11 to active the Wnt pathway. We also used Sox2-CreER, Notch1-flox (exon 1), and Catnb-flox (exon 3) transgenic mice to knock out the Notch pathway and activate the Wnt pathway in Sox2+ SCs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chen-Tian Li, Jian-Xiu Liu, Bo Yu, Rui Liu, Chao Dong, Song-Jian Li
The modification of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways by hypoxia, and its association with osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis remain to be fully elucidated. To investigate Wnt-Notch crosstalk, and its role in hypoxia-induced osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis regulation, the present study investigated the effects of cobalt‑mimicked hypoxia on the mouse pre-osteoblast-like cell line, MC3T3‑E1, when the Notch signals were repressed using a γ‑secretase inhibitor DAPT. The data showed that the cobalt‑mimicked hypoxia suppressed cell proliferation under normal conditions, but increased cell proliferation under conditions of Notch repression, in a concentration‑dependent manner...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Aradhana Rani, Roseanna Greenlaw, Richard A Smith, Christine Galustian
Hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 (HES1) is a part of an extensive family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins and plays a crucial role in the control and regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, cell differentiation, survival and apoptosis in neuronal, endocrine, T-lymphocyte progenitors as well as various cancers. HES1 is a transcription factor which is regulated by the NOTCH, Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways. Aberrant expression of these pathways is a common feature of cancerous cells. There appears to be a fine and complicated crosstalk at the molecular level between the various signalling pathways and HES1, which contributes to its effects on the immune response and cancers such as leukaemia...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Zejian Liu, Mary Sneve, Thomas A Haroldson, Jeffrey P Smith, Lester R Drewes
The transport of monocarboxylate fuels such as lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies across brain endothelial cells is mediated by monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1). Although the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for rodent blood-brain barrier development and for the expression of associated nutrient transporters, the role of this pathway in the regulation of brain endothelial MCT1 is unknown. Here we report expression of nine members of the frizzled receptor family by the RBE4 rat brain endothelial cell line...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tilman Borggrefe, Matthias Lauth, An Zwijsen, Danny Huylebroeck, Franz Oswald, Benedetto Daniele Giaimo
Notch signaling is a highly conserved signal transduction pathway that regulates stem cell maintenance and differentiation in several organ systems. Upon activation, the Notch receptor is proteolytically processed, its intracellular domain (NICD) translocates into the nucleus and activates expression of target genes. Output, strength and duration of the signal are tightly regulated by post-translational modifications. Here we review the intracellular post-translational regulation of Notch that fine-tunes the outcome of the Notch response...
February 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eileen Fung, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Recent research on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has spotlighted the involvement of morphogens in their cell fate determination in liver fibrosis. Temporally and spatially expressed during embryonic development, morphogens are involved in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, and tissue patterning. In normal adult liver, morphogens are generally expressed at low levels. However, in liver disease, myofibroblastic HSCs express morphogens such as Wnt, Shh, Necdin, DLK1, and Notch as part of their participation in fibrogenesis and wound healing...
September 2015: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Lauren M Rota, Teresa L Wood
The insulin-like growth factor system has long been considered a pathway that promotes cell proliferation, survival, and transformation, and is thus a promoter of tumorigenesis. However, recent failure of clinical trials for IGF-1R inhibitors reveals the need for a better understanding of how this pathway functions in specific tumor subtypes. Ongoing studies are designed to uncover biomarkers and downstream targets to enhance therapeutic strategies. Other approaches in specific tumor models reveal complex interactions between IGF signaling and other tumor initiating pathways...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Alex Giakoustidis, Dimitrios Giakoustidis, Satvinder Mudan, Argyrios Sklavos, Roger Williams
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. In the majority of cases, there is evidence of existing chronic liver disease from a variety of causes including viral hepatitis B and C, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Identification of the signalling pathways used by hepatocellular carcinoma cells to proliferate, invade or metastasize is of paramount importance in the discovery and implementation of successfully targeted therapies. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and Hedgehog pathways play a critical role in regulating liver cell proliferation during development and in controlling crucial functions of the adult liver in the initiation and progression of human cancers...
May 2015: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hong-yan Wang, Yan-xin Huang, Li-hua Zheng, Yong-li Bao, Lu-guo Sun, Yin Wu, Chun-lei Yu, Zhen-bo Song, Ying Sun, Guan-nan Wang, Zhi-qiang Ma, Yu-xin Li
Somite formation in the early stage of vertebrate embryonic development is controlled by a complicated gene network named segmentation clock, which is defined by the periodic expression of genes related to the Notch, Wnt, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways. Although in recent years some findings about crosstalk among the Notch, Wnt, and FGF pathways in somitogenesis have been reported, the investigation of their crosstalk mechanisms from a systematic point of view is still lacking. In this study, a more comprehensive mathematical model was proposed to simulate the dynamics of the Notch, Wnt, and FGF pathways in the segmentation clock...
2015: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Naoko Takebe, Lucio Miele, Pamela Jo Harris, Woondong Jeong, Hideaki Bando, Michael Kahn, Sherry X Yang, S Percy Ivy
During the past decade, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been increasingly identified in many malignancies. Although the origin and plasticity of these cells remain controversial, tumour heterogeneity and the presence of small populations of cells with stem-like characteristics is established in most malignancies. CSCs display many features of embryonic or tissue stem cells, and typically demonstrate persistent activation of one or more highly conserved signal transduction pathways involved in development and tissue homeostasis, including the Notch, Hedgehog (HH), and Wnt pathways...
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Jen-Hua Chuang, Li-Chu Tung, Yenshou Lin
Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have gained great merit in both basic research and regenerative medicine. Here we review and summarize the signaling pathways that have been reported to be involved in the neuronal differentiation of ESCs, particularly those associated with in vitro differentiation. The inducers and pathways explored include retinoic acid, Wnt/β-catenin, transforming growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein, Notch, fibroblast growth factor, cytokine, Hedgehog, c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase and others...
March 26, 2015: World Journal of Stem Cells
Stephan Lindsey, Sigrid A Langhans
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell transformation have been well-documented in multiple cancer cell models and are believed to be one of the earliest events in tumor progression. Genetic and epigenetic modifications shift cells toward either end of the EMT spectrum, and can be influenced by the microenvironment surrounding a tumor. EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition are critical to normal function and development and an intricate network of transcription factors and transcriptional regulators tightly regulates these processes...
2014: Frontiers in Oncology
Denise Toscani, Marina Bolzoni, Fabrizio Accardi, Franco Aversa, Nicola Giuliani
The osteoblastic niche has a critical role in the regulation of hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and self-renewal and in the support of hematopoiesis. Several mechanisms are involved in the crosstalk between stem cells and osteoblasts, including soluble cytokines, adhesion molecules, and signal pathways such as the wingless-Int (Wnt), Notch, and parathyroid hormone pathways. According to the most recent evidence, there is an overlap between osteoblastic and perivascular niches that affects HSC function involving mesenchymal stromal and endothelial cells and a gradient of oxygen regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α...
January 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
David M Gonzalez, Damian Medici
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential mechanism in embryonic development and tissue repair. EMT also contributes to the progression of disease, including organ fibrosis and cancer. EMT, as well as a similar transition occurring in vascular endothelial cells called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), results from the induction of transcription factors that alter gene expression to promote loss of cell-cell adhesion, leading to a shift in cytoskeletal dynamics and a change from epithelial morphology and physiology to the mesenchymal phenotype...
September 23, 2014: Science Signaling
Ravindran Gokulan, Devaraj Halagowder
Notch pathway molecules crosstalk with Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade in stem cells and tumors. However, the correlation between the expression pattern of Notch intracellular domain NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc has not been studied in oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc in oral cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression pattern of NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc in oral preneoplastic and neoplastic tissues...
August 2014: Medical Oncology
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