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volatile agent

Rajasree Omanakutty Amma, Subha Ravindran, Rachel Cherian Koshy, K M Jagathnath Krishna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With the availability of modern workstations and heightened awareness on the environmental effects of waste anaesthesia gases, anaesthesiologists worldwide are practicing low flow anaesthesia (LFA). Although LFA is being practiced in India, hard evidence on the current practice of the same from anaesthesiologists practicing in India is lacking and hence, we conducted this survey. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 16 questions was distributed among a subgroup of anaesthesiologists who attended the 2014 National Conference of Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Bushra Jamil, Rashda Abbasi, Shahid Abbasi, Muhammad Imran, Siffat U Khan, Ayesha Ihsan, Sundus Javed, Habib Bokhari, Muhammad Imran
Natural antimicrobial agents, particularly essential oils present an excellent alternative to current antibiotics due to their potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential, unique mechanisms of action and low tendency to induce resistance. However their potential as a viable therapeutic alternative is greatly compromised due to their hydrophobic and volatile nature. The objective of the current research was to explore the anti-pathogenic potential of essential oils in a bio-based nano-carrier system. Six different essential oils were tested on multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Laura Capelli, Gianluigi Taverna, Alessia Bellini, Lidia Eusebio, Niccolò Buffi, Massimo Lazzeri, Giorgio Guazzoni, Giorgio Bozzini, Mauro Seveso, Alberto Mandressi, Lorenzo Tidu, Fabio Grizzi, Paolo Sardella, Giuseppe Latorre, Rodolfo Hurle, Giovanni Lughezzani, Paolo Casale, Sara Meregali, Selena Sironi
The electronic nose is able to provide useful information through the analysis of the volatile organic compounds in body fluids, such as exhaled breath, urine and blood. This paper focuses on the review of electronic nose studies and applications in the specific field of medical diagnostics based on the analysis of the gaseous headspace of human urine, in order to provide a broad overview of the state of the art and thus enhance future developments in this field. The research in this field is rather recent and still in progress, and there are several aspects that need to be investigated more into depth, not only to develop and improve specific electronic noses for different diseases, but also with the aim to discover and analyse the connections between specific diseases and the body fluids odour...
October 14, 2016: Sensors
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Jin-Lian Chen, Shi-Zhong Sun, Cui-Ping Miao, Kai Wu, You-Wei Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Hui-Lin Guan, Li-Xing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. METHODS: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Reshma B Muniyappa, Geetha C Rajappa, Suresh Govindswamy, Prathima P Thamanna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various adjuvants have been introduced to decrease the dose of volatile agents and their side effects. Dexmedetomidine a potent alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is one such agent. Our objective is to assess the effect of preanesthetic dexmedetomidine on isoflurane consumption and its effect on intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery profile. SETTING AND DESIGN: This prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study was done in a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Qinghuan Xu, Lin Yang, Wangting Yang, Yan Bai, Ping Hou, Jingxian Zhao, Lv Zhou, Zhaojiang Zuo
Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris...
October 11, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Somchai Butnan, Jonathan L Deenik, Banyong Toomsan, Michael J Antal, Patma Vityakon
The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, CH, and NO) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high-volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Giovanni Landoni, Antonio Pisano, Vladimir Lomivorotov, Gabriele Alvaro, Ludhmila Hajjar, Gianluca Paternoster, Caetano Nigro Neto, Nicola Latronico, Evgeny Fominskiy, Laura Pasin, Gabriele Finco, Rosetta Lobreglio, Maria Luisa Azzolini, Giuseppe Buscaglia, Alberto Castella, Marco Comis, Adele Conte, Massimiliano Conte, Francesco Corradi, Erika Dal Checco, Giovanni De Vuono, Marco Ganzaroli, Eugenio Garofalo, Gordana Gazivoda, Rosalba Lembo, Daniele Marianello, Martina Baiardo Redaelli, Fabrizio Monaco, Valentina Tarzia, Marta Mucchetti, Alessandro Belletti, Paolo Mura, Mario Musu, Giovanni Pala, Massimiliano Paltenghi, Vadim Pasyuga, Desiderio Piras, Claudio Riefolo, Agostino Roasio, Laura Ruggeri, Francesco Santini, Andrea Székely, Luigi Verniero, Antonella Vezzani, Alberto Zangrillo, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Veronica Caldeo, John A Hannon, Dara-Kate Hickey, Dave Waldron, Martin G Wilkinson, Thomas P Beresford, Paul L H McSweeney
In cheese, a negative oxidation-reduction (redox) potential is required for the stability of aroma, especially that associated with volatile sulphur compounds. To control the redox potential during ripening, redox agents were added to the salted curd of Cheddar cheese before pressing. The control cheese contained only salt, while different oxidising or reducing agents were added with the NaCl to the experimental cheeses. KIO3 (at 0·05, 0·1 and 1%, w/w) was used as the oxidising agent while cysteine (at 2%, w/w) and Na2S2O4 (at 0·05 and 0·1%, w/w) were used as reducing agents...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Dineshkumar Kandasamy, Jonathan Gershenzon, Almuth Hammerbacher
Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Amelia R Adelsperger, Krista J Bigiarelli-Nogas, Irina Toore, Craig J Goergen
A traditional vaporizer depends on flowing gas and atmospheric pressure for passive anesthetic vaporization. Newly developed direct injection vaporizers utilize a syringe pump to directly administer volatile anesthetics into a gas stream. Unlike a traditional vaporizer, it can be used at very low flow rates, making it ideal for use on mice and rats. The equipment's capability to use low flow rates could result in a substantial cost savings due to the reduced need for anesthetic agents, compressed gas, and charcoal scavenging filters(1)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
K Tamreihao, Debananda S Ningthoujam, Salam Nimaichand, Elangbam Shanta Singh, Pascal Reena, Salam Herojeet Singh, Upendra Nongthomba
Streptomyces corchorusii strain UCR3-16, obtained from rice rhizospheric soils showed antifungal activities against 6 major rice fungal pathogens by diffusible and volatile compounds production. The strain was found positive for production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase, lipase and protease. The strain was also positive for plant growth promoting traits. It produced up to 30.5μg/ml of IAA and solubilized a significant amount of inorganic phosphate (up to 102μg/ml)...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Waseem Raza, Ning Ling, Dongyang Liu, Zhong Wei, Qiwei Huang, Qirong Shen
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by soil microbes have a significant role in the control of plant diseases and plant growth promotion. In this study, we examined the effect of VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WR-1 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The VOCs produced by P. fluorescens WR-1 exhibited concentration dependent bacteriostatic effect on the growth of R. solanacearum on agar medium and in infested soil. The VOCs of P. fluorescens WR-1 also significantly inhibited the virulence traits of R...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
A Prior, R C Moldovan, J Crommen, A C Servais, M Fillet, G J de Jong, G W Somsen
The sensitivity of coupled enantioselective capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) of amino acids (AAs) is often hampered by the chiral selectors in the background electrolyte (BGE). A new method is presented in which the use of a chiral selector is circumvented by employing (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate (FLEC) as chiral AA derivatizing agent and ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) as a volatile pseudostationary phase for separation of the formed diastereomers. Efficient AA derivatization with FLEC was completed within 10 min...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Lin Xu, Xudan He, Liqin Zhi, Chunhui Zhang, Tao Zeng, Yaqi Cai
Simulated experiments indicated that chlorinated volatile methylsiloxanes, detected by Q-TOF GC/MS, could be generated in a pulp-bleaching process, where poly(dimethylsiloxane)s fluids with volatile methylsiloxanes as impurities and molecular chlorine were used as a defoamer and bleaching agent, respectively. In the producing processes of one papermaking factory, the mean total concentrations of monochlorinated D4, D5, and D6, i.e., D3D(CH2Cl), D4D(CH2Cl), and D5D(CH2Cl), were 0.0430-287 μg/L in aqueous samples, while they were 0...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger, Katharina Neumaier, Timo Wille, Horst Thiermann
The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals...
September 14, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Stephanie Werner, Andrea Polle, Nicole Brinkmann
We reviewed the impact of fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on soil-inhabiting organisms and their physiological and molecular consequences for their targets. Because fungi can only move by growth to distinct directions, a main mechanism to protect themselves from enemies or to manipulate their surroundings is the secretion of exudates or VOCs. The importance of VOCs in this regard has been significantly underestimated. VOCs not only can be means of communication, but also signals that are able to specifically manipulate the recipient...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ke Peng, Hua-Yue Liu, Shao-Ru Wu, Hong Liu, Zhao-Cai Zhang, Fu-Hai Ji
BACKGROUND: Many studies have compared propofol-based anesthesia with inhalational anesthesia. Results from several studies have shown improved postoperative analgesia after propofol anesthesia, but other studies showed contradictory results. There are no large prospective studies that compare postoperative pain after propofol versus inhalational anesthesia. This meta-analysis was designed to focus on this question. METHODS: A systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials that compared propofol-based anesthesia with volatile agents-based anesthesia in adults undergoing surgery was conducted...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
A U Wijenayake, C L Abayasekara, H M T G A Pitawala, B M R Bandara
BACKGROUND: Mineral based preparations are widely used for centuries as antimicrobial agents. However, the efficacy and the mode of action of mineral based preparations are uncertain due to the insufficient antimicrobial studies. Arogyawardhana Vati (AV) and Manikya Rasa (MR) are such two Rasashastra herbo-minerallic drugs commonly in India and other countries in South Asia. Despite of their well known traditional use of skin diseases, reported antimicrobial and mineralogical studies are limited...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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