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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025421/-effort-reward-imbalance-in-the-emergency-rescue-service-a-cross-sectional-study-on-prevalence-and-influencing-factors-among-full-time-emergency-service-employees
#1
Hendrik Berth, Philipp Matthias Rohleder
INTRODUCTION: The emergency service is a challenging field of activity. The Effort-Reward Imbalance model explains on the basis of the ratio between reward/effort the appearance of occupational stress. For the first time, this study examines the extent of Effort-Reward Imbalance in rescue services in Germany. METHODS: Full-time emergency service employees of a German Red Cross District Association were consulted. N=82 employees (78.8%) participated (M age=37.78 years, 73...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025383/-like-you-failed-at-life-debt-health-and-neoliberal-subjectivity
#2
Elizabeth Sweet
The need to more explicitly incorporate political economy and neoliberalism into research on social inequalities in health has been acknowledged across disciplines. This paper explores neoliberalism as it relates to consumer financial debt and internalized feelings of personal responsibility and failure for adults in Boston, Massachusetts. Using data from a mixed-methods study (n = 286), findings show that endorsing a neoliberalized view of personal debt as failure is associated with significantly worse health across a range of measures, including blood pressure, adiposity, self-reported physical and emotional symptoms, depression, anxiety, and perceived stress, even when controlling for several socio-demographic confounders...
July 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024942/prefrontal-cortex-dependent-innate-behaviors-are-altered-by-selective-knockdown-of-gad1-in-neuropeptide-y-interneurons
#3
Katelynn M Corder, Mariana A Cortes, Aundrea F Bartley, Samantha A Lear, Farah D Lubin, Lynn E Dobrunz
GABAergic dysfunction has been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychiatric disorder during adolescence. There is a deficiency of GABAergic transmission in anxiety, and enhancement of GABA transmission through pharmacological means reduces anxiety behaviors. GAD67-the enzyme responsible for GABA production-has been linked to anxiety disorders. One class of GABAergic interneurons, Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, is abundantly found in brain regions associated with anxiety and fear learning, including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024296/substance-use-patterns-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-the-momentum-health-study
#4
Eric Abella Roth, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Heather L Armstrong, Ashleigh J Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Paul Sereda, Kiffer G Card, Jody Jollimore, Terry Howard, Gbolahan Olarewaju, David M Moore, Robert S Hogg
Research with male sexual minorities frequently combines gay and bisexual men as Men Who Have Sex with Men or Gay and Bisexual Men. When analyzed separately, bisexual men consistently feature negative health differentials, exemplified by higher substance use levels. This interpretation is not clear-cut because studies may combine bisexual men and women, use different dimensions of sexual orientation to define bisexuality, and/or not consider number of sexual partners as a possible confounding factor. This study conducted separate bivariate and multivariate analyses comparing gay to bisexual Momentum Study participants based on self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, while controlling for number of sexual partners and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior measures...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024246/personality-development-and-adjustment-in-college-a-multifaceted-cross-national-view
#5
Theo A Klimstra, Erik E Noftle, Koen Luyckx, Luc Goossens, Richard W Robins
The current study is among the first to examine rank-order stability and mean-level change across college in both broad Big Five personality trait domains (e.g., Neuroticism) and the narrower facets underlying these domains (i.e., self-reproach, anxiety, and depression). In addition, the current study tests longitudinal associations between Big Five domains and facets and 3 aspects of adjustment: self-esteem, academic adjustment, and social adjustment in college. Specifically, the study examines codevelopment (correlated change), personality effects on later changes in adjustment, and adjustment effects on later changes in personality...
August 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024200/development-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-resiliency-scale-msrs
#6
Elizabeth S Gromisch, Jessica Sloan, Vance Zemon, Tuula Tyry, Laura C Schairer, Stacey Snyder, Frederick W Foley
OBJECTIVES: While resilience has been an area of increasing research, there are no measures that are specific to the psychological, social, and physical factors associated with resilience in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). This study aimed to develop the MS Resiliency Scale (MSRS), a multidimensional measure. Items were created based on a review of the literature, with five hypothesized subscales, and then evaluated in a large sample of PwMS. METHOD: Participants ( N = 932) were primarily recruited through the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) and completed the study electronically...
July 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023170/neural-correlates-of-attention-bias-to-masked-facial-threat-cues-examining-children-at-risk-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
Eran S Auday, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
Background: Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament trait and a robust predictor of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Both BI and anxiety may have distinct patterns of emotion processing marked by heightened neural responses to threat cues. BI and anxious children display similar frontolimbic patterns when completing an emotion-face attention bias task with supraliminal presentation. Anxious children also show a distinct neural response to the same task with subliminal face presentations, probing stimulus-driven attention networks...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022319/prevalence-of-seasonal-depression-in-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Anna Wirz-Justice, Vladeta Ajdacic, Wulf Rössler, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Jules Angst
The prevalence of autumn/winter seasonality in depression has been documented in the longitudinal Zurich cohort study by five comprehensive diagnostic interviews at intervals over more than 20 years (N = 499). Repeated winter major depressive episodes (MDE-unipolar + bipolar) showed a prevalence of 3.44% (5× more women than men), whereas MDE with a single winter episode was much higher (9.96%). A total of 7.52% suffered from autumn/winter seasonality in major and minor depressive mood states. The clinical interviews revealed novel findings: high comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia within the repeated seasonal MDE group, high incidence of classic diurnal variation of mood (with evening improvement), as well as a high rate of oversensitivity to light, noise, or smell...
July 18, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021468/effect-of-maternal-psychopathology-on-neurodevelopmental-outcome-and-quality-of-the-dyadic-relationship-in-preterm-infants-an-explorative-study
#9
C Pisoni, S Spairani, F Fauci, G Ariaudo, C Tzialla, C Tinelli, P Politi, U Balottin, M Stronati, S Orcesi
BACKGROUND: The literature shows that parents of preterm infants are at risk of psychological distress and that this may impact on the quality of the parent-child relationship and on the child's development. AIM: This longitudinal study was conducted to examine in preterm infants relationships between maternal psychological variables, parental protective factors, perinatal infant variables, and neurodevelopmental outcome. Furthermore, we explored the impact of these variables on the quality of the mother-infant relationship (dyadic synchrony)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021357/neurobiology-and-consequences-of-social-isolation-stress-in-animal-model-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Faiza Mumtaz, Muhammad Imran Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
The brain is a vital organ, susceptible to alterations under genetic influences and environmental experiences. Social isolation (SI) acts as a stressor which results in alterations in reactivity to stress, social behavior, function of neurochemical and neuroendocrine system, physiological, anatomical and behavioral changes in both animal and humans. During early stages of life, acute or chronic SIS has been proposed to show signs and symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and memory loss...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020868/social-support-dysfunctional-coping-and-community-reintegration-as-predictors-of-ptsd-among-human-trafficking-survivors
#11
David Okech, Nathan Hansen, Waylon Howard, John K Anarfi, Abigail C Burns
Human trafficking exerts psychological effects on survivors that persist after intervention, and even after community reintegration. Effects include anxiety, depression, alienation, disorientation, aggression, suicidal ideation, attention deficit, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Community supports and coping mechanisms may mitigate these effects. The report presented here is part of a long-term program of research to develop and test evidence-informed mental health and human capacity-building intervention programs for women and girls who are victims of trafficking...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020386/social-support-patterns-in-primary-health-care-differences-between-having-physical-diseases-or-mental-disorders
#12
Ellen Ingrid Souza Aragão, Mônica Rodrigues Campos, Flávia Batista Portugal, Daniel Almeida Gonçalves, Jair de Jesus Mari, Sandra Lúcia Correia Lima Fortes
The social support network is a health protective factor involving physical, mental and psychological aspects, providing a better quality of life, favoring better adaptation to adverse conditions, promoting resilience and mobilizing resources for a more effective coping with negative life events that can lead to illness. We aimed to analyze the association between physical diseases, common mental disorders and the social support network of patients serviced at primary care facilities in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo through a cross-sectional study with 1,466 patients in the 18-65 years age group...
July 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020206/social-anxiety-and-benign-and-toxic-online-self-disclosures-an-investigation-into-the-role-of-rejection-sensitivity-self-regulation-and-internet-addiction-in-college-students
#13
Parviz Molavi, Niloofar Mikaeili, Mohammad Ali Ghaseminejad, Zhila Kazemi, Misagh Pourdonya
This work aimed to explore the relationship between social anxiety with benign and toxic online self-disclosures with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction. In this study, 358 students who were active members of social networks at the Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Iran were evaluated in the form of a structural equation model. The results substantiated that social anxiety could explain 47% of the variance in benign online self-disclosure and 27% of toxic online self-disclosure with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019306/lack-of-functional-remission-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#14
M Vermalle, M Alessandrini, T Graillon, N C Paladino, K Baumstarck, F Sebag, H Dufour, T Brue, F Castinetti
INTRODUCTION: Hypercortisolism leads to severe clinical consequences persisting after the onset of remission. These physical sequelae of cortisol exposure are known to profoundly impact the patient's quality of life. As psychological factors may be correlated with this quality of life, our objective was to determine the specific weight of psychological determinants of quality of life in patients in remission from hypercortisolism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In an observational study, 63 patients with hypercortisolism in remission were asked to complete exhaustive self-administered questionnaires including quality of life (WHOQoL-BREF and Cushing QoL), depression, anxiety, self-esteem, body image, and coping scales...
July 17, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019222/longitudinal-links-between-adolescent-social-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-testing-the-mediational-effects-of-cybervictimization
#15
Nejra Van Zalk, Maarten Van Zalk
This study focuses on the temporal sequence between social anxiety and depressive symptoms, and whether cybervictimization might mediate these links. We used a longitudinal sample of 501 early adolescents (51.9% girls; Mage  = 13.96) followed at three time points. Using a cross-lagged path model in MPlus, we found that social anxiety predicted depressive symptoms over time, but not the other way around. Time-1 depressive symptoms also predicted cybervictimization, but only for boys and not for girls. No mediating effects of cybervictimization emerged; however, Time-2 social anxiety was a significant mediator between Time-1 social anxiety and depressive symptoms, whereas Time-2 depressive symptoms significantly mediated the link between Time-1 social anxiety and Time-3 depressive symptoms...
July 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018921/progressive-muscle-relaxation-technique-on-anxiety-and-depression-among-persons-affected-by-leprosy
#16
Senthilkumar Ramasamy, Suganya Panneerselvam, Pitchaimani Govindharaj, Archana Kumar, Rashmi Nayak
Anxiety and depression have been found to be increasing among people with leprosy and it may lead to decreased social participation. The progressive muscle relaxation technique (PMRT) is widely used today in choice of treatment for reducing the anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of PMRT in reducing anxiety and depression among the hospitalized leprosy affected person in a tertiary care centre. This study is a case series of 50 leprosy affected people aged between 18-60 years who were admitted for leprosy complications in tertiary leprosy referral hospital...
June 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018648/-not-my-child-parents-denial-about-adolescent-sexuality-in-harare-zimbabwe
#17
Manase Chiweshe, Malvern Chiweshe
Objective: To find out adult views on adolescent sexualities in Zimbabwe and how adults construct sexual cultures that deny adolescence access to sex. Materials and methods: The paper uses qualitative methodologies, with purposively selected parents and key informants. A total of ten in depth interviews, four focus groups and six key informant interviews with purposively sampled male and female respondents were conducted. Key informants included a headmaster, teacher, social worker, nurses and a member of traditional healers association...
September 2017: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018475/liver-transplantation-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-history-controversies-and-considerations
#18
REVIEW
Claudio Augusto Marroni, Alfeu Medeiros Fleck, Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Lucas Homercher Galant, Marcos Mucenic, Mario Henrique de Mattos Meine, Guilherme Mariante-Neto, Ajacio Bandeira de Mello Brandão
Alcohol consumption accounts for 3.8% of annual global mortality worldwide, and the majority of these deaths are due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. ALD is one of the most common indications for liver transplantation (LT). However, it remains a complicated topic on both medical and ethical grounds, as it is seen by many as a "self-inflicted disease". One of the strongest ethical arguments against LT for ALD is the probability of relapse. However, ALD remains a common indication for LT worldwide...
July 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018309/differentially-methylated-genes-in-saliva-are-linked-to-childhood-stress
#19
Ligia A Papale, Leslie J Seltzer, Andy Madrid, Seth D Pollak, Reid S Alisch
Chronic and severe stress exposure in early childhood is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Here, we profile molecular marks (DNA methylation and gene expression) throughout the human genome to determine the associations between childhood stress exposure and gene regulation. To do so, we collected saliva tissue from prepubertal girls (mean age 10.9 ± 1.26 years) who had experienced different levels of childhood adversity, ranging from mild to severe...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017904/obfuscating-transparency
#20
EDITORIAL
Michael Aschner, Herman Autrup, Colin L Berry, Alan R Boobis, Samuel M Cohen, Wolfgang Dekant, Corrado L Galli, Jay I Goodman, Gio B Gori, Helmut A Greim, Norbert E Kaminski, Curtis D Klaassen, James E Klaunig, Marcello Lotti, Hans Wj Marquardt, Angelo Moretto, Olavi Pelkonen, I Glenn Sipes, Kendall B Wallace, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Several recent and prominent articles in Science and Nature deliberately mischaracterized the nature of genuine scientific evidence. Those articles take issue with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's recent proposal to structure its policies and rules only from studies with transparently published raw data. The articles claim it is an effort to obfuscate with transparency, by eliminating a host of studies not offering raw data. A remarkable declaration by a Science editorial is that properly trained experts can verify the scientific evidence of studies without access to raw data, We assert the Agency's proposal must be sustained...
July 11, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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