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Ursula Schulze-Gahmen, Ignacia Echeverria, Goran Stjepanovic, Yun Bai, Huasong Lu, Dina Schneidman-Duhovny, Jennifer A Doudna, Qiang Zhou, Andrej Sali, James H Hurley
HIV-1 Tat hijacks the human superelongation complex (SEC) to promote proviral transcription. Here we report the 5.9 Å structure of HIV-1 TAR in complex with HIV-1 Tat and human AFF4, CDK9, and CycT1. The TAR central loop contacts the CycT1 Tat-TAR recognition motif (TRM) and the second Tat Zn(2+)-binding loop. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) shows that AFF4 helix 2 is stabilized in the TAR complex despite not touching the RNA, explaining how it enhances TAR binding to the SEC 50-fold. RNA SHAPE and SAXS data were used to help model the extended (Tat Arginine-Rich Motif) ARM, which enters the TAR major groove between the bulge and the central loop...
October 12, 2016: ELife
In-Kang Song, Jae-Jin Lee, Jin-Hwan Cho, Jihye Jeong, Dong-Hae Shin, Kong-Joo Lee
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key molecules regulating various cellular processes. However, what the cellular targets of ROS are and how their functions are regulated is unclear. This study explored the cellular proteomic changes in response to oxidative stress using H2O2 in dose- and recovery time-dependent ways. We found discernible changes in 76 proteins appearing as 103 spots on 2D-PAGE. Of these, Prxs, DJ-1, UCH-L3 and Rla0 are readily oxidized in response to mild H2O2 stress, and then degraded and active proteins are newly synthesized during recovery...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bin Deng, Cristina Lento, Derek J Wilson
Protein therapeutics have emerged as a major class of biopharmaceuticals over the past several decades, a trend that has motivated the advancement of bioanalytical technologies for protein therapeutic characterization. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful and sensitive technique that can probe the higher order structure of proteins and has been used in the assessment and development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and biosimilar antibodies. It has also been used to quantify protein-ligand, protein-receptor and other protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yohei Ohashi, Nicolas Soler, Miguel García Ortegón, Lufei Zhang, Marie L Kirsten, Olga Perisic, Glenn R Masson, John E Burke, Arjen J Jakobi, Apostolos A Apostolakis, Christopher M Johnson, Maki Ohashi, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Carsten Sachse, Roger L Williams
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34 is part of several protein complexes. The structural organization of heterotetrameric complexes is starting to emerge, but little is known about organization of additional accessory subunits that interact with these assemblies. Combining hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy (EM), we have characterized Atg38 and its human ortholog NRBF2, accessory components of complex I consisting of Vps15-Vps34-Vps30/Atg6-Atg14 (yeast) and PIK3R4/VPS15-PIK3C3/VPS34-BECN1/Beclin 1-ATG14 (human)...
September 14, 2016: Autophagy
Jürgen Claesen, Tomasz Burzykowski
Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange (HDX) has been applied, since the 1930s, as an analytical tool to study the structure and dynamics of (small) biomolecules. The popularity of using HDX to study proteins increased drastically in the last two decades due to the successful combination with mass spectrometry (MS). Together with this growth in popularity, several technological advances have been made, such as improved quenching and fragmentation. As a consequence of these experimental improvements and the increased use of protein-HDXMS, large amounts of complex data are generated, which require appropriate analysis...
September 7, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Liping Yang, David Broderick, Yan Campbell, Adrian F Gombart, Jan F Stevens, Yuan Jiang, Victor L Hsu, William H Bisson, Claudia S Maier
We report on the molecular interactions of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) with prenylflavonoids, an emerging class of FXR modulators. FXR is an attractive therapeutic target for mitigating metabolic syndromes (MetS) because FXR activates the inhibitory nuclear receptor, small heterodimer partner (SHP), thereby inhibiting both gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis. We and others have shown that xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylflavonoid of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), is a FXR agonist based on its ability to affect lipid and glucose metabolism in vivo and to induces FXR target genes in biliary carcinoma cells and HEK293 cells...
September 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xueyan Chen, Ugur Uzuner, Man Li, Weibing Shi, Joshua S Yuan, Susie Y Dai
Endocrine disrupters include a broad spectrum of chemicals such as industrial chemicals, natural estrogens and androgens, synthetic estrogens and androgens. Phytoestrogens are widely present in diet and food supplements; mycoestrogens are frequently found in grains. As human beings and animals are commonly exposed to phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in diet and environment, it is important to understand the potential beneficial or hazardous effects of estrogenic compounds. Many bioassays have been established to study the binding of estrogenic compounds with estrogen receptor (ER) and provided rich data in the literature...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zeinab E Nazari, Marco van de Weert, George Bou-Assaf, Damian Houde, Andrew Weiskopf, Kasper D Rand
Hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has become an established method for analysis of protein higher order structure. Here, we use HDX-MS methodology based on manual solid-phase extraction (SPE) to allow fast and simplified conformational analysis of proteins under pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. Of significant practical utility, the methodology allows global HDX-MS analyses to be performed without refrigeration or external cooling of the setup. In mode 1, we used dimethyl sulphoxide-containing solvents for SPE, allowing the HDX-MS analysis to be performed at acceptable back-exchange levels (<30%) without the need for cooling any components of the setup...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jingjie Mo, Qingrong Yan, Chi Kwong So, Tam Soden, Michael J Lewis, Ping Hu
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) was used in two case studies to evaluate the impact of methionine (Met) oxidation on the biological functions of IgG1 antibodies. In the first case study, linear correlations were observed between the oxidation of the conserved Fc methionine residues and the loss of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) activity. Both heavy chain (HC) residues Met257 and Met433 were located near the FcRn binding interface as indicated by HDX MS and structural modeling; however, HC Met257 oxidation was further demonstrated to have a more significant impact on FcRn binding than HC Met433 oxidation...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Martyna Prądzińska, Izabela Behrendt, Juan Astorga-Wells, Aleksandr Manoilov, Roman A Zubarev, Aleksandra S Kołodziejczyk, Sylwia Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Paulina Czaplewska
Human cystatin C (hCC) is a small cysteine protease inhibitor whose oligomerization by propagated domain swapping is linked to certain neurological disorders. One of the ways to prevent hCC dimerization and fibrillogenesis is to enable its interaction with a proper antibody. Herein, the sites of interaction of hCC with dimer-preventing mouse monoclonal anti-hCC antibodies Cyst28 are studied and compared with the binding sites found for mAb Cyst10 that has almost no effect on hCC dimerization. In addition, hCC epitopes in complexes with native polyclonal antibodies extracted from human serum were studied...
August 29, 2016: Amino Acids
Jingxi Pan, Suping Zhang, Christoph H Borchers
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful technique for higher-order structural characterization of antibodies. Although the peptide-based bottom-up HDX approach and the protein-based top-down HDX approach have complementary advantages, the work done so far on biosimilars has involved only one or the other approach. Herein we have characterized the structures of two bevacizumab (BEV) biosimilars and compared them to the reference BEV using both methods. A sequence coverage of 87% was obtained for the heavy chain and 74% for the light chain in the bottom-up approach...
August 25, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Spiros A Kostopoulos, Katerina G Vassiou, Eleftherios N Lavdas, Dionisis A Cavouras, Ioannis K Kalatzis, Pantelis A Asvestas, Dimitrios L Arvanitis, Ioannis V Fezoulidis, Dimitris T Glotsos
Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with gadolinium constitutes one of the most promising protocols for boosting up the sensitivity in breast cancer detection. The aim of this study was twofold: first to design an image processing methodology to estimate the vascularity of the breast region in DCE-MRI images and second to investigate whether the differences in the composition/texture and vascularity of normal, benign and malignant breasts may serve as potential indicators regarding the presence of the disease...
August 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Rane A Harrison, John R Engen
Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) can provide information about proteins that can be challenging to obtain by other means. Structure/function relationships, binding interactions, and the effects of modification have all been measured with HDX MS for a diverse and growing array of signaling proteins and multiprotein signaling complexes. As a result of hardware and software improvements, receptors and complexes involved in cellular signaling-including those associated with membranes-can now be studied...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Attila Ambrus, Junjie Wang, Reka Mizsei, Zsofia Zambo, Beata Torocsik, Frank Jordan, Vera Adam-Vizi
Pathogenic amino acid substitutions of the common E3 component (hE3) of the human alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes lead to severe metabolic diseases (E3 deficiency), which usually manifest themselves in cardiological and/or neurological symptoms and often cause premature death. To date, 14 disease-causing amino acid substitutions of the hE3 component have been reported in the clinical literature. None of the pathogenic protein variants has lent itself to high-resolution structure elucidation by X-ray or NMR...
August 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Richard Y-C Huang, Roxana E Iacob, Stanley R Krystek, Mi Jin, Hui Wei, Li Tao, Tapan K Das, Adrienne A Tymiak, John R Engen, Guodong Chen
Aggregation of protein therapeutics has long been a concern across different stages of manufacturing processes in the biopharmaceutical industry. It is often indicative of aberrant protein therapeutic higher-order structure. In this study, the aggregation propensity of a human Fc-fusion protein therapeutic was characterized. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was applied to examine the conformational dynamics of dimers collected from a bioreactor. HDX-MS data combined with spatial aggregation propensity calculations revealed a potential aggregation interface in the Fc domain...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Nanjie Deng, Ashley Hoyte, Yara E Mansour, Mosaad S Mohamed, James R Fuchs, Alan N Engelman, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia, Ronald Levy
Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) bind at the dimer interface of the IN catalytic core domain (CCD), and potently inhibit HIV-1 by promoting aberrant, higher-order IN multimerization. Little is known about the structural organization of the inhibitor-induced IN multimers and important questions regarding how ALLINIs promote aberrant IN multimerization remain to be answered. On the basis of physical chemistry principles and from our analysis of experimental information, we propose that inhibitor-induced multimerization is mediated by ALLINIs directly promoting inter-subunit interactions between the CCD dimer and a C-terminal domain (CTD) of another IN dimer...
August 9, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Lisa Elviri, Carlo Bergonzi, Annalisa Bianchera, Ruggero Bettini
RATIONALE: Drug development efforts involving therapeutic peptides or proteins strongly lead optimization of drug delivery, drug stability, solubility and functionality. The key feature of controlled drug delivery is the use of biocompatible polymers able to interact via non-covalent bonds with an active principle through multiple functional groups. Here amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry was employed to localize insulin dynamics induced by interactions with three natural polysaccharides, i...
November 15, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Zhen Cao, Pei-Yin Lin, Zhi-Wei Shen, Ren-Hua Wu, Ye-Yu Xiao
The aim of the present study was to identify alterations in brain function following administration of a single, low-dose of codeine phosphate in healthy volunteers using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In addition, the metabolic changes in the two sides of the frontal lobe were identified using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). A total of 20 right-handed healthy participants (10 males, 10 females) were evaluated, and a Signa HDx 1.5T MRI scanner was used for data acquisition...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Su Youn Lee, Hee-Seop Yoo, Hye-Seung Choi, Ka Young Chung, Min-Duk Seo
There are three subtypes of vertebrate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R), a Ca(2+)-release channel on the ER membrane - IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3 - each of which has a distinctive role in disease development. To determine the subtype-specific IP3-binding mechanism, we compared the thermodynamics, thermal stability, and conformational dynamics between the N-terminal regions of IP3R1 (IP3R1-NT) and IP3R3 (IP3R3-NT) by performing circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS)...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Rebecca Beveridge, Lukasz G Migas, Karl A P Payne, Nigel S Scrutton, David Leys, Perdita E Barran
Fdc1 is a decarboxylase enzyme that requires the novel prenylated FMN cofactor for activity. Here, we use it as an exemplar system to show how native top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry can measure the structural effect of cofactor binding by a protein. For Fdc1(Ubix), the cofactor confers structural stability to the enzyme. IM-MS shows the holo protein to exist in four closely related conformational families, the populations of which differ in the apo form; the two smaller families are more populated in the presence of the cofactor and depopulated in its absence...
2016: Nature Communications
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