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Pawel A Osmulski, Maria Gaczynska
Rapamycin is a canonical allosteric inhibitor of the mammalian tarpet of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase with immunosuppressive and proapoptotic activities. We found that in vitro rapamycin also regulates the proteasome, which is an essential intracellular protease of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Rapamycin inhibits proteinase and selected peptidase activities of the catalytic core proteasome at low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, the drug interferes with binding of the 19S cap essential for processing of polyubiquitinylated substrates and with the PA200 proteasome activator to the 20S catalytic core proteasome...
July 2013: Molecular Pharmacology
Mary F Paine, Louis Y Leung, H K Lim, Kecheng Liao, Aram Oganesian, Mei-Yi Zhang, Kenneth E Thummel, Paul B Watkins
Using Caco-2 cell monolayers expressing CYP3A4, we investigated the interplay between metabolism and transport on the first-pass intestinal extraction of the immunosuppressant sirolimus, a CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Modified Caco-2 cells metabolized [(14)C]sirolimus to the predicted amounts of CYP3A4-mediated products based on CYP3A4 content, which was approximately 20% of that measured in human small intestinal mucosal homogenate. [(14)C]Sirolimus also degraded to the known ring-opened product, seco-rapamycin...
April 2002: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
R Dannecker, A E Vickers, G Ubeaud, C Hauck
In the present biotransformation study using human in vitro liver samples, metabolites of SDZ RAD were characterized by LC-MS. The major metabolites resulted from single hydroxylation and demethylation pathways and corresponded to the class of first-generation metabolites; 39-O-demethyl-RAD was identified as metabolite. The potential ring-opened degradation product resulting from ester hydrolysis and its dehydrated analogue (seco acid) was detected to comparable amounts in both the incubations and in controls without the presence of NADPH...
August 1998: Transplantation Proceedings
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