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Diagnosis of cardiac tamponade

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210722/point-of-care-ultrasound-in-the-periarrest-setting-lessons-learned-a-case-report
#1
Peter Juhl-Olsen, Rasmus Aagaard, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen
Point-of-care ultrasound may elucidate reversible causes of cardiac arrest, and its use is supported by international guidelines in the periarrest setting. We present a case in which the treatment of cardiac arrest caused tension pneumothoraces and cardiac tamponade by pneumopericardium. Both pneumothorax and tamponade were expected to be identified with ultrasound, but were not. Subcutaneous emphysema precluded the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Cardiac imaging was false negative for tamponade, because the latter was caused by air and not fluid...
November 27, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180025/delay-from-diagnosis-to-surgery-in-transferred-type-a-aortic-dissection
#2
William Froehlich, Jip L Tolenaar, Kevin M Harris, Craig Strauss, Thoralf M Sundt, Thomas T Tsai, Mark D Peterson, Arturo Evangelista, Daniel G Montgomery, Eva Kline-Rogers, Christoph A Nienaber, James B Froehlich, Eric M Isselbacher, Kim A Eagle, Santi Trimarchi
OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors associated with delays to surgical management of Type A acute aortic dissection patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. METHODS: We evaluated 1880 surgically-managed Type A acute aortic dissection patients enrolled between 1996 and 2012 with data for times of diagnosis and surgery, accounting for demographic, clinical and diagnostic variables associated with surgical delay. RESULTS: The majority of patients were transferred (75...
November 24, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150779/perioperative-transesophageal-echocardiography-for-non-cardiac-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Ashraf Fayad, Sasha K Shillcutt
PURPOSE: The use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has evolved to include patients undergoing high-risk non-cardiac procedures and patients with significant cardiac disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Implementation of basic TEE education in training programs has increased across a broad spectrum of procedures in the perioperative arena. This paper describes the use of perioperative TEE in non-cardiac surgery and provides an overview of the basic TEE examination. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perioperative TEE is used to monitor hemodynamic parameters in non-cardiac procedures where there is a high risk of hemodynamic instability...
November 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137910/tamponade-hemodynamic-and-echocardiographic-diagnosis
#4
REVIEW
Mark J Kearns, Keith R Walley
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constellation of otherwise non-specific features, based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Whereas echocardiographic examination is a central component of diagnosis, alone it is insufficient to establish the physiologic diagnosis of hemodynamically significant cardiac tamponade. The hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires clinical evidence of low cardiac output and stroke volume in the setting of elevated cardiac filling pressures, with evidence of increased sympathetic tone (tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, etc), and exclusion of other causes of shock as the primary problem (particularly cardiogenic shock)...
November 11, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068981/human-herpes-virus-8-unrelated-primary-effusion-lymphoma-like-lymphoma-presenting-with-cardiac-tamponade-a-case-report
#5
Hee-Jun Kim, Kyoungyul Lee, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Soo-Mee Bang
RATIONALE: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare disease of lymphomatous effusion in the body cavities in the absence of detectable mass and lymphadenopathy. PEL is predominantly related to the immunosuppressed patients infected with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). PEL-like lymphoma is negative for HHV-8 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) unlike PEL. The pathogenesis and prognosis of PEL-like lymphoma are unclear and there is no established treatment yet. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old male patient was admitted for evaluation of dyspnea on exertion with 1-week duration...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068135/a-case-of-bronchopericardial-fistula-with-tension-pneumopericardium-closed-successfully-by-transpericardial-intervention-a-novel-procedure
#6
Abhijeet B Shelke, Ramesh Kawade, Sourabh Gandhi
A pneumopericardium is a collection of air or gas in the pericardial sac which may cause cardiac tamponade, known as tension pneumopericardium. Tension pneumopericardium is a rare and lethal presentation of bronchopericardial fistula. There are very few reports in the literature of patients surviving with this condition, although prompt diagnosis and early intervention are important. Treatment options are limited. We present a rare case of tension pneumopericardium with cardiogenic shock due to bronchopericardial fistula in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma who was successfully treated with transpericardial intervention...
October 25, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066330/delayed-formation-of-a-massive-atrial-hematoma-after-coronary-intervention-manifesting-with-an-isolated-cough-multimodality-imaging-and-outcome
#7
Falah Aboukhoudir, Pierre Barnay, Valérie Miramont, Michel Pansieri, Laurent Meille, Sofiene Rekik
Coronary artery perforation is a relatively rare but potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention because it could result in cardiac tamponade; exceptionally, distal coronary perforation could cause an acute formation of a mural hematoma, which could also prove lethal without adequate management. We report an exceptional case of a 76-year-old man in whom an important left atrial hematoma formed progressively over weeks after a planned percutaneous coronary intervention and manifested with an isolated cough...
August 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063459/tension-pneumopericardium-following-suicidal-stab-wounds-to-the-chest
#8
Jakob Heimer, Stephan A Bolliger, Michael J Thali, Wolf Schweitzer
Pneumopericardium (PPC) and Tension Pneumopericardium (TPPC) refer to collections of gas in the pericardial cavity, the latter resulting in air tamponade and cardiac compromise. Following penetrating chest injuries, PPC and TPPC appear to be uncommon findings associated with a high mortality and correlated with other thoracic trauma. Diagnosis of PPC and TPPC is difficult relying on conventional autopsy alone, while postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) shows a high sensitivity for the detection of internal gas collections...
December 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062486/cardiac-tamponade-in-a-patient-with-autoimmune-polyglandular-syndrome-type-2
#9
Andromachi Vryonidou, Stavroula A Paschou, Fotini Dimitropoulou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Vasiliki Tzavara, Apostolos Katsivas
We describe a case of a 40-year-old woman who was admitted to the intensive care unit with a rapid onset of dyspnea and orthopnea. She presented progressive weakness, weight loss and secondary amenorrhea during last year, while intermittent fever was present for the last two months. Initial biochemical evaluation showed anemia, hyponatremia and increased C-reactive protein levels. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation revealed cardiac tamponade, which was treated with pericardiocentesis. Pleural fluid samples were negative for malignancy, tuberculosis or bacterial infection...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059035/nocardia-beijingensis-pericarditis-presenting-with-cardiac-tamponade-a-case-report
#10
Nattinee Laksananun, Parichat Salee, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat
We report the first case of Nocardia beijingensis pericarditis in a 32-year-old HIV-infected patient. He presented with cardiac tamponade after failing to respond to treatment for smear-negative pulmonary and pericardial tuberculosis (TB). The pericardial fluid was examined several times before it eventually revealed filamentous branching organisms in Gram and modified acid-fast bacilli stain. The culture grew Nocardia spp. and was identified by 16s rRNA sequencing as N. beijingensis. Eight previously reported cases of Nocardia pericarditis in HIV-infected patients were caused by Nocardia asteroides...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025544/cardiac-tamponade
#11
REVIEW
Christopher Appleton, Linda Gillam, Konstantinos Koulogiannis
Cardiac tamponade is caused by an abnormal increase in fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, which, by raising intracardiac pressures, impedes normal cardiac filling and reduces cardiac output, sometimes dramatically so. This article outlines the pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment of this important clinical condition highlighting the important role played by echocardiography in diagnosis and management.
November 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025543/pericardial-effusion
#12
REVIEW
Amir Azarbal, Martin M LeWinter
The normal pericardial sac contains up to 50 mL of fluid, which consists of a plasma ultrafiltrate. Anything greater constitutes a pathologic effusion. The curvilinear pressure-volume relationship of the pericardial sac dictates hemodynamic consequences of a pericardial effusion and is responsible for rapidly accumulating fluid that causes cardiac tamponade. A variety of diseases and complications cause pericardial effusion. The most common are idiopathic pericarditis, cancer, connective tissue disorders, and hemorrhage...
November 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025541/imaging-of-the-pericardium-a-multimodality-cardiovascular-imaging-update
#13
REVIEW
Bo Xu, Deborah H Kwon, Allan L Klein
Pericardial diseases represent diverse conditions, ranging from painful inflammatory states, such as acute pericarditis, to life-threatening tamponade and chronic heart failure due to constrictive pericarditis. Multimodality cardiovascular imaging plays important roles in diagnosis and management of pericardial conditions. This review provides a clinical update on multimodality cardiovascular imaging of the pericardium, incorporating echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, focusing on guiding clinicians about when each cardiac imaging modality should be used in each relevant pericardial condition...
November 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025539/pericardial-effusion-and-compressive-disorders-of-the-heart-influence-of-new-technology-on-unraveling-its-pathophysiology-and-hemodynamics
#14
REVIEW
Ralph Shabetai, Jae K Oh
Constrictive pericarditis and cardiac tamponade cause severe diastolic dysfunction, but do not depress systolic function until the agonal state has been reached. Multimodality cardiovascular imaging has brought the nuances of pericardial disease to the domain of the practicing cardiologist. This introduction is a revised article originally written by the late Dr Shabetai for a pericardial diseases textbook which was not published. He was the editor of previous Pericardial Diseases issue for Cardiology Clinics in the 1980s, it is most appropriate to begin our issue with his insights...
November 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988688/plasma-n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-concentrations-before-and-after-pericardiocentesis-in-dogs-with-cardiac-tamponade-secondary-to-spontaneous-pericardial-effusion
#15
R D Baumwart, A S Hanzlicek, S D Lyon, P M Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine if concentrations of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are increased in dogs with cardiac tamponade and if there is a significant increase in plasma NT-proBNP after pericardiocentesis. ANIMALS: Ten client-owned dogs with spontaneous cardiac tamponade. METHODS: Prospective clinical study. Cardiac tamponade was suspected from physical examination and confirmed with echocardiography. Blood was collected and plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured before and 30-60 min following pericardiocentesis and resolution of cardiac tamponade...
October 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971108/hydatid-cyst-of-the-interventricular-septum
#16
Endale Tefera, Joseph Knapp, Michael Teodori
While cardiac involvement is not a common presentation in human echinococcosis, it may lead to life-threatening complications including cyst rupture; anaphylactic shock; tamponade; pulmonary, cerebral or peripheral arterial embolism; acute coronary syndrome; dysrhythmias; infection; ventricular or valvular dysfunction, as well as sudden death. Here we report a 9-year old girl who was diagnosed to have hydatid cyst of the interventricular septum four years after diagnosis and medical treatment of pulmonary hydatidosis...
March 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968307/point-of-care-ultrasound-to-diagnose-postpericardiotomy-syndrome-in-a-child
#17
Andrew F Miller, Jason A Levy, Rachel G Rempell, Joshua Nagler
We report a case of a patient presenting with abdominal pain after cardiac surgery who was noted on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to have pericardial and pleural effusion, in addition to ascites. The most notable findings were pleural and pericardial effusions, which combined with symptomatology met criteria for postpericardiotomy syndrome. Point-of-care ultrasound expedited the diagnosis of a pericardial effusion with impending tamponade and transfer for pericardiocentesis and placement of pericardial drain...
October 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966921/echocardiographic-evaluation-of-hemodynamics-in-neonates-and-children
#18
REVIEW
Yogen Singh
Hemodynamic instability and inadequate cardiac performance are common in critically ill children. The clinical assessment of hemodynamic status is reliant upon physical examination supported by the clinical signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, capillary refill time, and measurement of the urine output and serum lactate. Unfortunately, all of these parameters are surrogate markers of cardiovascular well-being and they provide limited direct information regarding the adequacy of blood flow and tissue perfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951515/merkel-cell-carcinoma-cardiac-metastasis-causing-cardiac-tamponade
#19
Murray Di Loreto, Roslyn Francis
We describe an unusual presentation of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare neuroendocrine cutaneous tumour. A 59-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of dyspnoea on a background of MCC of the left elbow that was diagnosed after an axillary lymph node metastasis had appeared. He was clinically diagnosed with cardiac tamponade and received urgent pericardiocentesis. Thoracic CT imaging revealed a large infiltrating mass within the inferior aspect of the heart, confirmed to be MCC via immunohistochemistry of the pericardial fluid...
September 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941467/an-atypical-presentation-of-cardiac-tamponade-and-periorbital-swelling-in-a-patient-with-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-case-report
#20
Alexandra C Keefe, Joseph C Hymas, Lyska L Emerson, John J Ryan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare, necrotizing systemic vasculitis associated with asthma and hypereosinophilia. Its cause and pathophysiology are still being elucidated. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in a 50-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with chest pain, dyspnea at rest, fever, and periorbital swelling. She was found to have significant hypereosinophilia and cardiac tamponade physiology...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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