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Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Bakulesh M Soni, Peter L Hughes, Tun Oo
Introduction: Over-distension of urinary bladder in a high spinal cord injury patient is a triggering factor for autonomic dysreflexia. Removing triggering factors is vital to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. Case presentation: A 36-year-old tetraplegic patient, who was managed by intermittent catheterizations performed by caregivers, developed recurrent autonomic dysreflexia during a week due to: 1) carers not performing intermittent catheterizations every night; 2) infrequent catheterizations during the day, leading to distension of urinary bladder...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Rémi Bos, Ronald M Harris-Warrick, Cécile Brocard, Liliia E Demianenko, Marin Manuel, Daniel Zytnicki, Sergiy M Korogod, Frédéric Brocard
Spinal motoneurons are endowed with nonlinear spiking behaviors manifested by a spike acceleration whose functional significance remains uncertain. Here, we show in rodent lumbar motoneurons that these nonlinear spiking properties do not rely only on activation of dendritic nifedipine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels, as assumed for decades, but also on the slow inactivation of a nifedipine-sensitive K+ current mediated by Kv1.2 channels that are highly expressed in axon initial segments. Specifically, the pharmacological and computational inhibition of Kv1...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Neivys García-Delgado, Myrian Velasco, Carmen Sánchez-Soto, Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Marcia Hiriart
Pancreatic beta cells during the first month of development acquire functional maturity, allowing them to respond to variations in extracellular glucose concentration by secreting insulin. Changes in ionic channel activity are important for this maturation. Within the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), the most studied channels are high-voltage-activated (HVA), principally L-type; while low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels have been poorly studied in native beta cells. We analyzed the changes in the expression and activity of VGCC during the postnatal development in rat beta cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hironori Sagawa, Shinsuke Hoshino, Kengo Yoshioka, Wei-Guang Ding, Mariko Omatsu-Kanbe, Masao Nakagawa, Yoshihiro Maruo, Hiroshi Matsuura
BACKGROUND: In the clinical setting, verapamil is contraindicated in neonates and infants because of the perceived risk of hypotension or bradyarrhythmia. However, it remains unclear whether there is an age-dependent difference in the sensitivity of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa,L ) to inhibition by verapamil. METHODS: Ventricular myocytes were enzymatically dissociated from the hearts of 6 different age groups (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days and 10-15 weeks) of mice using a similar Langendorff-perfusion method...
March 19, 2018: Pediatric Research
Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jing Li, Xiaoli Fan, Qin Wang
RATIONALE: Glycyrrhizin is the main active component of licorice. Licorice and glycyrrhizin induced hypertension has been widely reported, yet licorice and glycyrrhizin induced hypertensive crisis has been rarely known. PATIENT CONCERNS: The case of this report was a 47-year-old woman, who took 225 mg of glycyrrhizin daily for 3 years due to primary biliary cholangitis. She was found to have a dramatically elevated blood pressure of about 230/110 mmHg without a history of hypertension and was referred to the emergency department...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jonaz Font, Mathilda Simeon, Christophe Simard, Stéphane Allouche, Anne-Flore Plane, Virginie Ferchaud, Marie Brionne, René Rouet, Marie Nowoczyn, Alain Manrique, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Paul Milliez, Joachim Alexandre
Whether oral anti-coagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOACs) frequently prescribed to atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, do themselves have a pro- or anti-arrhythmic effect have never been addressed. Transmembrane action potentials were recorded in an acute rabbit model of superfused pulmonary veins (PVs) sleeves preparations using standard microelectrode technique. Fluindione 10 μmol/L (n = 6) increased the AP (action potential) duration (APD), induced a significantly Vmax depression (from 95±14 to 53±5 V/s, P < 0...
March 11, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
E Shawkat, H Mistry, C Chmiel, L Webster, L Chappell, E D Johnstone, J E Myers
AIM: To compare the blood pressure (BP) lowering effects of labetalol and nifedipine modified release (MR) in hypertensive pregnant women. We also investigated the effect on the heart rate (HR) and determined the proportion of time spent in target. METHODS: This was an exploratory study. Women with chronic hypertension taking either labetalol or nifedipine were offered 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Sleep, wake and drug ingestion times were self-reported...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Eugen Brailoiu, Christine L Barlow, Servio H Ramirez, Mary E Abood, G Cristina Brailoiu
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that exerts various pathophysiological effects by interacting with a G protein-coupled receptor. PAF has been reported to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via incompletely characterized mechanisms. We investigated the effect of PAF on rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMVEC), a critical component of the BBB. PAF produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration; the effect was prevented by the PAF receptor antagonist, WEB2086...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Caterina Matucci-Cerinic, Vivek Nagaraja, Francesca Prignano, Bashar Kahaleh, Silvia Bellando-Randone
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a functional vascular disorder involving extremities. In his practice, the dermatologist may frequently encounter RP which affects mainly women and is categorized into a primary benign form and a secondary form associated with different diseases (infections, drugs, autoimmune and vascular conditions, hematologic, rheumatologic and endocrinologic disorders). Still today, the differential diagnosis is a clinical challenge. Therefore, a careful history and a physical examination, together with laboratory tests and nailfold capillaroscopy are mandatory...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Eric Ofosu Kissi, Holger Grohganz, Korbinian Löbmann, Michael T Ruggiero, J Axel Zeitler, Thomas Rades
Recrystallization of amorphous drugs is currently limiting the simple approach to improve solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by amorphization of a crystalline form of the drug. In view of this, molecular mobility, α-relaxation and β-relaxation processes with the associated transition temperatures Tgα and Tgβ , was investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The correlation between the transition temperatures and the onset of recrystallization for nine amorphous drugs, stored under dry conditions at a temperature of 296 K, was determined...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Charlotte Bayer Christiansen, Maria Buur Nordskov Gabe, Berit Svendsen, Lars Ove Dragsted, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
The colonic epithelium harbors a large number of endocrine cells, but little is known about the endocrine functions of the colon. However, the high density of GLP-1 and PYY secreting L-cells is of great interest because of the potential anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of GLP-1 and PYY. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating the colonic L-cells. We used the isolated perfused rat colon as a model of colonic endocrine secretion and studied the effects of the predominant SCFAs formed: acetate, propionate and butyrate...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Zhenghang Zhao, Raymond K Kudej, Hairuo Wen, Nadezhda Fefelova, Lin Yan, Dorothy E Vatner, Stephen F Vatner, Lai-Hua Xie
Hibernating animals show resistance to hypothermia-induced cardiac arrhythmias. However, it is not clear whether and how mammalian hibernators are resistant to ischemia-induced arrhythmias. The goal of this investigation was to determine the susceptibility of woodchucks ( Marmota monax) to arrhythmias and their mechanisms after coronary artery occlusion at the same room temperature in both winter, the time for hibernation, and summer, when they do not hibernate. By monitoring telemetric electrocardiograms, we found significantly higher arrhythmia scores, calculated as the severity of arrhythmias, with incidence of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and thus sudden cardiac death (SCD) in woodchucks in summer than they had in winter...
February 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Christian Luebbert, Gabriele Sadowski
Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are intended to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the development of long-term stable ASDs is often limited by the unwanted crystallization of the incorporated active pharmaceutical ingredient. Robust detection and quantification of crystal formation- especially at temperatures and humidites relevant for long-term storage tests - are essential for understanding crystallization phenomena. In this work, the crystallization kinetics in spray-dried nifedipine/poly (vinyl acetate) ASDs was investigated by measuring the time-dependent water sorption behavior at constant storage conditions...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Guido Grassi, Nicolàs R Robles, Gino Seravalle, Francesco Fici
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), particularly dihydropyridine-CCBs, (DHP-CCBs), have an established role in antihypertensive therapy, either as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. Two hundred and fifty-one papers published in PubMed in English between January 1, 1990, and October 31, 2016, were identified using the keyword "lercanidipine." Lercanidipine is a lipophilic third-generation DHP-CCB, characterized by high vascular selectivity and persistence in the smooth muscle cell membranes...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
S Bellando-Randone, C Bruni, G Lepri, G Fiori, F Bartoli, M L Conforti, A Moggi-Pignone, S Guiducci, D Giuggioli, M Colaci, A Spinella, C Ferri, M Matucci-Cerinic
Iloprost (ILO) is employed intravenously for the treatment of severe Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the intravenous treatment with ILO in different phases of SSc. Eighty-one consecutive non-selected SSc patients, all on nifedipine, with moderate RP, treated with ILO infusion, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were sub classified according to the edematous or fibrotic/atrophic cutaneous phase of the disease...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
Zong-Wei Yue, Ye-Lan Wang, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Cortical dysplasia is the most common etiology of intractable epilepsy. Both excitability changes in cortical neurons and neural network reconstitution play a role in cortical dysplasia epileptogenesis. Recent research shows that the axon initial segment, a subcompartment of the neuron important to the shaping of action potentials, adjusts its position in response to changes in input, which contributes to neuronal excitability and local circuit balance. It is unknown whether axon initial segment plasticity occurs in neurons involved in seizure susceptibility in cortical dysplasia...
February 21, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Tingting Yu, Zhonghua Jiang, Li Liu, Zhining Fan
The present study assessed the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from β-cells on glucose levels and glucagon secretion, and identified channels via which glucagon secretion is initiated. An in vivo experiment was performed containing three groups: Intrapancreatic artery infusion of GABA alone, GABA plus insulin or insulin alone in rats with diabetes. Rats infused with GABA and insulin were also subdivided in groups receiving additional infusion of K+ -channel activator diazoxide (DIA), K+ -channel blocker tolbutamide (TLB) and calcium channel blocker nifedipine (NIF)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Thassio R Mesquita, Gaelle Auguste, Debora Falcón, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Rogelio Salazar-Enciso, Jessica Sabourin, Florence Lefebvre, Say Viengchareun, Hussein Kobeissy, Patrick Lechêne, Valerie Nicolas, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Susana Gomez, Sandra Lauton-Santos, Eric Morel, Angelica Rueda, Natalia López-Andrés, Ana M Gomez, Marc Lombes, Jean-Pierre Benitah
<u>Rationale:</u> The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists belong to the current therapeutic armamentarium for the management of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanisms conferring their beneficial effects are poorly understood. Part of the cardiovascular effects of MR are due to the regulation of L-type Cav 1.2 Ca2+ channel expression, which is generated by tissue-specific alternative promoters as a long 'cardiac' (Cav 1.2-LNT) or a short 'vascular' (Cav 1.2-SNT) N-terminal transcripts...
February 21, 2018: Circulation Research
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