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Cerebrovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457332/association-of-visit-to-visit-blood-pressure-variability-with-the-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-and-cardiovascular-events-in-general-population
#1
Liye Dai, Lu Song, Xiaoli Li, Yuling Yang, Xiaoming Zheng, Yuntao Wu, Chunhui Li, Hualing Zhao, Yilong Wang, Shouling Wu, Yongjun Wang
The association between blood pressure variability (BPV) and the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is not well understood. The Kailuan study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study on cerebrovascular events and cardiovascular factors. In this study, resting blood pressure was measured at baseline and every 2 years from 2006 to 2007. BPV is mainly defined as the coefficient of variation (CV). Hazard ratio (HR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using Cox regression model...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455034/preoperative-risk-factors-for-unexpected-postoperative-intensive-care-unit-admission-a-retrospective-case-analysis
#2
Joshua B Knight, Evan E Lebovitz, Theresa A Gelzinis, Ibtesam A Hilmi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to investigate preoperative risk factors for unexpected postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients undergoing non-emergent surgical procedures in a tertiary medical centre. METHODS: A medical record review of adult patients undergoing elective non-cardiac and non-transplant major surgical procedures during the period of January 2011 through December 2015 in the operating rooms of a large university hospital was carried out...
February 15, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454381/human-cerebrovascular-function-in-health-and-disease-insights-from-integrative-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Erin D Ozturk, Can Ozan Tan
BACKGROUND: The marked increase in the size of the brain, and consequently, in neural processing capability, throughout human evolution is the basis of the higher cognitive function in humans. However, greater neural, and thus information processing capability, comes at a significant metabolic cost; despite its relatively small size, the modern human brain consumes almost a quarter of the glucose and oxygen supply in the human body. Fortunately, several vascular mechanisms ensure sufficient delivery of glucose and oxygen to the active neural tissue (neurovascular coupling), prompt removal of neural metabolic by-products (cerebral vasoreactivity), and constant global blood supply despite daily variations in perfusion pressure (cerebral autoregulation)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453968/lipoprotein-lipase-biosynthesis-regulatory-factors-and-its-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-other-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Ping-Ping He, Ting Jiang, Xin-Ping OuYang, Ya-Qin Liang, Jie-Qiong Zou, Yan Wang, Qian-Qian Shen, Li Liao, Xi-Long Zheng
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the triglyceride (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). A variety of parenchymal cells can synthesize and secrete LPL. Recent studies have demonstrated that complicated processes are involved in LPL biosynthesis, secretion and transport. The enzyme activity of LPL is regulated by many factors, such as apolipoproteins, angiopoietins, hormones and miRNAs...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452984/quantitative-cerebrovascular-pathology-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-older-adults
#5
Swati Rane, Natalie Koh, Peter Boord, Tara Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Suman Jayadev, Brenna Cholerton, Eric Larson, Thomas J Grabowski
Cerebrovascular disease, especially small vessel pathology, is the leading comorbidity in degenerative disorders. We applied arterial spin labeling and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) imaging to quantify small vessel disease and study its effect on cognitive symptoms in nondemented older adults from a community-based cohort. We evaluated baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling and percent signal change as a marker of CVR using blood-oxygen level-dependent imaging following a breath-hold stimulus...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452371/a-bidirectional-association-between-cognitive-ability-in-young-adulthood-and-epilepsy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Merete Osler, Erik L Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Gunhild T Christensen
Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957-84), the Danish Defence Personnel Organization Database (DPOD; 216 509 men examined 1987-2005) and the Danish Conscription Registry (DCR; 284 102 men examined 2006-15). A supplementary analysis included 14 814 female volunteers...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452265/characterizing-the-modulation-of-resting-state-fmri-metrics-by-baseline-physiology
#7
Powell P W Chu, Ali M Golestani, Jonathan B Kwinta, Yasha B Khatamian, J Jean Chen
The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is commonly used to assess functional connectivity across brain regions, particularly in the resting state (rs-fMRI). However, the BOLD fMRI signal is not merely a representation of neural activity, but a combination of neural activity and vascular response. These aspects of the BOLD signal are easily influenced by systemic physiology, potentially biasing BOLD-based functional connectivity measurements. In this work, we focus on the following physiological modulators of the BOLD signal: cerebral blood flow (CBF), venous blood oxygenation, and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
February 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#8
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449058/-epidemiology-of-lower-extremity-artery-disease
#9
Victor Aboyans, Marie-Antoinette Sevestre, Ileana Désormais, Philippe Lacroix, Gerry Fowkes, Michael H Criqui
It is estimated that more than 200 million individuals are affected by lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) worldwide. This prevalence has increased between 2000 and 2010 by 25%, especially in low/middle income countries. In France, about one million people are affected by this condition. Almost two-thirds of patients with LEAD are asymptomatic. This explains the interest of the measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an objective and harmless diagnostic tool. An ABI≤0.90 is considered as diagnostic for LEAD...
February 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448104/aim2-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-in-atherosclerosis
#10
Jinyu Pan, Lu Lu, Xuyang Wang, Dian Liu, Jingjing Tian, Hui Liu, Mingjun Zhang, Fengqin Xu, Fengshuang An
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common pathological basis of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Plaque formation is initiated and triggered by vascular smooth musclecells (VSMCs) migration in vascular wall, which gradually aggravates atherosclerosis progression. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a member of HIN-200 family, plays an important role in activating inflammasome. However, the role of AIM2 in atherosclerotic plaque progression outside of the inflammasome has not yet been reported...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447944/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-enhancing-neurogenesis-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#11
Ting Sun, Yu-Jiao Li, Qin-Qin Tian, Qi Wu, Dan Feng, Zhe Xue, Yan-Yan Guo, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Ming-Gao Zhao, Yu-Mei Wu
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a leading cause of various cerebrovascular diseases, leads to cognitive dysfunction due to neuron loss and impaired neurogenesis. Liver X receptors (LXRs), including LXRα and LXRβ isoforms, are crucial for cholesterol metabolism, synaptic plasticity as well as neurogenesis. However, it is not clear the potential roles of LXRs in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment induced by CCH. In this study, we demonstrated that LXRβ expression decreased in hippocampus of CCH mice...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447787/rationale-and-design-of-the-comparison-between-a-p2y12-inhibitor-monotherapy-versus-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-implantation-of-coronary-drug-eluting-stents-smart-choice-a-prospective-multicenter-randomized-trial
#12
Young Bin Song, Seok Kyu Oh, Ju-Hyeon Oh, Eul-Soon Im, Deok-Kyu Cho, Byung Ryul Cho, Jong-Young Lee, Joo Myung Lee, Taek Kyu Park, Jeong Hoon Yang, Jin-Ho Choi, Seung-Hyuck Choi, Sang Hoon Lee, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Joo-Yong Hahn
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor reduces thrombotic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but these benefits come at the expense of increased risk of bleeding when compared with aspirin monotherapy. It is unclear whether P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy might maintain anti-ischemic efficacy while reducing the bleeding risk compared with DAPT after implantation of the current generation of drug-eluting stents (DES)...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446327/changes-in-life-expectancy-from-2006-to-2015-in-suzhou-east-china-contributions-of-age-and-cause-specific-mortality
#13
Chunyan Huang, Xinyuan Zhao, Yan Lu, Linchi Wang, Yihe Hu, Jun Zhang, Qiaoliang Huang, Gang Chen
This study was designed to estimate the contribution of age- and disease-specific mortality, particularly that attributable to chronic noncommunicable diseases and at-birth life expectancy (LE) in Suzhou, East China, between 2006 and 2015. In total, data on 427 290 deaths were analyzed. From 2006 to 2015, the at-birth LE increased from 78.92 years to 82.87 years in Suzhou. A decrease in all-cause age-specific death rates contributed to an increase of 1.98 years. The decreased death rates attributable to noncommunicable diseases including cerebrovascular diseases, cancer, heart disease, and respiratory diseases resulted in an increased LE of 1...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445287/patient-knowledge-on-stroke-risk-factors-symptoms-and-treatment-options
#14
Kashif Waqar Faiz, Antje Sundseth, Bente Thommessen, Ole Morten Rønning
Background: Public campaigns focus primarily on stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge, but patients who correctly recognize stroke symptoms do not necessarily know the reason for urgent hospitalization. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options among acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients. Methods: This prospective study included patients admitted to the stroke unit at the Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Norway...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444657/understanding-the-rapid-increase-in-life-expectancy-in-shanghai-china-a-population-based-retrospective-analysis
#15
Hanyi Chen, Lipeng Hao, Chen Yang, Bei Yan, Qiao Sun, Lianghong Sun, Hua Chen, Yichen Chen
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy at birth (LE) is a comprehensive measure that accounts for age-specific death rates in a population. Shanghai has ranked first in LE in China mainland for decades. Understanding the reasons behind its sustained gain in LE provides a good reflection of many other cities in China. The aim of this study is intended to explore temporal trend in age- and cause-specific gains in LE in Shanghai and the probable reasons lay behind. METHODS: Joinpoint regression was applied to evaluate temporal trend in LE and the long time span was then divided accordingly...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443965/a-molecular-atlas-of-cell-types-and-zonation-in-the-brain-vasculature
#16
Michael Vanlandewijck, Liqun He, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Johanna Andrae, Koji Ando, Francesca Del Gaudio, Khayrun Nahar, Thibaud Lebouvier, Bàrbara Laviña, Leonor Gouveia, Ying Sun, Elisabeth Raschperger, Markus Räsänen, Yvette Zarb, Naoki Mochizuki, Annika Keller, Urban Lendahl, Christer Betsholtz
Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in developed countries, but our understanding of the cells that compose the cerebral vasculature is limited. Here, using vascular single-cell transcriptomics, we provide molecular definitions for the principal types of blood vascular and vessel-associated cells in the adult mouse brain. We uncover the transcriptional basis of the gradual phenotypic change (zonation) along the arteriovenous axis and reveal unexpected cell type differences: a seamless continuum for endothelial cells versus a punctuated continuum for mural cells...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443766/meta-analysis-study-comparing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-drug-eluting-stent-versus-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-of-unprotected-left-main-coronary-artery-disease-clinical-outcomes-during-short-term-versus-long-term-1-year-follow-up
#17
Waleed E Ali, Satyanarayana R Vaidya, Sylvester U Ejeh, Kingsley U Okoroafor
BACKGROUND: Results on the safety and long-term efficacy of drug-eluting stent placement in unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) compared with those of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) remain inconsistent across randomized clinical trials and recent meta-analysis studies. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and safety over short- and long-term follow-ups by conducting a meta-analysis of large pooled data from randomized controlled trials and up-to-date observational studies...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441008/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Yaxi Luo, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), also called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), is a cerebrovascular disease with diverse clinical manifestations that often affects young adults, women of childbearing age, and children. It's most common clinical manifestations are headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and neurological focal signs on physical examination. CVT can manifest as a single symptom, or it can present as a syndrome consisting of multiple symptoms. This non-specific clinical picture makes diagnosing CVT difficult...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439338/multi-parametric-classification-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-the-impact-of-diverse-cerebrovascular-injury-biomarkers
#19
Brittany Lang, Mark S Kindy, F Andrew Kozel, Susan K Schultz, Saeid Taheri
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a diagnostic term applied to cognitively impaired individuals with heterogeneous cerebrovascular conditions affecting large and/or small vessels. Individual biomarkers have been identified as instrumental in relating VCID to specific underlying pathologies to better characterize this syndrome. Emerging research to refine panels of biomarkers will increase classification sensitivity and specificity. Refined VCID clustering based on the severity and pathology of vascular injury will permit the development of optimal prevention and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436736/psychological-stress-induced-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-the-role-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-exercise
#20
Steven Brooks, Kayla Branyan, Evan DeVallance, Roy Skinner, Kent Lemaster, J Whitney Sheets, Christopher R Pitzer, Shinichi Asano, Randall Bryner, I Mark Olfert, Jefferson C Frisbee, Paul D Chantler
Chronic unresolvable stress leads to the development of depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a high prevalence of depression with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), however, to what extent the MetS concurrent with psychological stress affects cerebrovascular function is unknown. We investigated the differential effect of MetS on cerebrovascular structure/function in rats (16-17-wk-old) following 8 wk of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), and whether exercise training could limit any cerebrovascular dysfunction...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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