keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

systems engineering

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936513/probing-the-structural-dynamics-of-the-crispr-cas9-rna-guided-dna-cleavage-system-by-coarse-grained-modeling
#1
Wenjun Zheng
In the adaptive immune systems of many bacteria and archaea, the Cas9 endonuclease forms a complex with specific guide/scaffold RNA to identify and cleave complementary target sequences in foreign DNA. This DNA targeting machinery has been exploited in numerous applications of genome editing and transcription control. However, the molecular mechanism of the Cas9 system is still obscure. Recently, high-resolution structures have been solved for Cas9 in different structural forms (e.g., unbound forms, RNA-bound binary complexes, and RNA-DNA-bound tertiary complexes, corresponding to an inactive state, a pre-target-bound state, and a cleavage-competent or product state), which offered key structural insights to the Cas9 mechanism...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936050/gene-targeted-mice-with-the-human-troponin-t-r141w-mutation-develop-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-calcium-desensitization
#2
Mohun Ramratnam, Guy Salama, Ravi K Sharma, David Wen Rui Wang, Stephen H Smith, Sanjay K Banerjee, Xueyin N Huang, Lindsey M Gifford, Michele L Pruce, Bethann E Gabris, Samir Saba, Sanjeev G Shroff, Ferhaan Ahmad
Most studies of the mechanisms leading to hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have been performed in reconstituted in vitro systems. Genetically engineered murine models offer the opportunity to dissect these mechanisms in vivo. We generated a gene-targeted knock-in murine model of the autosomal dominant Arg141Trp (R141W) mutation in Tnnt2, which was first described in a human family with DCM. Mice heterozygous for the mutation (Tnnt2R141W/+) recapitulated the human phenotype, developing left ventricular dilation and reduced contractility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935698/tailoring-nanostructure-morphology-for-enhanced-targeting-of-dendritic-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#3
Sijia Yi, Sean David Allen, Yu-Gang Liu, Brian Zhou Ouyang, Xiaomo Li, Punn Augsornworawat, Edward Benjamin Thorp, Evan Alexander Scott
Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart disease, results from chronic vascular inflammation that is driven by diverse immune cell populations. Nanomaterials may function as powerful platforms for diagnostic imaging and controlled delivery of therapeutics to inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis, but efficacy is limited by nonspecific uptake by cells of the mononuclear phagocytes system (MPS). MPS cells located in the liver, spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and kidney remove from circulation the vast majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials regardless of surface functionalization or conjugation of targeting ligands...
December 9, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935609/interactions-between-circulating-nanoengineered-polymer-particles-and-extracellular-matrix-components-in-vitro
#4
Julia A Braunger, Mattias Björnmalm, Nathan A Isles, Jiwei Cui, Timothy M A Henderson, Andrea J O'Connor, Frank Caruso
The extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells in vivo represents a biological barrier for nanomaterials in biomedicine. Herein, we present a system for investigating the interactions between circulating polymer particles and ECM components in vitro using a commercially available flow-based device. We use this system to show how material-dependent interactions of two different particle types-one assembled using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and one prepared using poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA)-affect their interactions with basement membrane extracts during in vitro circulation, with PEG particles remaining in circulation longer than PMA particles...
December 9, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935317/interface-engineering-of-domain-structures-in-bifeo3-thin-films
#5
Deyang Chen, Zuhuang Chen, Qian He, James D Clarkson, Claudy R Serrao, Ajay K Yadav, Mark E Nowakowski, Zhen Fan, Long You, Xingsen Gao, Dechang Zeng, Lang Chen, Albina Y Borisevich, Sayeef Salahuddin, Jun-Ming Liu, Jeffrey Bokor
A wealth of fascinating phenomena have been discovered at the BiFeO3 domain walls, examples such as domain wall conductivity, photovoltaic effects, and magnetoelectric coupling. Thus, the ability to precisely control the domain structures and accurately study their switching behaviors is critical to realize the next generation of novel devices based on domain wall functionalities. In this work, the introduction of a dielectric layer leads to the tunability of the depolarization field both in the multilayers and superlattices, which provides a novel approach to control the domain patterns of BiFeO3 films...
December 9, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935285/mechanical-testing-of-engineered-spider-silk-filaments-provides-insights-into-molecular-features-on-a-meso-scale
#6
Gregor Lang, Benedikt Richard Neugirg, Daniel Kluge, Andreas Fery, Thomas Scheibel
Spider dragline silk shows the highest toughness in comparison to all other known natural or man-made fibers. Despite a broad experimental foundation concerning the macroscopic silk thread properties as well as a thorough simulation-based molecular understanding, the impact of the mesoscale building blocks, namely nano-/submicron-sized filaments, on the mechanical properties of the threads remains the missing link. Here, we illustrate the function of these meso-scaled building blocks using electrospun fibers made of a recombinant spider silk protein and show the impact of β-sheet content and fiber hydration on their mechanical performance...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935222/diverse-manganese-ii-oxidizing-bacteria-are-prevalent-in-drinking-water-systems
#7
Daniel N Marcus, Ameet Pinto, Karthik Anantharaman, Steven A Ruberg, Eva L Kramer, Lutgarde Raskin, Gregory J Dick
Manganese (Mn) oxides are highly reactive minerals that influence the speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. Although Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria are known to catalyze the formation of Mn oxides, little is known about the organisms responsible for Mn oxidation in situ, especially in engineered environments. Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria are important in drinking water systems, including in biofiltration and water distribution systems. Here we used cultivation dependent and independent approaches to investigate Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria in drinking water sources, a treatment plant and associated distribution system...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935049/engineering-chloroplasts-to-improve-rubisco-catalysis-prospects-for-translating-improvements-into-food-and-fiber-crops
#8
REVIEW
Robert E Sharwood
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. References SUMMARY: The uncertainty of future climate change is placing pressure on cropping systems to continue to provide stable increases in productive yields. To mitigate future climates and the increasing threats against global food security, new solutions to manipulate photosynthesis are required. This review explores the current efforts available to improve carbon assimilation within plant chloroplasts by engineering Rubisco, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934695/overview-of-crispr-cas9-biology
#9
Hannah K Ratner, Timothy R Sampson, David S Weiss
Prokaryotes use diverse strategies to improve fitness in the face of different environmental threats and stresses, including those posed by mobile genetic elements (e.g., bacteriophages and plasmids). To defend against these elements, many bacteria and archaea use elegant, RNA-directed, nucleic acid-targeting adaptive restriction machineries called CRISPR -: Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems. While providing an effective defense against foreign genetic elements, these systems have also been observed to play critical roles in regulating bacterial physiology during environmental stress...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934188/nanostructured-montmorillonite-clay-for-controlling-the-lipase-mediated-digestion-of-medium-chain-triglycerides
#10
Tahnee J Dening, Paul Joyce, Shasha Rao, Nicky Thomas, Clive A Prestidge
Biocompatible lipid hybrid particles composed of montmorillonite and medium chain triglycerides were engineered for the first time by spray drying oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by montmorillonite platelets to form montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) microparticles containing up to 75% w/w lipid. In vitro lipolysis studies under simulated intestinal conditions indicated that the specific porous nanoarchitecture and surface chemistry of MLH particles significantly increased the rate (>10-fold) and extent of lipase-mediated digestion compared to that of coarse and homogenized submicrometer triglyceride emulsions...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933725/cellular-engineering-for-therapeutic-protein-production-product-quality-host-modification-and-process-improvement
#11
REVIEW
Evan Wells, Anne Skaja Robinson
Recombinant proteins offer many therapeutic advantages unavailable in traditional small molecule drugs, but the need for cellular versus chemical synthesis complicates production. Avenues for producing therapeutic biologics are continuously expanding, and developments in biochemistry, cell biology, and bioengineering fuel new discoveries that promise safer, more efficient, and cheaper drugs for consumers. Numerous approaches to express recombinant proteins exist, but Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and mammalian systems (e...
December 9, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933453/engineering-of-escherichia-coli-to-facilitate-efficient-utilization-of-isomaltose-and-panose-in-industrial-glucose-feedstock
#12
Kenji Abe, Akio Kuroda, Ryo Takeshita
Industrial glucose feedstock prepared by enzymatic digestion of starch typically contains significant amounts of disaccharides such as maltose and isomaltose and trisaccharides such as maltotriose and panose. Maltose and maltosaccharides can be utilized in Escherichia coli fermentation using industrial glucose feedstock because there is an intrinsic assimilation pathway for these sugars. However, saccharides that contain α-1,6 bonds, such as isomaltose and panose, are still present after fermentation because there is no metabolic pathway for these sugars...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933313/genetic-engineering-of-chimeric-antigen-receptors-using-lamprey-derived-variable-lymphocyte-receptors
#13
Robert Moot, Sunil S Raikar, Lauren Fleischer, Melissa Querrey, Daniel E Tylawsky, Hirotomo Nakahara, Christopher B Doering, H Trent Spencer
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are used to redirect effector cell specificity to selected cell surface antigens. Using CARs, antitumor activity can be initiated in patients with no prior tumor specific immunity. Although CARs have shown promising clinical results, the technology remains limited by the availability of specific cognate cell target antigens. To increase the repertoire of targetable tumor cell antigens we utilized the immune system of the sea lamprey to generate directed variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs)...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933304/preclinical-validation-lv-il-12-transduction-of-patient-leukemia-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-aml
#14
Ju Huang, Yuanfeng Liu, Bryan C Au, Dwayne L Barber, Andrea Arruda, Axel Schambach, Michael Rothe, Mark D Minden, Christopher J Paige, Jeffrey A Medin
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent cytokine that may be harnessed to treat cancer. To date, nearly 100 IL-12-based clinical trials have been initiated worldwide. Yet systemic administration of IL-12 is toxic. Different strategies are being developed to reduce such toxicities by restricting IL-12 distribution. Our previous studies employed lentivector-mediated expression of murine IL-12 in tumor cells and demonstrated effective protection in both mouse leukemia and solid tumor challenge models. In this study, we carried out preclinical validation studies using a novel lentivector to engineer expression of human IL-12 in acute myeloid leukemia blast cells isolated from 21 patients...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933040/dnra-and-denitrification-coexist-over-a-broad-range-of-acetate-n-no3-ratios-in-a-chemostat-enrichment-culture
#15
Eveline M van den Berg, Marissa Boleij, J Gijs Kuenen, Robbert Kleerebezem, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) compete for nitrate in natural and engineered environments. A known important factor in this microbial competition is the ratio of available electron donor and elector acceptor, here expressed as Ac/N ratio (acetate/nitrate-nitrogen). We studied the impact of the Ac/N ratio on the nitrate reduction pathways in chemostat enrichment cultures, grown on acetate mineral medium. Stepwise, conditions were changed from nitrate limitation to nitrate excess in the system by applying a variable Ac/N ratio in the feed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933038/computing-and-applying-atomic-regulons-to-understand-gene-expression-and-regulation
#16
José P Faria, James J Davis, Janaka N Edirisinghe, Ronald C Taylor, Pamela Weisenhorn, Robert D Olson, Rick L Stevens, Miguel Rocha, Isabel Rocha, Aaron A Best, Matthew DeJongh, Nathan L Tintle, Bruce Parrello, Ross Overbeek, Christopher S Henry
Understanding gene function and regulation is essential for the interpretation, prediction, and ultimate design of cell responses to changes in the environment. An important step toward meeting the challenge of understanding gene function and regulation is the identification of sets of genes that are always co-expressed. These gene sets, Atomic Regulons (ARs), represent fundamental units of function within a cell and could be used to associate genes of unknown function with cellular processes and to enable rational genetic engineering of cellular systems...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932601/school-nurse-workload-a-scoping-review-of-acute-care-community-health-and-mental-health-nursing-workload-literature
#17
Patricia Endsley
The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL, and Medline. Twenty-nine empirical studies and nine nonempirical articles were selected for inclusion. Themes that emerged consistent with school nurse practice include patient classification systems, environmental factors, assistive personnel, missed nursing care, and nurse satisfaction...
December 8, 2016: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932576/mammalian-synthetic-biology-for-studying-the-cell
#18
REVIEW
Melina Mathur, Joy S Xiang, Christina D Smolke
Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931684/inhibition-of-apoptosis-by-rv2456c-through-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-extends-the-survival-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Kristen L Jurcic Smith, Sunhee Lee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an intracellular pathogen with several survival mechanisms aimed at subverting the host immune system. Apoptosis has been shown to be mycobactericidal, to activate CD8(+) T cells, and to be modulated by mycobacterial proteins. Since few mycobacterial proteins have so far been directly implicated in the interactions between M. tuberculosis and host cell apoptosis, we screened M. tuberculosis H37Rv transposon mutants to identify mutants that fail to inhibit cell death (FID)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931395/urban-stormwater-characterization-control-and-treatment
#20
Jason R Vogel, Trisha L Moore
The following review presents a synthesis of 181 journal articles published during 2015 that represent progress toward better characterizing, controlling, and treating urban stormwater runoff. The review is structured by general topical areas related to (1) stormwater quality and quantity characterization; (2) engineered stormwater control and treatment practices, including erosion and sediment control, stormwater ponds, constructed stormwater wetlands, bioretention, permeable pavement, greenroofs, and rainwater harvesting systems; and (3) watershed-scale modeling and optimization of stormwater control and treatment practices...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
keyword
keyword
63979
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"