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systems engineering

He Liu, Yue Gu, Tao Dong, Liuqing Yan, Xiaoyi Yan, Tingting Zhang, Nannan Lu, Zhiqian Xu, Haixin Xu, Zhiquan Zhang, Ting Bian
The combination of nanoparticles and biomarkers yields functional nanostructured biointerface, which is playing a notable role in biotechnology development. Due to the 5-fold twined structure in the Au-Pt star-shaped decahedra not only allowed it to act as efficient scaffold for immobilization of antibody, but it also exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity toward H2 O2 reduction, the nanocrystal as the efficient signal transduction label is first employed to construct an electrochemical immunosensor. Donor-π-Acceptor (D-π-A) linking fashion generates a dipolar push-pull system and assures superior intramolecular charge transfer...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Wei Wu, Jin Wang, Peter Ercius, Nicomario Courtney Wright, Danielle Marie Leppert-Simenauer, Robert A Burke, Madan Dubey, Avinash M Dongare, Michael Thompson Pettes
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are particularly sensitive to mechanical strain as they are capable of experiencing high atomic displacements without nucleating defects to release excess energy. Promising for photonic applications, it has been shown that as certain phases of layered TMDs MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, Te) are scaled to a thickness of one monolayer, the photoluminescence response is dramatically enhanced due to the emergence of a direct electronic band gap, compared with their multi-layer or bulk counterparts which typically exhibit indirect band gaps...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Joao Cardoso, Kristian Jensen, Christian Lieven, Anne Sofie Lærke Hansen, Svetlana Galkina, Moritz Emanuel Beber, Emre Özdemir, Markus Herrgard, Henning Redestig, Nikolaus Sonnenschein
Computational systems biology methods enable rational design of cell factories on a genome-scale and thus accelerate the engineering of cells for the production of valuable chemicals and proteins. Unfortunately, for the majority of these methods' implementations are either not published, rely on proprietary software, or do not provide documented interfaces, which has precluded their mainstream adoption in the field. In this work we present cameo, a platform-independent software that enables in silico design of cell factories and targets both experienced modelers as well as users new to the field...
March 20, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Kei-Anne Baritugo, Hee Taek Kim, Yokimiko David, Jong-Il Choi, Soon Ho Hong, Ki Jun Jeong, Jong Hyun Choi, Jeong Chan Joo, Si Jae Park
Bio-based production of industrially important chemicals provides an eco-friendly alternative to current petrochemical-based processes. Because of the limited supply of fossil fuel reserves, various technologies utilizing microbial host strains for the sustainable production of platform chemicals from renewable biomass have been developed. Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic industrial microbial species traditionally used for L-glutamate and L-lysine production. It is a promising species for industrial production of bio-based chemicals because of its flexible metabolism that allows the utilization of a broad spectrum of carbon sources and the production of various amino acids...
March 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
D P N Gonçalves, D M Park, T L Schmidt, C Werner
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) contains a population of tumor initiating stem-like cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). These CSCs, which are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, are thought to persist after treatment and drive tumor recurrence. Thus, it is believed that the elimination of CSCs can lead to GBM remission. GBM CSCs express Nestin on their surface, and can be therefore targeted via this protein. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) functionalized with an engineered, modular peptide that recognizes Nestin (NesPEG-AuNRs) were used to target the models of solid tumors originated from human GBM CSC multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS)...
March 20, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Robert G Ryan, Alastair Stacey, Kane M O'Donnell, Takeshi Ohshima, Brett Cameron Johnson, Lloyd C L Hollenberg, Paul Mulvaney, David Allan Simpson
Nanoscale quantum probes such as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond have demonstrated remarkable sensing capabilities over the past decade as control over the fabrication and manipulation of these systems has evolved. The bio-compatibility and rich surface chemistry of diamond has added to the utility of these probes, but as the size of these nanoscale systems is reduced, the surface chemistry of diamond begins to impact the quantum properties of the NV centre. In this work, we systematically study the effect of the diamond surface chemistry on the quantum coherence of the NV centre in nanodiamonds 50 nm in size...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
María Lovato, José Real Buffelli, Mariana Abrile, Carlos Martín
The application of conventional physicochemical and microbiological techniques for the removal of organic pollutants has limitations for its utilization on wastewaters as landfill leachates because of their high concentration of not easily biodegradable organic compounds. The use of ozone-based technologies is an alternative and complementary treatment for this type of wastewaters. This paper reports the study of the degradation of landfill leachates from different stages of a treatment plant using ozone and ozone + UV...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Casey M Theriot
Over the past 10 years, microbiome research has focused on defining the structures associated with different disease states in multiple systems, but has fallen short on showing causation. Prior omic studies have generated many new hypotheses, but moving forward we need to start dissecting the function of each bacterium alone and in concert with complex bacterial communities in well-characterized systems. Over the next 5 years, we need a merging of new omic technologies for exploratory studies with classical bacterial genetics, bacterial physiology, protein engineering, and biochemistry to further define the biochemical mechanisms of the gut microbiota...
March 2018: MSystems
Yunlei Zhang, Wei Ji, Lian He, Yiyan Chen, Xuezhi Ding, Yunjun Sun, Shengbiao Hu, Huijun Yang, Weitao Huang, Youming Zhang, Fei Liu, Liqiu Xia
Purpose: Systemic administration of free chemotherapeutic drugs leads to severe toxic effects, and physiological characteristics of solid tumors restrain the drugs from reaching the hypoxic regions. E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been known to penetrate the barrier and proliferate in the interface between the viable and necrotic regions of tumors. This study aimed to fabricate a nanoscale minicell via genetic engineering of EcN for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the hypoxic regions of tumors for cancer therapy...
2018: Theranostics
T Einfalt, D Witzigmann, C Edlinger, S Sieber, R Goers, A Najer, M Spulber, O Onaca-Fischer, J Huwyler, C G Palivan
Despite tremendous efforts to develop stimuli-responsive enzyme delivery systems, their efficacy has been mostly limited to in vitro applications. Here we introduce, by using an approach of combining biomolecules with artificial compartments, a biomimetic strategy to create artificial organelles (AOs) as cellular implants, with endogenous stimuli-triggered enzymatic activity. AOs are produced by inserting protein gates in the membrane of polymersomes containing horseradish peroxidase enzymes selected as a model for natures own enzymes involved in the redox homoeostasis...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Alejandro Chavez, Benjamin W Pruitt, Marcelle Tuttle, Rebecca S Shapiro, Ryan J Cecchi, Jordan Winston, Brian M Turczyk, Michael Tung, James J Collins, George M Church
Here, we present a generalized method of guide RNA "tuning" that enables Cas9 to discriminate between two target sites that differ by a single-nucleotide polymorphism. We employ our methodology to generate an in vivo mutation prevention system in which Cas9 actively restricts the occurrence of undesired gain-of-function mutations within a population of engineered organisms. We further demonstrate that the system is scalable to a multitude of targets and that the general tuning and prevention concepts are portable across engineered Cas9 variants and Cas9 orthologs...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jinshan Guo, Wei Sun, Jimin Peter Kim, Xili Lu, Qiyao Li, Min Lin, Oliver Mrowczynski, Elias B Rizk, Juange Cheng, Guoying Qian, Jian Yang
Tissue adhesives play an important role in surgery to close wounds, seal tissues, and stop bleeding, but existing adhesives are costly, cytotoxic, or bond weakly to tissue. Inspired by the water-resistant adhesion of plant-derived tannins, we herein report a new family of bioadhesives derived from a facile, one-step Michael addition of tannic acid and gelatin under oxidizing conditions and crosslinked by silver nitrate. The oxidized polyphenol groups of tannic acid enable wet tissue adhesion through catecholamine-like chemistry, while both tannic acid and silver nanoparticles reduced from silver nitrate provide antimicrobial sources inherent within the polymeric network...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Xiaopeng Zhou, Jingkai Wang, Weijing Fang, Yiqing Tao, Tengfei Zhao, Kaishun Xia, Chengzhen Liang, Jianming Hua, Fangcai Li, Qixin Chen
Nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration is usually the origin of intervertebral disc degeneration and consequent lower back pain. Although adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy is regarded to be promising for the treatment of degenerated NP, there is a lack of viable cell carriers to transplant ADSCs into the NP while maintaining cell function. In this study, we developed a type II collagen/chondroitin sulfate (CS) composite hydrogel-like ADSC (CCSA) delivery system with genipin as the cross-linking agent...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jiayin Fu, Dong-An Wang
Other than a few avascular tissues, almost all human tissues are connected to the systemic circulation via blood vessels that promote metabolism and function. Accordingly, engineered vascularization is a vital goal in tissue engineering for regenerative medicine. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a central role in vascularization with two significant specificities: physical interfaces between vascular stroma and blood, and phenotypic organ-specificity. Biomaterial scaffolding technologies that address these unique properties of ECs have been developed to promote the vascularization of various engineered tissues, and these have advanced from mimicking vascular architectures ex situ towards promoting spontaneous angiogenic remodeling in situ...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
F Hoeksema, J Karpilow, A Luitjens, F Lagerwerf, M Havenga, M Groothuizen, G Gillissen, A A C Lemckert, B Jiang, R A Tripp, C Yallop
The global adoption of vaccines to combat disease is hampered by the high cost of vaccine manufacturing. The work described herein follows two previous publications (van der Sanden et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2017) that report a strategy to enhance poliovirus and rotavirus vaccine production through genetic modification of the Vero cell lines used in large-scale vaccine manufacturing. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools were used to knockout Vero target genes previously shown to play a role in polio- and rotavirus production...
March 16, 2018: Vaccine
Baoren Zhang, Yi Liu, Xu Lan, Xiaoxi Xu, Xiaoning Zhang, Xiang Li, Yiming Zhao, Guang Li, Caigan Du, Shanzheng Lu, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by chronic inflammation of colon. It is commonly believed that the imbalance of immune system and overwhelming production of cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of UC. Recent studies demonstrated that interleukin-35 (IL-35), a key player in the regulation of inflammation, has been identified as potential therapeutic target to treat UC. However, conventional intravenous administration is costly and inconvenient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Serpil Könen-Adıgüzel, Serap Ergene
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are used in a wide range of applications because of their unique properties. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are one of the important ENPs, and they can cause negative health effects, such as genotoxicity, in humans and other living organisms. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic effects of short-term (3-24 h) CeO2 NPs exposure to cultured human blood lymphocytes. Three genotoxicity systems "cytokinesis-block micronucleus test, comet assay, and gamma H2AX test" were used to show the genotoxic potential of CeO2 NPs (particle size <25 nm, concentrations: 6, 12, and 18 µg/mL)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Oguzhan Alagoz, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Mucahit Cevik, Brian L Sprague, Dennis G Fryback, Ronald E Gangnon, John M Hampton, Natasha K Stout, Amy Trentham-Dietz
The University of Wisconsin Breast Cancer Epidemiology Simulation Model (UWBCS), also referred to as Model W, is a discrete-event microsimulation model that uses a systems engineering approach to replicate breast cancer epidemiology in the US over time. This population-based model simulates the lifetimes of individual women through 4 main model components: breast cancer natural history, detection, treatment, and mortality. A key feature of the UWBCS is that, in addition to specifying a population distribution in tumor growth rates, the model allows for heterogeneity in tumor behavior, with some tumors having limited malignant potential (i...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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