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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348511/resonant-plasma-excitation-by-single-cycle-thz-pulses
#1
A Curcio, A Marocchino, V Dolci, S Lupi, M Petrarca
In this paper, an alternative perspective for the generation of millimetric high-gradient resonant plasma waves is discussed. This method is based on the plasma-wave excitation by energetic single-cycle THz pulses whose temporal length is comparable to the plasma wavelength. The excitation regime discussed in this paper is the quasi-nonlinear regime that can be achieved when the normalized vector potential of the driving THz pulse is on the order of unity. To investigate this regime and determine the strength of the excited electric fields, a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code has been used...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347784/parametric-pulse-amplification-by-acoustic-quasimodes-in-electron-positron-plasma
#2
F Schluck, G Lehmann, K H Spatschek
In a recent paper, M. R. Edwards, N. J. Fisch, and J. M. Mikhailova [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 015004 (2016)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.116.015004] reported that in electron-positron plasma stimulated Brillouin scattering is drastically enhanced, while stimulated Raman scattering is completely absent. However, when theory was compared to particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, a discrepancy by at least a factor four appeared. Authors correctly argued that the disparity might be due to the fluid approximation of the low-frequency mode...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346903/pseudospectral-maxwell-solvers-for-an-accurate-modeling-of-doppler-harmonic-generation-on-plasma-mirrors-with-particle-in-cell-codes
#3
G Blaclard, H Vincenti, R Lehe, J L Vay
With the advent of petawatt class lasers, the very large laser intensities attainable on target should enable the production of intense high-order Doppler harmonics from relativistic laser-plasma mirror interactions. At present, the modeling of these harmonics with particle-in-cell (PIC) codes is extremely challenging as it implies an accurate description of tens to hundreds of harmonic orders on a broad range of angles. In particular, we show here that due to the numerical dispersion of waves they induce in vacuum, standard finite difference time domain (FDTD) Maxwell solvers employed in most PIC codes can induce a spurious angular deviation of harmonic beams potentially degrading simulation results...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345701/effects-of-particle-size-and-annealing-on-plasmon-induced-charge-separation-at-self-assembled-gold-nanoparticle-arrays
#4
Kun-Che Kao, Hiroyasu Nishi, Tetsu Tatsuma
Two-dimensional periodic Au nanoparticle arrays were constructed on TiO2 thin films by a micelle lithography method and seed-mediated photoelectrochemical growth. Their adjustable interparticle distance allows investigation of a particle size effect on plasmon-induced charge separation (PICS) efficiencies without interference from particle aggregation or plasmon coupling. External or internal PICS efficiencies were found to increase and decrease, respectively, with an increase in particle diameter from 25 to 38 nm...
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345637/structural-basis-of-rna-polymerase-iii-transcription-initiation
#5
Guillermo Abascal-Palacios, Ewan Phillip Ramsay, Fabienne Beuron, Edward Morris, Alessandro Vannini
RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcribes essential non-coding RNAs, including the entire pool of transfer RNAs, the 5S ribosomal RNA and the U6 spliceosomal RNA, and is often deregulated in cancer cells. The initiation of gene transcription by Pol III requires the activity of the transcription factor TFIIIB to form a transcriptionally active Pol III preinitiation complex (PIC). Here we present electron microscopy reconstructions of Pol III PICs at 3.4-4.0 Å and a reconstruction of unbound apo-Pol III at 3.1 Å...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345013/reliability-and-criterion-related-validity-testing-construct-of-the-endotracheal-suction-assessment-tool-esat%C3%A2
#6
K Davies, M Bulsara, A S Ramelet, L Monteroso
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). BACKGROUND: Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344818/dietary-chromium-picolinate-supplementation-affects-growth-whole-body-composition-and-gene-expression-related-to-glucose-metabolism-and-lipogenesis-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#7
Mingchun Ren, Ahmed Mokrani, Hualiang Liang, Ke Ji, Jun Xie, Xianping Ge, Bo Liu
An 11-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of supplemented chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic) on the growth, whole-body composition, and relative mRNA expression related to lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in juvenile blunt snout bream. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with graded Cr supplementation levels were fed to triplicate groups. The final weight (FW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and specific growth rate (SGR) were improved with increasing dietary Cr supplementation levels up to 0...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338582/a-human-pericardium-biopolymeric-scaffold-for-autologous-heart-valve-tissue-engineering-cellular-and-extracellular-matrix-structure-and-biomechanical-properties-in-comparison-with-a-normal-aortic-heart-valve
#8
Frantisek Straka, David Schornik, Jaroslav Masin, Elena Filova, Tomas Mirejovsky, Zuzana Burdikova, Zdenek Svindrych, Hynek Chlup, Lukas Horny, Matej Daniel, Jiri Machac, Jelena Skibová, Jan Pirk, Lucie Bacakova
The objective of our study was to compare the cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and the biomechanical properties of human pericardium (HP) with the normal human aortic heart valve (NAV). HP tissues (from 12 patients) and NAV samples (from 5 patients) were harvested during heart surgery. The main cells in HP were pericardial interstitial cells (PICs), which are fibroblast-like cells of mesenchymal origin similar to the valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in NAV tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of HP had a statistically significantly (p ≤ 0...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334809/accidental-pharmacological-poisonings-in-young-children-population-based-study-in-three-settings
#9
Jane C Bell, Jason P Bentley, Catriona Downie, Rose Cairns, Nicholas A Buckley, Annette Katelaris, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Natasha Nassar
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological poisonings in young children are avoidable. Previous studies report calls to poisons centres, presentations to emergency departments (ED) or hospital admissions. There are limited data assessing concurrent management of poisonings across all three settings. We aimed to describe accidental pharmacological poisonings in young children across our Poisons Information Centre (PIC), EDs and hospitals. METHODS: A population-based study in New South Wales, Australia, of PIC calls, ED presentations and hospital admissions for accidental pharmacological poisoning in children aged <5 years, 2007-2013...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328202/inclined-emitting-slotted-single-mode-laser-with-1-7%C3%A2-vertical-divergence-angle-for-pic-applications
#10
Yejin Zhang, Yanmei Su, Yu Bi, Jiaoqing Pan, Hongyan Yu, Yang Zhang, Jie Sun, Xiuyan Sun, Ming Chong
In this Letter, a new type of single-mode slotted laser used for an on-chip light source in photonic integrated circuits is proposed. An inclined light beam with a low vertical divergence angle can be directly coupled into the surface grating of the silicon to form an integrated light source. Experimentally, a III-V laser with a 54.6° inclined angle and a vertical divergence angle of 1.7° is achieved by introducing a kind of specially distributed microstructure. The side mode suppression ratio is better than 45 dB, and the continuous wave output power reaches 6...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326330/program-of-integrated-care-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-multiple-comorbidities-pic-copd-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Louise Rose, Laura Istanboulian, Lise Carriere, Anna Thomas, Han-Byul Lee, Shaghayegh Rezaie, Roshan Shafai, Ian Fraser
We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component, case manager-led exacerbation prevention/management model for reducing emergency department visits. Secondary outcomes included hospitalisation, mortality, health-related quality of life, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity, COPD self-efficacy, anxiety and depression.Two-centre randomised controlled trial recruiting patients with ≥2 prognostically important COPD-associated comorbidities. We compared our multi-component intervention including individualised care/action plans and telephone consults (12-weekly then 9-monthly) with usual care (both groups)...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325832/the-pics-technique-a-novel-approach-for-residual-curvature-correction-during-penile-prosthesis-implantation-in-patients-with-severe-peyronie-s-disease-using-the-collagen-fleece-tachosil
#12
Georgios Hatzichristodoulou
BACKGROUND: Correction of residual curvature during inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) by plaque incision and grafting is a common approach. AIM: To present a novel technique for residual curvature correction during IPP implantation using collagen fleece (TachoSil, Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL, USA). METHODS: After the IPP (Titan Touch, Coloplast, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is placed, the implant is inflated maximally...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323761/chronic-critical-illness-application-of-what-we-know
#13
REVIEW
Martin D Rosenthal, Amir Y Kamel, Cameron M Rosenthal, Scott Brakenridge, Chasen A Croft, Frederick A Moore
Over the last decade, chronic critical illness (CCI) has emerged as an epidemic in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors worldwide. Advances in ICU technology and implementation of evidence-based care bundles have significantly decreased early deaths and have allowed patients to survive previously lethal multiple organ failure (MOF). Many MOF survivors, however, experience a persistent dysregulated immune response that is causing an increasingly predominant clinical phenotype called the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS)...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319222/availability-of-paracetamol-sold-over-the-counter-in-europe-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-international-survey-of-pack-size-restriction
#14
Britt Reuter Morthorst, Annette Erlangsen, Merete Nordentoft, Keith Hawton, Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Kim Peder Dalhoff
Due to the risk of hepatotoxicity when excessive amounts of paracetamol are consumed, Poisons Information Centers (PICs) frequently receive paracetamol-related enquiries. This study examined how widely pack size restrictions of paracetamol sold over-the-counter have been implemented in Europe and also availability of paracetamol through non-pharmacy outlets and their possible associations with frequency of poisoning enquiries. A cross-sectional European multicentre questionnaire study was performed using a questionnaire to identify the extent and nature of paracetamol pack size restrictions, non-pharmacy outlet sales and the frequency of paracetamol-related enquiries to PICs...
January 10, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318469/numerical-simulation-of-ion-transport-in-a-nano-electrospray-ion-source-at-atmospheric-pressure
#15
Wei Wang, Steve Bajic, Benzi John, David R Emerson
Understanding ion transport properties from the ion source to the mass spectrometer (MS) is essential for optimizing device performance. Numerical simulation helps in understanding of ion transport properties and, furthermore, facilitates instrument design. In contrast to previously reported numerical studies, ion transport simulations in a continuous injection mode whilst considering realistic space-charge effects have been carried out. The flow field was solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, and a particle-in-cell (PIC) method was applied to solve a time-dependent electric field with local charge density...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317284/just-a-quick-pic-ethics-of-medical-photography
#16
Tiana Kazemi, Kachiu C Lee, Lionel Bercovitch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316314/an-integrated-tool-for-microsatellite-isolation-and-validation-from-the-reference-genome-and-their-application-in-the-study-of-breeding-turnover-in-an-endangered-avian-population
#17
Xian Hou, Pengwei Xu, Zhenzhen Lin, Josephine d'URBAN-Jackson, Andrew Dixon, Batbayar Bold, Jiliang Xu, Xiangjiang Zhan
Accurate individual identification is required to estimate survival rates in avian populations. For endangered species, non-invasive methods of obtaining individual identification, such as using molted feathers as a source of DNA for microsatellite markers, are preferred because of less disturbance, easy sample preparation and high efficiency. With the availability of many avian genomes, a few pipelines isolating genome-wide microsatellites have been published, but it is still a challenge to isolate microsatellites from the reference genome efficiently...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312538/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-strand-specific-rna-seq
#18
Qi-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Qing Xie, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
The gene expression associated with immune response to bacteria/bacterial mimic has been extensively analyzed in amphioxus, but remains largely unknown about how gene are involved in the immune response to viral invasion at expression level. Here, we analyze the rRNA-depleted transcriptomes of Branchiostoma belcheri using strand-specific RNA-seq in response to the viral mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC). A total of 5,317 differentially expressed genes were detected at treatment group by comparing with control. The gene with the most significant expression changes (top 15) after pIC challenge and 7 immune-related categories involving 58 differently expressed genes were scrutinized...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304053/prior-exposure-to-corticosterone-markedly-enhances-and-prolongs-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-systemic-challenge-with-lps
#19
Kimberly A Kelly, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Julie V Miller, Vincent Castranova, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Systemic exposure to the inflammagen and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been widely used to evaluate inflammation and sickness behavior. While many inflammatory conditions occur in the periphery, it is well established that peripheral inflammation can affect the brain. Neuroinflammation, the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators in the CNS, commonly is associated with behavioral symptoms (e.g., lethargy, anhedonia, anorexia, depression, etc.) termed sickness behavior. Stressors have been shown to interact with and alter neuroinflammatory responses and associated behaviors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301276/rosiglitazone-as-a-modulator-of-tlr4-and-tlr3-signaling-pathways-in-rat-primary-neurons-and-astrocytes
#20
Dmitry V Chistyakov, Nadezda V Azbukina, Alexandr V Lopachev, Ksenia N Kulichenkova, Alina A Astakhova, Marina G Sergeeva
An antidiabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione class, rosiglitazone (RG) demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in various brain pathologies. The mechanism of RG action in brain cells is not fully known. To unravel mechanisms of RG modulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, we compare primary rat neuron and astrocyte cultures stimulated with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the TLR3 agonist poly I:C (PIC). Both TLR agonists induced tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release in astrocytes, but not in neurons...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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