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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338010/brilliant-petawatt-gamma-ray-pulse-generation-in-quantum-electrodynamic-laser-plasma-interaction
#1
H X Chang, B Qiao, T W Huang, Z Xu, C T Zhou, Y Q Gu, X Q Yan, M Zepf, X T He
We show a new resonance acceleration scheme for generating ultradense relativistic electron bunches in helical motions and hence emitting brilliant vortical γ-ray pulses in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime of circularly-polarized (CP) laser-plasma interactions. Here the combined effects of the radiation reaction recoil force and the self-generated magnetic fields result in not only trapping of a great amount of electrons in laser-produced plasma channel, but also significant broadening of the resonance bandwidth between laser frequency and that of electron betatron oscillation in the channel, which eventually leads to formation of the ultradense electron bunch under resonant helical motion in CP laser fields...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336845/parametrically-optimized-carbon-nanotube-coated-cold-cathode-spindt-arrays
#2
Xuesong Yuan, Matthew T Cole, Yu Zhang, Jianqiang Wu, William I Milne, Yang Yan
Here, we investigate, through parametrically optimized macroscale simulations, the field electron emission from arrays of carbon nanotube (CNT)-coated Spindts towards the development of an emerging class of novel vacuum electron devices. The present study builds on empirical data gleaned from our recent experimental findings on the room temperature electron emission from large area CNT electron sources. We determine the field emission current of the present microstructures directly using particle in cell (PIC) software and present a new CNT cold cathode array variant which has been geometrically optimized to provide maximal emission current density, with current densities of up to 11...
January 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336534/muscle-length-dependent-contribution-of-motoneuron-cav1-3-channels-to-force-production-in-model-slow-motor-unit
#3
Hojeong Kim
Persistent inward current (PIC)-generating Cav1.3 channels in spinal motoneuron dendrites are thought to be actively recruited during normal behaviors. However, whether and how the activation of PIC channels influences force output of motor unit remains elusive. Here, building a physiologically realistic model of slow motor unit I demonstrate that force production induced by the PIC activation is much smaller for short than lengthened muscles during the regular firing of the motoneuron that transitioned from the quiescent state by either a brief current pulse at the soma or a brief synaptic excitation at the dendrites...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335091/assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-korean-native-chicken-breeds-using-microsatellite-markers
#4
Joo Hee Seo, Jun-Heon Lee, Hong Sik Kong
In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 Korean native chickens from five different breeds(Korean Native Chicken (NC), Leghorn (LH), Cornish (CS), Rhode Island Red (RIR), and Hanhyup(HH) commercial line) were studied by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite (MS) markers. Among the 20 MS markers selected for the genotyping, the number of alleles ranged from 5 (ADL0268) to 20 (MCW0127). The observed heterozygosity (Hobs) ranged from 0.349 (GCT0016) to 0.683 (MCW0145)...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331393/the-beetle-fauna-insecta-coleoptera-of-the-rawdhat-khorim-national-park-central-saudi-arabia
#5
Mahmoud S Abdel-Dayem, Hassan H Fad, Ashraf M El-Torkey, Ali A Elgharbawy, Yousif N Aldryhim, Boris C Kondratieff, Amin N Al Ansi, Hathal M Aldhafer
This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330276/molecular-diversity-of-annona-species-and-proximate-fruit-composition-of-selected-genotypes
#6
Hirdayesh Anuragi, Haresh L Dhaduk, Sushil Kumar, Jitendra J Dhruve, Mithil J Parekh, Amar A Sakure
Understanding the genetic variation in germplasm is of utmost importance for crop improvement. Therefore, efforts were made to analyse the molecular marker based genetic diversity of 20 Annona genotypes from five different species of family Annonaceae. During analysis, a set of 11 RAPD primers yielded a total of 152 bands with 80.01 % polymorphism and PIC for RAPD ranged from 0.86 to 0.92 with a mean of 0.89. With 93.05 % polymorphism, 12 SSR primers produced 39 amplicons. The PIC for SSRs ranged from 0.169 to 0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330228/development-of-novel-ssr-markers-for-evaluation-of-genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-in-tribulus-terrestris-l-zygophyllaceae
#7
Kuljit Kaur, Vikas Sharma, Vijay Singh, Mohammad Saleem Wani, Raghbir Chand Gupta
Tribulus terrestris L., commonly called puncture vine and gokhru, is an important member of Zygophyllaceae. The species is highly important in context to therapeutic uses and provides important active principles responsible for treatment of various diseases and also used as tonic. It is widely distributed in tropical regions of India and the world. However, status of its genetic diversity remained concealed due to lack of research work in this species. In present study, genetic diversity and structure of different populations of T...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330125/detection-of-genetic-variation-in-sandalwood-using-various-dna-markers
#8
Dimple M Patel, Ranbir S Fougat, Amar A Sakure, Sushil Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, Jigar G Mistry
In the present study, 20 sandalwood (Santalum album L.) genotypes were characterized using RAPD, ISSR and SSR markers. Twenty-five RAPD and twenty-one ISSR primers that generated clear and reproducible banding patterns amplified 225 and 208 bands, respectively, among 20 sandalwood genotypes. Out of 225, 181 (83.13 %) RAPD bands were polymorphic while out of 208, 156 (75.77 %) ISSR bands were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) for RAPD and ISSR was 0.84 and 0.86, respectively...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324804/high-density-lipoprotein-immunomodulates-the-functional-activities-of-macrophage-and-cytokines-produced-during-ex-vivo-macrophage-cd4-t-cell-crosstalk-at-the-recent-onset-human-type-1-diabetes
#9
Ibtissem Benghalem, Warda Meziane, Zeyneb Hadjidj, Lamia Ysmail-Dahlouk, Ahmed Belamri, Kheira Mouhadjer, Mourad Aribi
BACKGROUND: Both CD4(+) T cells and macrophages are mainly involved in the autoimmune-mediated β-cells destruction in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of HDL on functional activities of macrophage and its ability to regulate the production of cytokines in autologous mixed macrophage/CD4(+) T cells at the recent-onset human type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Cell samples were isolated from volunteers with recent-onset T1D or healthy controls...
March 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320888/mutual-reinforcement-of-pathophysiological-host-microbe-interactions-in-intestinal-stasis-models
#10
Ketrija Touw, Daina L Ringus, Nathaniel Hubert, Yunwei Wang, Vanessa A Leone, Anuradha Nadimpalli, Betty R Theriault, Yong E Huang, Johnathan D Tune, Paul B Herring, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, Eugene B Chang
Chronic diseases arise when there is mutual reinforcement of pathophysiological processes that cause an aberrant steady state. Such a sequence of events may underlie chronic constipation, which has been associated with dysbiosis of the gut. In this study we hypothesized that assemblage of microbial communities, directed by slow gastrointestinal transit, affects host function in a way that reinforces constipation and further maintains selection on microbial communities. In our study, we used two models - an opioid-induced constipation model in mice, and a humanized mouse model where germ-free mice were colonized with stool from a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in humans...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315250/multiplexed-protease-specificity-profiling-using-isobaric-labeling
#11
Joanna Tucher, Andreas Tholey
The determination of a protease's cleavage site specificity is one of the major goals in degradomics. In the last years, the use of proteome-derived peptide libraries and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in a proteomic identification of protease cleavage sites (PICS) experiment became popular for that purpose.In this chapter, we offer a step-by-step protocol for the execution of a quantitative proteomic identification of protease cleavage sites (Q-PICS) experiment, which enables the relative quantification of proteolytic events by isobaric labeling, e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315043/the-intensive-care-medicine-clinical-research-agenda-in-paediatrics
#12
REVIEW
Mark J Peters, Andrew Argent, Marino Festa, Stéphane Leteurtre, Jefferson Piva, Ann Thompson, Douglas Willson, Pierre Tissières, Marisa Tucci, Jacques Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Medicine set us the task of outlining a global clinical research agenda for paediatric intensive care (PIC). In line with the clinical focus of this journal, we have limited this to research that may directly influence patient care. METHODS: Clinician researchers from PIC research networks of varying degrees of formality from around the world were invited to answer two main questions: (1) What have been the major recent advances in paediatric critical care research? (2) What are the top 10 studies for the next 10 years? RESULTS: (1) Inclusive databases are well established in many countries...
March 17, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297954/seeded-qed-cascades-in-counterpropagating-laser-pulses
#13
T Grismayer, M Vranic, J L Martins, R A Fonseca, L O Silva
The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297947/monte-carlo-approach-to-calculate-ionization-dynamics-of-hot-solid-density-plasmas-within-particle-in-cell-simulations
#14
D Wu, X T He, W Yu, S Fritzsche
A physical model based on a Monte Carlo approach is proposed to calculate the ionization dynamics of hot-solid-density plasmas within particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and where the impact (collision) ionization (CI), electron-ion recombination (RE), and ionization potential depression (IPD) by surrounding plasmas are taken into consideration self-consistently. When compared with other models, which are applied in the literature for plasmas near thermal equilibrium, the temporal relaxation of ionization dynamics can also be simulated by the proposed model...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297669/molecular-landscape-of-the-ribosome-pre-initiation-complex-during-mrna-scanning-structural-role-for-eif3c-and-its-control-by-eif5
#15
Eiji Obayashi, Rafael E Luna, Takashi Nagata, Pilar Martin-Marcos, Hiroyuki Hiraishi, Chingakham Ranjit Singh, Jan Peter Erzberger, Fan Zhang, Haribabu Arthanari, Jacob Morris, Riccardo Pellarin, Chelsea Moore, Ian Harmon, Evangelos Papadopoulos, Hisashi Yoshida, Mahmoud L Nasr, Satoru Unzai, Brytteny Thompson, Eric Aube, Samantha Hustak, Florian Stengel, Eddie Dagraca, Asokan Ananbandam, Philip Gao, Takeshi Urano, Alan G Hinnebusch, Gerhard Wagner, Katsura Asano
During eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF3 binds the solvent-accessible side of the 40S ribosome and recruits the gate-keeper protein eIF1 and eIF5 to the decoding center. This is largely mediated by the N-terminal domain (NTD) of eIF3c, which can be divided into three parts: 3c0, 3c1, and 3c2. The N-terminal part, 3c0, binds eIF5 strongly but only weakly to the ribosome-binding surface of eIF1, whereas 3c1 and 3c2 form a stoichiometric complex with eIF1. 3c1 contacts eIF1 through Arg-53 and Leu-96, while 3c2 faces 40S protein uS15/S13, to anchor eIF1 to the scanning pre-initiation complex (PIC)...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294251/the-effect-of-interligand-energy-transfer-on-the-emission-spectra-of-heteroleptic-ir-complexes
#16
Yang-Jin Cho, So-Yoen Kim, Ho-Jin Son, Dae Won Cho, Sang Ook Kang
In order to understand the causes of the emission shape and colour changes of heteroleptic Ir(3+) complexes containing 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) as the main ligands, we introduced two types of ancillary ligands: (1) non-luminescent ancillary ligands, namely tetrakis(pyrazolyl)borate (bor) and picolinate (pic), which were employed for the preparation of Ir(dfppy)2(bor) and Ir(dfppy)2(pic), respectively, and (2) luminescent ancillary ligands, namely 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), bipyridine (bpy), and 2,3-dipyridylpyrazine (dpp), which were employed for the preparation of Ir(dfppy)2(phen), Ir(dfppy)2(bpy), and Ir(dfppy)2(dpp), respectively...
March 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289556/molecular-characterization-and-genetic-diversity-of-jatropha-curcas-l-in-costa-rica
#17
Marcela Vásquez-Mayorga, Eric J Fuchs, Eduardo J Hernández, Franklin Herrera, Jesús Hernández, Ileana Moreira, Elizabeth Arnáez, Natalia M Barboza
We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287751/salivary-cytokine-response-in-the-aftermath-of-stress-an-emotion-regulation-perspective
#18
Tamara L Newton, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Keith B Lyle, Yvette Z Szabo, James J Miller, Ashlee J Warnecke
Elevated inflammation in the context of stress has been implicated in mental and physical health. Approaching this from an emotion regulation perspective, we tested whether the salivary cytokine response to stress is dampened by using distraction to minimize opportunity for poststressor rumination. Healthy young adults were randomized to an acute stressor: modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Study 1) or angry memory retrieval (Study 2). Within each study, participants were randomized to poststressor condition-rest or distraction-at a 3:1 ratio...
March 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287538/measurement-of-in-vitro-integration-activity-of-hiv-1-preintegration-complexes
#19
Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Benem Davids, Amma B Addai, Jui Pandhare, Chandravanu Dash
HIV-1 envelope proteins engage cognate receptors on the target cell surface, which leads to viral-cell membrane fusion followed by the release of the viral capsid (CA) core into the cytoplasm. Subsequently, the viral Reverse Transcriptase (RT), as part of a namesake nucleoprotein complex termed the Reverse Transcription Complex (RTC), converts the viral single-stranded RNA genome into a double-stranded DNA copy (vDNA). This leads to the biogenesis of another nucleoprotein complex, termed the pre-integration complex (PIC), composed of the vDNA and associated virus proteins and host factors...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280277/preparation-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-polyion-complex-pic-nanoparticles-loaded-with-polymyxin-b
#20
Ignacio Insua, Sieta Majok, Anna F A Peacock, Anne Marie Krachler, Francisco Fernandez-Trillo
Here, we describe novel polyion complex (PIC) particles for the delivery of Polymyxin B (Pol-B), an antimicrobial peptide currently used in the clinic as a last resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. A range of conditions for the controlled assembly of Pol-B with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) has been identified which let us prepare stable colloidal PIC particles. This way, PIC particles containing different Pol-B:PSS ratios have been prepared and their stability under simulated physiological conditions (i...
February 2017: European Polymer Journal
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