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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163044/partial-aminoglycoside-lesions-in-vestibular-epithelia-reveal-broad-sensory-dysfunction-associated-with-modest-hair-cell-loss-and-afferent-calyx-retraction
#1
David R Sultemeier, Larry F Hoffman
Although the effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hair cells have been investigated for decades, their influences on the dendrites of primary afferent neurons have not been widely studied. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulty in disassociating pathology to dendritic processes from that resulting from loss of the presynaptic hair cell. This was overcome in the present investigation through development of a preparation using Chinchilla laniger that enabled direct perilymphatic infusion. Through this strategy we unmasked gentamicin's potential effects on afferent calyces...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162166/shaping-long-term-primate-development-telomere-length-trajectory-as-an-indicator-of-early-maternal-maltreatment-and-predictor-of-future-physiologic-regulation
#2
Stacy S Drury, Brittany R Howell, Christopher Jones, Kyle Esteves, Elyse Morin, Reid Schlesinger, Jerrold S Meyer, Kate Baker, Mar M Sanchez
The molecular, neurobiological, and physical health impacts of child maltreatment are well established, yet mechanistic pathways remain inadequately defined. Telomere length (TL) decline is an emerging molecular indicator of stress exposure with definitive links to negative health outcomes in maltreated individuals. The multiple confounders endemic to human maltreatment research impede the identification of causal pathways. This study leverages a unique randomized, cross-foster, study design in a naturalistic translational nonhuman primate model of infant maltreatment...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162115/opportunities-for-topical-antimicrobial-therapy-permeation-of-canine-skin-by-fusidic-acid
#3
Sian-Marie Frosini, Ross Bond, Anette Loeffler, Jo Larner
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal infection of the canine epidermis and hair follicle is amongst the commonest reasons for antimicrobial prescribing in small animal veterinary practice. Topical therapy with fusidic acid (FA) is an attractive alternative to systemic therapy based on low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, commonly <0.03 mg/l) documented in canine pathogenic staphylococci, including strains of MRSA and MRSP (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159692/germacrone-and-sesquiterpene-enriched-extracts-from%C3%A2-curcuma-aeruginosa-roxb-increase-skin-penetration-of-minoxidil-a-hair-growth-promoter
#4
Jukkarin Srivilai, Neti Waranuch, Anothai Tangsumranjit, Nantaka Khorana, Kornkanok Ingkaninan
Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC...
November 20, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154117/mercury-pollution-by-gold-mining-in-a-global-biodiversity-hotspot-the-choco-biogeographic-region-colombia
#5
Yuber Palacios-Torres, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Mercury (Hg) is a harmful pollutant released into the environment from gold mining activities, representing a risk to human health and the ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, sediments and air; and to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion in the Choco biogeographic region, a global biodiversity hotspot located at the Colombian Pacific. Mercury concentrations in hair were measured in two locations, Quibdo, the state capital, and Paimado, a riverine community...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152188/prey-use-by-dingoes-in-a-contested-landscape-ecosystem-service-provider-or-biodiversity-threat
#6
Damian S Morrant, Christopher M Wurster, Christopher N Johnson, James R A Butler, Bradley C Congdon
In Australia, dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of a number of vertebrate species. The lowland Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia is a biologically rich area with many species of rainforest-restricted vertebrates that could be threatened by dingoes; however, the ecological impacts of dingoes in this region are poorly understood. We determined the potential threat posed by dingoes to native vertebrates in the lowland Wet Tropics using dingo scat/stomach content and stable isotope analyses of hair from dingoes and potential prey species...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145616/variation-in-methylmercury-metabolism-and-elimination-status-mermes-in-humans-following-fish-consumption
#7
Samuel W Caito, Brian P Jackson, Tracy Punshon, Thomas Scrimale, Alex Grier, Steven R Gill, Tanzy M Love, Gene E Watson, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Matthew D Rand
Evaluating the potential for methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity relies on accurately predicting the mercury (Hg) body burden that results from eating fish. Hg body burden is directly determined by the slow elimination kinetics of MeHg in the human body (kel ∼0.014days-1 or t1/2∼ 50days). Existing studies on MeHg half-life in humans demonstrate a wide range values (t1/2 = 30 to > 150days) and has lead to uncertainty in the derivation of a regulatory standard for acceptable daily oral intake. The causes of variation in MeHg toxicokinetics in humans remain little explored...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143575/determination-of-illegal-adulteration-of-dietary-supplements-with-synthetic-hair-growth-compounds-by-uplc-and-lc-q-tof-ms
#8
Ji Hyun Lee, Gihaeng Kang, Han Na Park, Jihee Kim, Nam Sook Kim, Seongsoo Park, Sung-Kwan Park, Sun Young Baek, Hoil Kang
In this study, we developed a UPLC-PDA and LC-Q-TOF/MS method to identify and measure the following prohibited substances that may be found in dietary supplements: triaminodil, minoxidil, bimatoprost, alimemazine, diphenylcyclopropenone, α-tradiol, finasteride, methyltestosterone, spironolatone, flutamide, cyproterone, dutasteride, and testosterone 17-propionate.The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, recovery, and stability...
November 16, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136575/the-correlation-between-concentrations-of-zolpidem-and-benzodiazepines-in-segmental-hair-samples-and-use-patterns
#9
Hyojeong Kim, Sangeun Lee, Sanghwan In, Meejung Park, Sungnam Cho, Junguk Shin, Hunjoo Lee, Eunyoung Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between histories of zolpidem and benzodiazepines use and their concentrations in hair as determined by segmental hair analysis, that is, by analyzing hair samples taken 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, and 5-6cm etc. and 0-3cm from the scalp, and whole hair. Of the 23 hair samples examined, 18 were collected from patients in a rehabilitation program and five were from patients that had taken zolpidem only once by prescription. All 23 patients provided written informed consent after reviewing the research plan, described their zolpidem and benzodiazepines use histories accurately, and provided hair samples, which were weighed, washed, cut into lengths of <1mm, and extracted in 100% methanol for 16h (diazepam-d5 was used as an internal standard)...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132690/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-regulates-mapk-erk-signaling-in-the-skin-of-mice
#10
Xuexian Liu, Pengqian Zhang, Kaiyuan Ji, Junzhen Zhang, Shanshan Yang, Bin Du, Shuaipeng Hu, Ruiwen Fan
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to play important roles in many tissues except the nervous system. We previously reported that CDK5 showed differential expression in the transcriptome profiles of the skin of alpacas with different hair colors. To understand the functional role of CDK5 in hair color determination, we constructed CDK5-knockdown mice and identified the effect on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the mouse skin...
November 11, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130354/delivery-of-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-in-adult-mammalian-inner-ear-cell-subtypes-without-auditory-dysfunction
#11
Yong Tao, Mingqian Huang, Yilai Shu, Adam Ruprecht, Hongyang Wang, Yong Tang, Luk H Vandenberghe, Qiuju Wang, Guangping Gao, Wei-Jia Kong, Zheng-Yi Chen
Hearing loss, including genetic hearing loss, is one of the most common forms of sensory deficits in human with limited options of treatment. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer has been shown to effectively recover auditory functions in mouse models of genetic deafness when delivered at neonatal stages. However, the mouse cochlea is still developing at those time points whereas in human the newborn inner ears are already fully mature. For effective gene therapy to treat genetic deafness, it is necessary to determine whether or not AAV-mediated therapy can be equally effective in the fully mature mouse inner ear without causing damages to the inner ear...
November 12, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128827/a-comparison-study-on-a-sulfonated-graphene-polyaniline-nanocomposite-coated-fiber-for-analysis-of-nicotine-in-solid-samples-through-the-traditional-and-vacuum-assisted-hs-spme
#12
Alireza Ghiasvand, Samira Koonani, Fatemeh Yazdankhah, Saeid Farhadi
A simple, rapid, and reliable headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure, reinforced by applying vacuum in the extraction vial, was developed. It was applied for the extraction of nicotine in solid samples prior to determination by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). First, the surface of a narrow stainless steel wire was made porous and adhesive by platinization to obtain a durable, higher surface area, and resistant fiber. Then, a thin film of sulfonated graphene/polyaniline (Sulf-G/PANI) nanocomposite was synthesized and simultaneously coated on the platinized fiber using the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123875/indications-of-early-intubation-for-patients-with-inhalation-injury
#13
Shinya Onishi, Akinori Osuka, Yuichi Kuroki, Masashi Ueyama
Aim: For patients with inhalation injury, the indications for early intubation are diverse. The purpose of this study was to identify the most reliable symptoms, physical findings, and medical examinations with which to determine the indications for early intubation in patients with inhalation injury. Methods: We retrospectively collected patient data from medical records. Collected data included age, sex, burn size, symptoms, physical findings, carboxyhemoglobin levels (COHb), and bronchial wall thickness (BWT) determined from chest computed tomography images...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#14
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117529/arabidopsis-leaf-trichomes-as-acoustic-antennae
#15
Shaobao Liu, Jiaojiao Jiao, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu, Barbara G Pickard, Guy M Genin
The much studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported recently to react to the sounds of caterpillars of Pieris rapae chewing on its leaves by promoting synthesis of toxins that can deter herbivory. Identifying participating receptor cells-potential "ears"-of Arabidopsis is critical to understanding and harnessing this response. Motivated in part by other recent observations that Arabidopsis trichomes (hair cells) respond to mechanical stimuli such as pressing or brushing by initiating potential signaling factors in themselves and in the neighboring skirt of cells, we analyzed the vibrational responses of Arabidopsis trichomes to test the hypothesis that trichomes can respond acoustically to vibrations associated with feeding caterpillars...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114992/working-memory-predicts-methamphetamine-hair-concentration-over-the-course-of-treatment-moderating-effect-of-impulsivity-and-implications-for-dual-systems-model
#16
Adam J Rubenis, Rebecca E Fitzpatrick, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
High impulsivity and poor executive function are characteristic of methamphetamine use disorder. High arousal in the impulsive system has been proposed to compromise the executive system's regulating ability (i.e. the dual-systems model). While interaction between these variables may partly explain poor treatment outcomes associated with methamphetamine use disorder, previous research has tended to examine each factor separately. We investigated whether high impulsivity (measured with an impulsive choice task) and poor executive function (measured with a working memory task) predict methamphetamine use (determined by hair sample) in the 6 weeks following treatment commencement...
November 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112905/determinants-of-hair-cortisol-concentration-in-children-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
N A Gray, A Dhana, L Van Der Vyver, J Van Wyk, N P Khumalo, D J Stein
BACKGROUND: Several factors are known contribute to hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in adults. However, there is less research on determinants of HCC in children and adolescents. HCC is a valuable tool for medical research pertaining to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This review aims to assess the extent to which established determinants of HCC in adults have been consistently reported in children (birth - 18 years) and to identify determinants of HCC specific to this age group...
November 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109910/effects-of-graded-concentrations-of-supplemental-lead-on-lead-concentrations-in-tissues-of-pigs-and-prediction-equations-for-estimating-dietary-lead-intake
#18
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, Kyu Ree Park, Sung Dae Lee, Ji-Hyock Yoo, Ah Reum Son, Hyun-Jung Lee
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of graded dietary lead (Pb) concentrations on body weight and Pb concentrations in blood, hair, soft tissues, and urine from pigs and to generate equations for estimating daily Pb intake. Sixteen barrows with initial body weight 36.3 kg (standard deviation = 2.3) were allotted to four dietary treatments that consisted of graded supplemental Pb concentrations (0, 10, 25, and 250 mg/kg of diet). Daily feed allowances for each pig were 1 kg for first two weeks and 2 kg for last two weeks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107730/determination-of-the-authenticity-of-plastron-derived-functional-foods-based-on-amino-acid-profiles-analysed-by-mekc
#19
Lin-Qiu Li, Joewel T Baibado, Qing Shen, Hon-Yeung Cheung
Plastron is a nutritive and superior functional food. Due to its limited supply yet enormous demands, some functional foods supposed to contain plastron may be forged with other substitutes. This paper reports a novel and simple method for determination of the authenticity of plastron-derived functional foods based on comparison of the amino acid (AA) profiles of plastron and its possible substitutes. By applying micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), 18 common AAs along with another 2 special AAs - hydroxyproline (Hyp) and hydroxylysine (Hyl) were detected in all plastron samples...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107558/esrp1-mutations-cause-hearing-loss-due-to-defects-in-alternative-splicing-that-disrupt-cochlear-development
#20
Alex M Rohacek, Thomas W Bebee, Richard K Tilton, Caleb M Radens, Chris McDermott-Roe, Natoya Peart, Maninder Kaur, Michael Zaykaner, Benjamin Cieply, Kiran Musunuru, Yoseph Barash, John A Germiller, Ian D Krantz, Russ P Carstens, Douglas J Epstein
Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1(-/-) mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
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