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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775923/determination-of-hydroxy-metabolites-of-cocaine-from-hair-samples-and-comparison-with-street-cocaine-samples
#1
Thomas Franz, Frank Scheufler, Klaus Stein, Michael Uhl, Torsten Dame, Gerlinde Schwarz, Hans Sachs, Gisela Skopp, Frank Musshoff
Drugs which are commonly smoked or sniffed (e.g. cocaine), can contaminate hair through smoke or dust; therefore testing for metabolites, especially hydroxy metabolites, is highly recommended. The presence of hydroxy metabolites in street-cocaine (COC) has been discussed. To check if detection of hydroxy metabolites definitely proves ingestion, the presence of these metabolites in street COC samples has to be checked. It is expected that the more hydrophilic hydroxy metabolites of COC are incorporated into the hair-matrix to a lesser extent...
April 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772808/mercury-levels-in-women-and-children-from-interior-villages-in-suriname-south-america
#2
Paul E Ouboter, Gwendolyn Landburg, Gaitrie U Satnarain, Sheryl Y Starke, Indra Nanden, Bridget Simon-Friedt, William B Hawkins, Robert Taylor, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Emily Harville, Jeffrey K Wickliffe
Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772426/hbcd-and-tbbpa-in-human-scalp-hair-evidence-of-internal-exposure
#3
Mandana Barghi, Eun-Su Shin, Sung-Deuk Choi, Reza Dahmardeh Behrooz, Yoon-Seok Chang
Human biomonitoring is a reliable method for evaluating human exposure to specific contaminants. Although blood is an ideal matrix for monitoring purposes, it is regarded as an invasive matrix. Therefore, current developments in the field of human biomonitoring are based on introducing new methods that use non-invasive matrices, such as hair. In this study, we examined the efficiencies of several extraction methods for the analysis of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) in human hair...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770837/systematic-investigations-of-endogenous-cortisol-and-cortisone-in-nails-by-lc-ms-ms-and-correlation-to-hair
#4
Tina M Binz, Franziska Gaehler, Clarissa D Voegel, Mathias Hofmann, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer
Hair samples are increasingly used for measuring the long-term stress mediator cortisol. However, hair is not always available and nails (finger or toe), as a keratinized matrix, may be an alternative to hair. In order to measure cortisol and cortisone in the nail matrix, an LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated using 13 C3 -labeled surrogate analytes. Both analytes were measured in ESI negative mode as formic acid adducts. Different sample preparation techniques were assessed, and single-step extraction in methanol was established for determination of cortisone and cortisol in the nail matrix...
May 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766830/impact-of-sphingolipid-mediators-on-determination-of-cochlear-survival-in-ototoxicity
#5
Keiji Tabuchi, Akira Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sphingolipid metabolites, including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylates (ceramide-1-phosphonate [C1P] and sphingosine-1-phosphate [S1P]), regulate diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, the cell cycle, and cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that these sphingolipid metabolites are generated in response to ototoxic agents and play important roles in determining the fate of cochlear hair cells in ototoxic injury. METHODS: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the roles of sphingolipid mediators in cochlear ototoxicity...
May 15, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766207/risks-and-prevention-of-surgical-fires-a-systematic-review
#6
I Kezze, N Zoremba, R Rossaint, A Rieg, M Coburn, G Schälte
Surgically induced fire is a life-threatening hazard; this topic has received little attention, although only 3 factors, the so-called fire triad, are needed for surgical fires to occur: an oxidizer, fuel and an ignition source. This systematic review aims to determine the impact of each component and to delegate every staff member an area of responsibility, thus ensuring patient health through prevention or protection. The trial was registered in Prospero CRD42018082656. A database search of eligible, preferably evidence-based studies was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764957/examining-perceptions-about-iqos-heated-tobacco-product-consumer-studies-in-japan-and-switzerland
#7
Elizabeth C Hair, Morgane Bennett, Emily Sheen, Jennifer Cantrell, Jodie Briggs, Zoe Fenn, Jeffrey G Willett, Donna Vallone
OBJECTIVE: To examine consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviours regarding the heated tobacco product, IQOS, as well as to document the product's marketing strategies to determine its potential for appealing to youth and young adults. METHOD: Truth Initiative, in collaboration with Flamingo, collected qualitative data via: (1) expert interviews, (2) semiotic analysis of IQOS packing and marketing materials, and (3) 12 focus groups with adults in Switzerland (ages 19-44 years; June 6-9, 2016) and Japan (ages 20-39 years; June 22-24, 2016) (n=68 for both groups)...
May 15, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764712/the-tail-in-tropical-hair-ewes-ovis-aries-that-are-in-estrus-is-used-as-a-proceptive-signal-and-favors-ram-copulation
#8
Ángel Fierros-García, Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Virginio Aguirre, Agustín Orihuela
Two experiments were performed to determine if the tail has a role: 1) in proceptive behavior, and 2) in facilitating copulation in hair sheep. The movements and position of the tail of estrous and non-estrous ewes in response to male courtship were compared in the first study. In the second study, the courtship of rams and mating behavior directed towards tailed or tail-docked, in estrus or diestrus ewes, were compared. Both experiments were conducted with restrained ewes during 3 min assessment periods...
May 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764539/effect-of-chronic-social-stress-on-prenatal-transfer-of-antitetanus-immunity-in-captive-breeding-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#9
Rachelle L Stammen, Joyce K Cohen, Tracy L Meeker, Maria M Crane, Rama R Amara, Sakeenah L Hicks, Jerrold S Meyer, Kelly F Ethun
Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763605/inos-inhibits-hair-regeneration-in-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#10
Mari Sasaki, Shohei Shinozaki, Hironobu Morinaga, Masao Kaneki, Emi Nishimura, Kentaro Shimokado
Previous studies have shown that androgenic alopecia is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. However, the detailed mechanism whereby diabetes causes alopecia still remains unclear. We focused on the inflammatory response that is caused by diabetes or obesity, given that inflammation is a risk factor for hair loss. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be upregulated under conditions of acute or chronic inflammation. To clarify the potential role of iNOS in diabetes-related alopecia, we generated obese diabetic iNOS-deficient (ob/ob; iNOS-KO mice)...
May 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763564/inhibitors-of-melanogenesis-an-updated-review
#11
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Vigneshwaran Namasivayam, Manoj Manickam, Sang Hun Jung
Melanins are pigment molecules that determine the skin, eye, and hair color of the human subject to its amount, quality and distribution. Melanocytes synthesize melanin and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as harmful ultraviolet radiation, through the complex process called melanogenesis. However, a serious dermatological problems occur when the excessive production of melanin in different parts of the human body. These include freckles, melasma, senile lentigo, pigmented acne scars and cancer...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761728/safety-assessment-of-hydrolyzed-wheat-protein-and-hydrolyzed-wheat-gluten-as-used-in-cosmetics
#12
Christina Burnett, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the product use, formulation, and safety data on hydrolyzed wheat protein and hydrolyzed wheat gluten, which function as skin- and hair-conditioning agents. The Panel determined that data from clinical and laboratory studies were sufficient to demonstrate that these ingredients will not elicit type 1 immediate hypersensitivity reactions in sensitized individuals and will not induce sensitization when the polypeptide lengths of the hydrolysates do not exceed 30 amino acids...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760098/cochlear-amplification-and-tuning-depend-on-the-cellular-arrangement-within-the-organ-of-corti
#13
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Joris A M Soons, Sunil Puria
The field of cochlear mechanics has been undergoing a revolution due to recent findings made possible by advancements in measurement techniques. While it has long been assumed that basilar-membrane (BM) motion is the most important determinant of sound transduction by the inner hair cells (IHCs), it turns out that other parts of the sensory epithelium closer to the IHCs, such as the reticular lamina (RL), move with significantly greater amplitude for weaker sounds. It has not been established how these findings are related to the complex cytoarchitecture of the organ of Corti between the BM and RL, which is composed of a lattice of asymmetric Y-shaped elements, each consisting of a basally slanted outer hair cell (OHC), an apically slanted phalangeal process (PhP), and a supporting Deiters' cell (DC)...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752991/cerebrolysin-attenuates-hyperalgesia-photophobia-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-nitroglycerin-induced-migraine-model-in-rats
#14
Javad Mahmoudi, Gisou Mohaddes, Marjan Erfani, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Pouran Karimi, Mojgan Rajabi, Siamak Reyhani-Rad, Fereshteh Farajdokht
Chronic migraine dramatically affects the quality of life in the migraineurs. This study examined the effect of chronic cerebrolysin (CBL) treatment on the migraine-associated symptoms in a rat model of migraine. Experiments were carried out on 8 weeks, male Wistar rats. Chronic migraine was modeled by injection (10 mg/kg, i.p) of nitroglycerin (NTG) on days 3, 5, 7, and 9. CBL (2.5 and 5 ml/kg, i.p.) was injected every day for 10 days. Mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds of the hind paw were examined by von Frey hairs and hot plate, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751043/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-gentamicin-induced-cochlear-hair-cell-death-in-vitro
#15
Zhanwei Jia, Qiang He, Chunguang Shan, Fengyi Li
Gentamycin is one of the most clinically used aminoglycoside antibiotics which induce intrinsic apoptosis of hair cells. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known as safe cell-protective agent in disorders associated with apoptosis. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of TUDCA against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1(HEI-OC1) cells and explanted cochlear tissue were treated with gentamicin and TUDCA, followed by serial analyses including cell viability assay, hair cell staining, qPCR, ELISA and western blotting to determine the cell damage by the parameters relevant to cell apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749706/systematic-optimization-of-ethyl-glucuronide-extraction-conditions-from-scalp-hair-by-design-of-experiments-and-its-potential-effect-on-cut-off-values-appraisal
#16
Eugenio Alladio, Giulia Biosa, Fabrizio Seganti, Daniele Di Corcia, Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti, Markus R Baumgartner
The quantitative determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair samples is consistently used throughout the world to assess chronic excessive alcohol consumption. For administrative and legal purposes, the analytical results are compared with cut-off values recognized by regulatory authorities and scientific societies. However, it has been recently recognized that the analytical results depend on the hair sample pretreatment procedures, including the crumbling and extraction conditions. A systematic evaluation of the EtG extraction conditions from pulverized scalp hair was conducted by design of experiments (DoE) considering the extraction time, temperature, pH, and solvent composition as potential influencing factors...
May 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747658/naxos-disease-from-the-origin-to-today
#17
REVIEW
Guo-Liang Li, Ardan M Saguner, Guy H Fontaine
Naxos disease, first described by Dr. Nikos Protonotarios and colleagues on the island of Naxos, Greece, is a special form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). It is an inherited condition with a recessive form of transmission and a familial penetrance of 90%. It is associated with thickening of the skin of the hands and sole, and a propensity to woolly hair. The cardiac anomalies characterized by ventricular arrhythmias with ventricular extrasystoles and tachycardia and histologic features of the myocardium are consistent with ARVD, but in a more severe form of dysplasia with major dilatation of the right ventricle...
May 10, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745328/a-case-of-acute-intoxication-due-to-the-assumption-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-u-47700-identification-in-urine-blood-and-pubic-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#18
Donata Favretto, Vogliardi Susanna, Stocchero Giulia, Maietti Sergio, Tucci Marianna, Nalesso Alessandro, Snenghi Rossella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We report on a case of severe intoxication after insufflation of U-47700, a synthetic opioid that acts as a selective agonist of the µ-opioid receptor, several times more potent than morphine. A man in his 30s was found irresponsive in his apartment and was brought to the emergency department of a local hospital. A comatous state and severe respiratory depression were diagnosed. Anamnesis revealed that the patient could have taken the substance named "U-47700", bought in the Internet...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740652/novel-ss-31-modified-liposomes-for-improved-protective-efficacy-of-minocycline-against-drug-induced-hearing-loss
#19
Shanshan Hou, Yang Yang, Shuang Zhou, Xiao Kuang, YinXian Yang, Hailing Gao, Zhenjie Wang, Hongzhuo Liu
Hearing loss, which is regarded as a worldwide public health concern, lacks approved therapeutic strategies. Current drug candidates used to treat hearing loss commonly have low efficacy. To achieve the optimum drug efficacy, we designed a liposome system to preload a clinically approved, water-soluble drug, minocycline. Inspired by our previous research, we used a mitochondria-targeting tetrapeptide, SS-31, to modify the surface of liposomes. The results revealed that SS-31 modified, minocycline-loaded liposomes significantly increased hair cell survival against chronic exposure to gentamicin in a zebrafish model...
May 9, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740476/milk-composition-for-admixed-dairy-cattle-in-tanzania
#20
Evans K Cheruiyot, Rawlynce C Bett, Joshua O Amimo, Fidalis D N Mujibi
It is well established that milk composition is affected by the breed and genotype of a cow. The present study investigated the relationship between the proportion of exotic genes and milk composition in Tanzanian crossbred dairy cows. Milk samples were collected from 209 animals kept under smallholder production systems in Rungwe and Lushoto districts of Tanzania. The milk samples were analyzed for the content of components including fat, protein, casein, lactose, solids-not-fat (SNF), and the total solids (TS) through infrared spectroscopy using Milko-Scan FT1 analyzer (Foss Electric, Denmark)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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