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Cardiovascular disease

Alessandro Mantovani, Lucia Mingolla, Riccardo Rigolon, Isabella Pichiri, Valentina Cavalieri, Giacomo Zoppini, Giuseppe Lippi, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes. We assessed whether NAFLD also predicts the risk of incident CVD events in type 1 diabetic adults. METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 286 type 1 diabetic outpatients (mean age 43±14years; median duration of diabetes 17 [10-30] years) without secondary causes of chronic liver diseases, who were followed for a mean period of 5...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Ying Wang, Shaoyan Si, Junli Liu, Zongye Wang, Haiying Jia, Kai Feng, Lili Sun, Shu Jun Song
AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults...
2016: PloS One
Stefan Reuter, Stefanie Reiermann, Viola Malyar, Katharina Schütte-Nütgen, Renè Schmidt, Hermann Pavenstädt, Holger Reinecke, Barbara Suwelack
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death after renal transplantation with a high prevalence in dialysis patients. It is still a matter of debate how to assess the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant candidates. Several approaches and scores exist and found their way into the guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: We herein assessed PROCAM, Framingham, ESC-SCORE and our own dedicated algorithm in patients applying for renal transplantation at our transplantation center between July 2006 and August 2009...
2016: PloS One
Christoph Nowak, Samira Salihovic, Andrea Ganna, Stefan Brandmaier, Taru Tukiainen, Corey D Broeckling, Patrik K Magnusson, Jessica E Prenni, Rui Wang-Sattler, Annette Peters, Konstantin Strauch, Thomas Meitinger, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Johan Ärnlöv, Christian Berne, Christian Gieger, Samuli Ripatti, Lars Lind, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Sundström, Erik Ingelsson, Tove Fall
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index) during an oral glucose tolerance test...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Liang Guo, Liqiang Zheng, Xiaofan Guo, Ye Chang, Xinghu Zhou, Yingxian Sun
BACKGROUND: Complement component 5 (C5) has been described to play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to determine whether genetic variation of C5 was associated with ischemic stroke (IS) in northeast Chinese population. METHODS: We used a case-control study involving 386 IS patients and 386 non-IS controls from a rural population and determined the genotypes of five polymorphisms (rs12237774, rs17611, rs4837805, rs7026551, and rs1017119) of C5 gene by Snapshot single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays to assess any links with IS...
October 21, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Allegra T Aron, Morten O Loehr, Jana Bogena, Christopher J Chang
Iron is essential for sustaining life, as its ability to cycle between multiple oxidation states is critical for catalyzing chemical transformations in biological systems. However, without proper regulation, this same redox capacity can trigger oxidative stress events that contribute to aging along with diseases ranging from cancer to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite its importance, methods for monitoring biological iron bound weakly to cellular ligands-the labile iron pool-to generate a response that preserves spatial and temporal information remain limited, owing to the potent fluorescence quenching ability of iron...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Irfan Sahin, Baris Gungor, Berk Ozkaynak, Fatih Uzun, Suat Hayri Küçük, Ilhan Iker Avci, Ender Ozal, Burak Ayça, Sukru Cetın, Ertugrul Okuyan, Mustafa Hakan Dinckal
BACKGROUND: Correlation of increased copeptin levels with various cardiovascular diseases has been described. The clinical use of copeptin levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has not been investigated before. HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of copeptin levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: HCM was defined as presence of left ventricular wall thickness ≥15 mm in a subject without any concomitant disease that may cause left ventricular hypertrophy...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Brent M Egan, Bo Kai, C Shaun Wagner, Douglas O Fleming, Joseph H Henderson, Archie H Chandler, Angelo Sinopoli
Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) may confound the reported relationship between low blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) in treated hypertensive patients. Incident CVD was assessed in treated hypertensive patients with and without aTRH (BP ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg on ≥3 medications or <140/<90 mm Hg on ≥4 BP medications) at three BP levels: 1: <120 and/or <70 mm Hg and <140/<90 mm Hg; 2: 120-139/70-89 mm Hg; and 3: ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg. Electronic health data were matched to emergency and hospital claims for incident CVD in 118 356 treated hypertensive patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Surya Narayan Pradhan, Aleena Das, Ramovatar Meena, Ranjan Kumar Nanda, Paulraj Rajamani
Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susan J Carson, Jacqueline Burns
DesignCohort studyCohort selectionParticipants were recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population with the preferred ages of 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men.Exposure measurementSmoking was assessed using a questionnaire from which pack years of smoking were calculated. Educational attainment, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and vitamin or mineral supplements were assessed from measurements and questionnaires. Tooth loss was also assessed by questionnaire returned between 2004 and 2006...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Peter J Meikle, Scott A Summers
Obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease form a metabolic disease continuum that has seen a dramatic increase in prevalence in developed and developing countries over the past two decades. Dyslipidaemia resulting from hypercaloric diets is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease, and lipid-lowering therapies are the main therapeutic option for this group of disorders. However, the fact that dysfunctional lipid metabolism extends far beyond cholesterol and triglycerides is becoming increasingly clear...
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Kavita J Rawat, Nilakshi H Sabnis, Udit Saraf, Gaurav Surana
Vitamin D functions as a vitamin as well as a hormone. Its major skeletal actions are complemented by varied extra-skeletal functions. During the past decade, association between Vitamin D and its role in various non-skeletal morbidities have been recognized. It plays a role in decreasing the risk of many chronic illnesses like allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancers, infections and cardiovascular disease. We report the case of a middle aged female with chronic quadriparesis and new onset anemia associated with Vitamin D deficiency...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Debjani S Goswami, Tanuja P Manohar
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the major cause of morbidity and mortality in most of the developing countries including India. Cardiometabolic risk factors play a vital role in causation of coronary artery disease. Present study was carried out to investigate the role of various risk factors in the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in population from Central India. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a hospital-based age and sex matched case-control study, carried out at Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Cosmo Godino, Antonio Colombo, Alberto Margonato
Heart rate is an established prognostic marker for longevity and is an important contributor in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Most ischemic episodes are triggered by an increase in heart rate, which causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption. In addition, increased heart rate is a modifiable risk factor for chronic heart failure. Ivabradine, an inhibitor of If ion channels, is an approved second-line anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Naoaki Morihara, Atsuko Hino
Aged garlic extract (AGE), a garlic preparation rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease including inhibition of platelet aggregation. However, the mode of AGE action on platelets has not been clear. In this study, we examined the effect of AGE on the functional property of platelet by administering AGE to rats and evaluating the platelet aggregation in response to collagen in vitro. We found that AGE treatment significantly reduced the ability of platelet to aggregate and this effect of AGE was manifested on the 14 day, but not 7 day of treatment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Ana Claudia Gomes Pereira Petisco, Jorge Eduardo Assef, Carlos Alberto de Jesus, Mohamed Hassan Saleh, Jose Eduardo Martins Barbosa, David Costa de Souza Le Bihan, Ibraim Masciarelli França Pinto, Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos Barretto, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego Sousa
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among women in several countries. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) could enable the adoption of preventive measures to avoid cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1 ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Shazia T Hussain, Geraint Morton, Kalpa De Silva, Roy Jogiya, Andreas Schuster, Matthias Paul, Divaka Perera, Eike Nagel
AIMS: This study assesses the relationship between classical anatomical jeopardy scores, functional jeopardy scores (combined anatomical and haemodynamic data), and the extent of ischaemia identified on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 42 patients with stable angina and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), CMR perfusion imaging was performed. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) was measured in vessels with ≥50 % stenosis...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Robert K McNamara
Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD...
September 2016: J Nutr Intermed Metab
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