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Cognitive—Communicative Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166690/-facial-emotion-recognition-theory-of-mind-and-empathy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah, Tania Kuempfel, Frank Padberg, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Ulrich Palm
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, causes frequent disability, mood disorders, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. As a part of the last, social cognition is frequently disturbed in MS patients. It comprises empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Social cognitive deficits worsen affect decoding, interpersonal relationship, and quality of life. Despite the impact of these deficits on global functioning, only a small number of studies have investigated its correlations and overlaps with MS symptoms...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#2
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166393/implicit-theories-concerning-the-intelligence-of-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#3
Claire Enea-Drapeau, Michèle Carlier, Pascal Huguet
Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166136/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-gabab-encephalitis-clinical-manifestations-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#4
Junzhao Cui, Hui Bu, Junying He, Zeyan Zhao, Weixin Han, Ruiping Gao, Xiaoqing Li, Qing Li, Xiaosu Guo, Yueli Zou
PURPOSE: We report 11 patients diagnosed with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies encephalitis in China and aim to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic modalities and outcomes. METHODS: Clinical data from patients diagnosed with anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2016 to October 2016 January were retrospectively collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Seven of the eleven patients were males, and a mean age at presentation of 63 years (range: 47-79 years)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165609/effects-of-cognitive-loading-and-force-on-upper-trapezius-fatigue
#5
C Deeney, L W O'Sullivan
Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are particularly common in the shoulder/neck region for some tasks that involve low force exertions, for example computer work. It has been demonstrated that muscle activity may be stimulated by cognitively demanding tasks. There is a lack of studies on the relationship between qualitative levels of cognitive loading, level of muscle activity, and muscle fatigue. Aims: To investigate the effects of quantitative levels of cognitive loading on conduction velocity changes and isometric endurance times for the upper trapezius...
November 19, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165122/decreased-blood-pressure-associated-with-in-vehicle-exposure-to-carbon-monoxide-in-korean-volunteers
#6
Geon-Woo Lee, Mun-Joo Bae, Ji-Yeon Yang, Jung-Woo Son, Jae-Lim Cho, Sang-Gyu Lee, Bo-Mi Jang, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jong-Soon Lim, Dong-Chun Shin, Young-Wook Lim
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the primary components of emissions from light-duty vehicles, and reportedly comprises 77% of all pollutants emitted in terms of concentration. Exposure to CO aggravates cardiovascular disease and causes other health disorders. The study was aimed to assess the negative effects by injecting different amounts of CO concentration directly to human volunteers boarding in the car. METHODS: Human volunteers were exposed to CO concentrations of 0, 33...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164610/shared-pathological-pathways-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-specific-comorbidities-current-perspectives-and-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Christiane M Nday, Despoina Eleftheriadou, Graham Jackson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) belongs to one of the most multifactorial, complex and heterogeneous morbidity-leading disorders. Despite the extensive research in the field, AD pathogenesis is still at some extend obscure. Mechanisms linking AD with certain comorbidities, namely diabetes mellitus, obesity and dyslipidemia, are increasingly gaining importance, mainly due to their potential role in promoting AD development and exacerbation. Their exact cognitive impairment trajectories, however, remain to be fully elucidated...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164441/structure-mapping-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-levels-of-information-processing-and-relations-to-executive-functions
#8
Orit E Hetzroni, Kiril Shalahevich
Analogical reasoning was investigated among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without intellectual disabilities and typical development (TD). Children were asked to select one of two targets in two conditions: (1) with and without spatial structure similarity; (2) with and without a perceptual distractor. Results demonstrate that children with ASD were able to select targets based on structural similarity, but this ability decreased to chance level when presented with a perceptual distractor. Everyday executive functions were positively correlated with structural selections among children with ASD...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164440/parent-and-teacher-concordance-of-child-outcomes-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Kelsey S Dickson, Jessica Suhrheinrich, Sarah R Rieth, Aubyn C Stahmer
Cross-informant ratings of are considered gold standard for child behavioral assessment. To date, little work has examined informant ratings of adaptive functioning for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a large, diverse sample of youth with ASD, this study evaluated parent-teacher concordance of ratings of adaptive functioning and ASD-specific symptomatology across time. The impact of child clinical characteristics on concordance was also examined. Participants included 246 children, their caregivers and teachers...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164332/individual-trajectories-of-cognitive-performance-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#10
A M Sánchez-Torres, L Moreno-Izco, R Lorente-Omeñaca, B Cabrera, A Lobo, A M González-Pinto, J Merchán-Naranjo, I Corripio, E Vieta, E de la Serna, A Butjosa, F Contreras, S Sarró, G Mezquida, M Ribeiro, M Bernardo, M J Cuesta
Individual changes over time in cognition in patients with psychotic disorders have been studied very little, especially in the case of first episode psychosis (FEP). We aimed to establish whether change in individual trajectories in cognition over 2 years of a sample of 159 FEP patients was reliable and clinically significant, using the reliable change index (RCI) and clinically significant change (CSC) methods. We also studied a sample of 151 matched healthy controls. Patients and controls were assessed with a set of neuropsychological tests, as well as premorbid, clinical and functionality measures...
November 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164079/cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#11
REVIEW
Martha Milade Torres Nupan, Alberto Velez Van Meerbeke, Claudia Alejandra López Cabra, Paula Marcela Herrera Gomez
Aim: The last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163983/cognitive-ability-and-risk-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-after-military-deployment-an-observational-cohort-study
#12
Lars R Nissen, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Mia S Vedtofte, Anni B S Nielsen, Merete Osler, Erik L Mortensen, Gunhild T Christensen, Søren B Andersen
Background: Studies of the association between pre-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown mixed results. Aims: To study the influence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on PTSD symptoms 6-8 months post-deployment in a large population while controlling for pre-deployment education and deployment-related variables. Method: Study linking prospective pre-deployment conscription board data with post-deployment self-reported data in 9695 Danish Army personnel deployed to different war zones in 1997-2013...
November 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163737/the-mechanisms-underlying-changes-in-broad-dimensions-of-psychopathology-during-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#13
Sei Ogawa, Risa Imai, Masako Suzuki, Toshi A Furukawa, Tatsuo Akechi
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients commonly have broad dimensions of psychopathology. This study investigated the relationship between a wide range of psychopathology and attention or cognitions during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD. Methods: We treated 96 SAD patients with group CBT. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations between the changes in broad dimensions of psychopathology and the changes in self-focused attention or maladaptive cognitions in the course of CBT...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163240/interleukin-6-in-schizophrenia-is-there-a-therapeutic-relevance
#14
REVIEW
Milica Milovan Borovcanin, Ivan Jovanovic, Gordana Radosavljevic, Jelena Pantic, Slavica Minic Janicijevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
Renewing interest in immune aspects of schizophrenia and new findings about the brain-fat axis encourage us to discuss the possible role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in schizophrenia. Previously, it was suggested that a primary alteration of the innate immune system may be relevant in schizophrenia. Functional dichotomy of IL-6 suggests that this chemical messenger may be responsible for regulating the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, with tissue-specific properties at the periphery and in the central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163162/a-randomized-double-blinded-clinical-trial-on-effects-of-a-vitis-vinifera-extract-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#15
Gioacchino Calapai, Francesco Bonina, Andrea Bonina, Luisa Rizza, Carmen Mannucci, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Germana Laganà, Angela Alibrandi, Concetta Pollicino, Santi Inferrera, Umberto Alecci
Introduction: Gradual population aging is creating a new set of needs in the general population. Memory capacity decreases with age, and memory deficits are considered an early symptom of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), one of the most prevalent cognitive disorders in older people. Numerous studies have shown that grape polyphenolic compounds (GPs) are able to attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce brain lesions in experimental AD animal models. These GP effects are associated with improvement in brain antioxidant status and prevention of free radical-induced neuronal damage...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163144/the-relationship-of-cognitive-performance-and-the-theta-alpha-power-ratio-is-age-dependent-an-eeg-study-of-short-term-memory-and-reasoning-during-task-and-resting-state-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#16
Janet P Trammell, Priscilla G MacRae, Greta Davis, Dylan Bergstedt, Ariana E Anderson
Objective: The Theta-Alpha ratio (TAR) is known to differ based upon age and cognitive ability, with pathological electroencephalography (EEG) patterns routinely found within neurodegenerative disorders of older adults. We hypothesized that cognitive ability would predict EEG metrics differently within healthy young and old adults, and that healthy old adults not showing age-expected EEG activity may be more likely to demonstrate cognitive deficits relative to old adults showing these expected changes. Methods: In 216 EEG blocks collected in 16 young and 20 old adults during rest (eyes open, eyes closed) and cognitive tasks (short-term memory [STM]; matrix reasoning [RM; Raven's matrices]), models assessed the contributing roles of cognitive ability, age, and task in predicting the TAR...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163089/the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease-shows-specific-deficits-in-a-test-battery-of-motor-function
#17
Giuseppe Manfré, Erik K H Clemensson, Elisavet I Kyriakou, Laura E Clemensson, Johanneke E van der Harst, Judith R Homberg, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Rationale: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective: The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163080/behavioral-and-neurochemical-phenotyping-of-mice-incapable-of-homer1a-induction
#18
Michael C Datko, Jia-Hua Hu, Melanie Williams, Cindy M Reyes, Kevin D Lominac, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Paul F Worley, Karen K Szumlinski
Immediate early and constitutively expressed products of the Homer1 gene regulate the functional assembly of post-synaptic density proteins at glutamatergic synapses to influence excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Earlier studies of Homer1 gene knock-out (KO) mice indicated active, but distinct, roles for IEG and constitutively expressed Homer1 gene products in regulating cognitive, emotional, motivational and sensorimotor processing, as well as behavioral and neurochemical sensitivity to cocaine...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163066/from-structure-to-behavior-in-basolateral-amygdala-hippocampus-circuits
#19
REVIEW
Ying Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Emotion influences various cognitive processes, including learning and memory. The amygdala is specialized for input and processing of emotion, while the hippocampus is essential for declarative or episodic memory. During emotional reactions, these two brain regions interact to translate the emotion into particular outcomes. Here, we briefly introduce the anatomy and functions of amygdala and hippocampus, and then present behavioral, electrophysiological, optogenetic and biochemical evidence from recent studies to illustrate how amygdala and hippocampus work synergistically to form long-term memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163036/amino-terminal-%C3%AE-amyloid-antibody-blocks-%C3%AE-amyloid-mediated-inhibition-of-the-high-affinity-choline-transporter-cht
#20
Leah K Cuddy, Claudia Seah, Stephen H Pasternak, R Jane Rylett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. The deficits in cognition and attentional processing that are observed clinically in AD are linked to impaired function of cholinergic neurons that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is present at the presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminal and is responsible for the reuptake of choline produced by hydrolysis of ACh following its release...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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