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Cognitive—Communicative Disorders

Glória Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus, Lineu Corrêa Fonseca, Marina Nobrega Augusto, Fernanda Savoia Trindade
PURPOSE: In patients with epilepsy (PWE), relationships between depression, epilepsy characteristics, and cognitive aspects are complex. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of possible major depressive episode in PWE and to verify whether it is associated with the clinical aspects of the disease and cognition. METHODS: Two hundred consecutive PWE with a mean age and standard deviation of 47.6 (±15.1) years were included in the study. We determined whether their Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) scores were associated with their clinical, cognitive, and QOLIE-31 aspects using a significance level of 5% (p<0...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Andrew J Flannery, Aaron M Luebbe, Stephen P Becker
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in college students even though extant research suggests a higher prevalence rate of SCT symptoms in this population compared to general adult or youth samples. The current study examined SCT symptoms in relation to two domains related to college student's academic success, study skills and daily life executive functioning (EF), as well as specific domains of functional impairment. METHOD: 158 undergraduate students (Mage = 19...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
M Pistacchi, M Gioulis, F Sanson, S M Marsala
INTRODUCTION: Fahr's disease is characterized by bilateral calcium deposition within the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and subcortical brain white matter. The main clinical manifestations are rigid or hyperkinetic syndrome, mood disorders and cognitive impairment. The correlation between neurological impairment and symmetrical basal ganglia calcification is not so frequent. Aim of the study was to report the results of neurological assessment of three sporadic cases of Fahr's disease highlighting a correlation between the clinical syndrome and neuroimaging...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Denise D Walker, Robert S Stephens, Claire E Blevins, Kelsey E Banes, Lauren Matthews, Roger A Roffman
OBJECTIVE: Brief interventions for adolescent marijuana users offered in schools reach users who would not otherwise present for treatment. The current study builds on previous trials of a school-based, 2-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention by adding periodic, brief motivational check-ins to reinforce gains and bolster motivation. METHOD: Adolescent participants were randomly assigned to a motivational check-in (MCI; n = 128) or assessment-only check-in (ACI; n = 124) comparison condition...
November 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Katherine McIvor, Perry Moore
OBJECTIVE: Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that was only fully discovered recently and neuropsychological outcome data remains sparse. We present the case of BA, a 19-year-old male, which illustrates the cognitive outcome in an untreated case over a time period of over 2½ years. METHOD: We conducted three cognitive assessments, including tests of memory and executive functioning, over this time period and considered the evidence for reliable change in memory function using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) serial assessment package...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Laura Whitton, Donna Cosgrove, Christopher Clarkson, Denise Harold, Kimberley Kendall, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James Walters, Annette Hartmann, Betina Konte, Dan Rujescu, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Stephen Rea, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris
Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Isabelle Biseul, Romain Icick, Perrine Seguin, Frank Bellivier, Jan Scott
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an integrated group therapy (called HABIT) for comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUD) (BD-ASUD), a disabling clinical presentation for which no specific treatment has been validated. The 14-session HABIT programme employs psychoeducation-oriented cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) followed by mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) therapy. METHOD: Potential group participants were recruited from adult clients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD and an ASUD who were referred by their treating clinician...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Aristide Merola, Alberto Romagnolo, Laura Rizzi, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Maurizio Zibetti, Michele Lanotte, George Mandybur, Andrew P Duker, Alberto J Espay, Leonardo Lopiano
To determine the clinical and demographic correlates of persistent, remitting, and new-onset impulse control behaviors (ICBs) before and after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the pre- and post-surgical prevalence of ICBs, classified as impulse control disorders (ICD), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), and punding in 150 consecutive PD STN-DBS-treated patients and determined the association with motor, cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric endpoints...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Liat Helpman, Marie-France Marin, Santiago Papini, Xi Zhu, Gregory M Sullivan, Franklin Schneier, Mariana Neria, Erel Shvil, Maria Josefa Malaga Aragon, John C Markowitz, Martin A Lindquist, Tor Wager, Mohammad Milad, Yuval Neria
BACKGROUND: Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate fear processing impairments in the maintenance of the disorder. Specific deficits in extinction recall, the retention of learned extinction, have been demonstrated. While deficient extinction recall, and the associated activation pattern of prefrontal and hippocampal regions, distinguishes individuals with PTSD from controls, research has not yet examined changes following treatment. We examined the behavioral and neural correlates of extinction recall before and after cognitive behavioral treatment of PTSD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
Kenny Skagerlund, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf Träff
Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, studies investigating the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions are inconclusive, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shekhar Dethe, M Deepak, Amit Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst., commonly known as Brahmi, is renowned in Indian traditional system for its potent memory enhancing activity, which has been validated by various scientific studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand the molecular mechanism of memory enhancing activity of BacoMind(®) (BM), a standardized extract of B. monnieri. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BM was screened in vitro in a panel of cell-free and receptor-transfected cell assays...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Madhuri S Kurdi, Sindhu Priya Muthukalai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Melatonin (MT), a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2-0.5 mg/kg) in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. METHODS: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5-15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Hyejung Won, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Neelroop N Parikshak, Jerry Huang, Carli K Opland, Michael J Gandal, Gavin J Sutton, Farhad Hormozdiari, Daning Lu, Changhoon Lee, Eleazar Eskin, Irina Voineagu, Jason Ernst, Daniel H Geschwind
Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Anastasiya G Trenova, Georgi S Slavov, Maria G Manova, Jana B Aksentieva, Lyuba D Miteva, Spaska A Stanilova
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a socially significant immune-mediated disease, characterized by demyelination, axonal transection and oligodendropathy in the central nervous system. Inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration lead to brain atrophy and cognitive deficit in up to 75% of the patients. Cognitive dysfunctions impact significantly patients' quality of life, independently from the course and phase of the disease. The relationship between pathological brain findings and cognitive impairment is a subject of intensive research...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Patrícia Romano Opasso, Simone Dos Santos Barreto, Karin Zazo Ortiz
Objective: To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. Methods: The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters...
July 2016: Einstein
Jens Bohlken, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
The goal of this study was to estimate the rate of the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia and identify the potential risk factors in German specialist practices from 2005 to 2015. This study included 4633 patients aged 40 years and over from 203 neuropsychiatric practices, who were initially diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment between 2005 and 2013. The primary outcome was diagnosis of all-cause dementia recorded in the database until the end of the five-year follow-up period. Cox regression models were used to examine mild cognitive impairment progression to dementia when adjusted for confounders (age, sex, and health-insurance type)...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
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