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Cannabinoid treatment for pain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281107/cannabis-for-pain-and-headaches-primer
#1
REVIEW
Philip S Kim, Michael A Fishman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276820/cannabinoids-for-treating-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go
#2
Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Fifty years after the discovery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the psychoactive component of Cannabis, we are assessing the possibility of translating this herb into clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, a discussion on the problems associated with a potential treatment is given. From first surveys and small clinical studies in patients with IBD we have learned that Cannabis is frequently used to alleviate diarrhea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Single ingredients from Cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol, commonly described as cannabinoids, are responsible for these effects...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274851/emerging-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer-induced-bone-disease-a-focus-on-the-peripheral-type-2-cannabinoid-receptor
#3
REVIEW
Silvia Marino, Aymen I Idris
Skeletal complications are a common cause of morbidity in patients with primary bone cancer and bone metastases. The type 2 cannabinoid (Cnr2) receptor is implicated in cancer, bone metabolism and pain perception. Emerging data have uncovered the role of Cnr2 in the regulation of tumour-bone cell interactions and suggest that agents that target Cnr2 in the skeleton have potential efficacy in the reduction of skeletal complications associated with cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of findings relating to the role of Cnr2 receptor in the regulation of skeletal tumour growth, osteolysis and bone pain, and highlights the many unanswered questions and unmet needs...
March 6, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240187/the-endocannabinoid-system-modulating-levels-of-consciousness-emotions-and-likely-dream-contents
#4
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, José Carlos Pastrana-Trejo, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Miriel de-la-Cruz
Cannabinoids are derivatives that are either compounds occurring naturally in the plant, Cannabis sativa or synthetic analogs of these molecules. The first and most widely investigated of the cannabinoids is ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis and undergoes significant binding to cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors that received their name from the fact that they respond to cannabinoid compounds, including Δ9-THC...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237514/allodynia-lowering-induced-by-cannabinoids-and-endocannabinoids-alice
#5
REVIEW
Livio Luongo, Katarzyna Starowicz, Sabatino Maione, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Neuropathic pain is a neurological disorder that strongly affects the quality of life of patients. The molecular and cellular mechanisms at the basis of the neuropathic pain establishment still need to be clarified. Among the neuromodulators that play a role in the pathological pain pathways, endocannabinoids could be deeply involved in both neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tactile allodynia. Indeed, the function and dysfunction of this complex system in the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chronic pain induction and maintenance have been widely studied over the last two decades...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164346/randomised-clinical-trial-the-analgesic-properties-of-dietary-supplementation-with-palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
C Cremon, V Stanghellini, M R Barbaro, R F Cogliandro, L Bellacosa, J Santos, M Vicario, M Pigrau, C Alonso Cotoner, B Lobo, F Azpiroz, S Bruley des Varannes, M Neunlist, D DeFilippis, T Iuvone, S Petrosino, V Di Marzo, G Barbara
BACKGROUND: Intestinal immune activation is involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. While most dietary approaches in IBS involve food avoidance, there are fewer indications on food supplementation. Palmithoylethanolamide, structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, and polydatin are dietary compounds which act synergistically to reduce mast cell activation. AIM: To assess the effect on mast cell count and the efficacy of palmithoylethanolamide/polydatin in patients with IBS...
February 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131783/antihyperalgesic-effect-of-cb1-receptor-activation-involves-the-modulation-of-p2x3-receptor-in-the-primary-afferent-neuron
#7
Maria Cláudia Gonçalves Oliveira-Fusaro, Cristiane Isabel Silva Zanoni, Gilson Gonçalves Dos Santos, Luis Paulo Manzo, Dionéia Araldi, Ivan José Magayewski Bonet, Cláudia Herrera Tambeli, Elayne Vieira Dias, Carlos Amilcar Parada
Cannabinoid system is a potential target for pain control. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) activation play a role in the analgesic effect of cannabinoids once it is expressed in primary afferent neurons. This study investigates whether the anti-hyperalgesic effect of CB1 receptor activation involves P2X3 receptor in primary afferent neurons. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by electronic von Frey test. Cannabinoid effect was evaluated using anandamide or ACEA, a non-selective or a selective CB1 receptor agonists, respectively; AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, and antisense ODN for CB1 receptor...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100744/compensatory-activation-of-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-inhibition-of-gaba-release-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-in-inflammatory-pain
#8
Ming-Hua Li, Katherine L Suchland, Susan L Ingram
The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a relay in the descending pain modulatory system and an important site of endocannabinoid modulation of pain. Endocannabinoids inhibit GABA release in the RVM, but it is not known whether this effect persists in chronic pain states. In the present studies, persistent inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) increased GABAergic miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Endocannabinoid activation of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors known to inhibit presynaptic GABA release was significantly reduced in the RVM of CFA-treated rats compared with naive rats...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090652/a-systematic-review-of-the-analgesic-efficacy-of-cannabinoid-medications-in-the-management-of-acute-pain
#9
REVIEW
A J Stevens, M D Higgins
BACKGROUND: Cannabinergic medications have been postulated to demonstrate efficacy in the management of pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of cannabinoids when used for the management of acute pain. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for human randomized controlled trials that assessed the analgesic efficacy of cannabinoids compared to placebo or active comparators...
March 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052951/is-haloperidol-the-wonder-drug-for-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome
#10
Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Waqas Ullah, Qulsoom Hussain
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a rare clinical syndrome characterised by nausea, cyclic vomiting and severe abdominal pain in association with chronic cannabis use. It is often under-recognised or misdiagnosed, resulting in the unnecessary workup and frequent hospitalisations. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from cannabis, but acute symptomatic management has been a struggle for many clinicians. The present report highlights the use of haloperidol as an agent that successfully and safely treats the unrelenting symptoms of CHS...
January 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050136/a-user-s-guide-to-cannabinoid-therapies-in-oncology
#11
REVIEW
V Maida, P J Daeninck
"Cannabinoid" is the collective term for a group of chemical compounds that either are derived from the Cannabis plant, are synthetic analogues, or occur endogenously. Although cannabinoids interact mostly at the level of the currently recognized cannabinoid receptors, they might have cross reactivity, such as at opioid receptors. Patients with malignant disease represent a cohort within health care that have some of the greatest unmet needs despite the availability of a plethora of guideline-driven disease-modulating treatments and pain and symptom management options...
December 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000146/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Cecilia J Sorensen, Kristen DeSanto, Laura Borgelt, Kristina T Phillips, Andrew A Monte
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with cannabis use. Our objective is to summarize the available evidence on CHS diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 through September 24, 2015. Articles eligible for inclusion were evaluated using the Grading and Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data were abstracted from the articles and case reports and were combined in a cumulative synthesis...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964824/pain-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Adriano Chiò, Gabriele Mora, Giuseppe Lauria
Pain is a largely neglected symptom in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) although it is reported by most of these patients. It occurs at all stages of the disease and can be an onset symptom preceding motor dysfunction. Pain is correlated with a deterioration in patients' quality of life and increased prevalence of depression. In the later stages of ALS, pain can be severe enough to require increased use of sedative and analgesic drugs, and is among the events that predict clinical deterioration and death...
February 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959272/fetal-syndrome-of-endocannabinoid-deficiency-fsecd-in-maternal-obesity
#14
Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Nadezhda German, Gary Ventolini, Eneko Larumbe, Jacques Samson
The theory of a fetal origin of adult diseases links many pathological conditions to very early life events and is known as a "developmental programming" phenomenon. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are not quite understood and have been explained by inflammation, stress, etc. In particular the epidemic of obesity, with more than 64% of women being overweight or obese, has been associated with conditions in later life such as mental disorders, diabetes, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Interestingly, these diseases were classified a decade ago as Clinical Syndrome of Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD), which was first described by Russo in 2004...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940994/compensatory-activation-of-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-inhibition-of-gaba-release-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-rvm-in-inflammatory-pain
#15
Ming-Hua Li, Katherine L Suchland, Susan L Ingram
The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a relay in the descending pain modulatory system and an important site of endocannabinoid modulation of pain. Endocannabinoids inhibit GABA release in the RVM but it is not known if this effect persists in chronic pain states. In the present studies, persistent inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) increased GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Endocannabinoid activation of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors known to inhibit presynaptic GABA release was significantly reduced in the RVM of CFA-treated rats compared to naïve rats...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903642/behavioral-characterization-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-agonist-spiradoline-and-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-cp55940-mixtures-in-rats
#16
Vanessa Minervini, Sujata Dahal, Charles P France
Pain is a significant clinical problem, and there is a need for more effective treatments with reduced adverse effects that currently limit the use of μ opioid receptor agonists. Synthetic κ opioid receptor agonists have no abuse liability and well-documented antinociceptive effects; however, adverse effects (diuresis, dysphoria) preclude their use in the clinic. Combining κ opioids with nonopioid drugs (cannabinoid receptor agonists) allows for smaller doses of each drug to produce antinociception. This study tested whether a potentially useful effect of the κ opioid receptor agonist 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(5R,7S,8S)-7-pyrrolidin-1-yl-1-oxaspiro[4...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832442/cannabinoids-in-the-management-of-musculoskeletal-or-rheumatic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Winfried Häuser
The endocannabinoid system impacts pain and inflammation with potential for therapeutic effect on patients with rheumatic diseases. The current treatment options include the herbal product derived from the plant Cannabis sativa, as well as pharmaceutical preparations. The legalization of medicinal cannabis (marijuana) in many jurisdictions and widespread public advocacy has propelled an interest in use either by prescription or self-medication. In this review, we examine current evidence for efficacy and adverse effects of any cannabinoid product in rheumatic conditions...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811555/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-psychiatric-illness
#18
Martin A Katzman, Melissa Furtado, Leena Anand
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders continues to rise globally, yet remission rates and patient outcome remain less than ideal. As a result, novel treatment approaches for these disorders are necessary to decrease societal economic burden, as well as increase individual functioning. The recent discovery of the endocannabinoid system has provided an outlet for further research into its role in psychiatric disorders, because efficacy of targeted treatments have been demonstrated in medical illnesses, including cancers, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792038/role-of-cannabis-in-digestive-disorders
#19
Hemant Goyal, Umesh Singla, Urvashi Gupta, Elizabeth May
Cannabis sativa, a subspecies of the Cannabis plant, contains aromatic hydrocarbon compounds called cannabinoids. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most abundant cannabinoid and is the main psychotropic constituent. Cannabinoids activate two types of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors: cannabinoid type 1 receptor and cannabinoid type 2 receptor. There has been ongoing interest and development in research to explore the therapeutic potential of cannabis. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts biological functions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
February 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720917/tetrahydrocannabinol-does-not-reduce-pain-in-patients-with-chronic-abdominal-pain-in-a-phase-2-placebo-controlled-study
#20
Marjan de Vries, Dagmar C M van Rijckevorsel, Kris C P Vissers, Oliver H G Wilder-Smith, Harry van Goor
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Delta-9-atetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most abundant cannabinoid from the plant Cannabis sativa. There is only equivocal evidence that THC has analgesic effects. We performed a phase 2 controlled trial to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of an oral tablet containing purified THC in patients with chronic abdominal pain. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with chronic abdominal pain for 3 months or more (numeric rating scale scores of 3 or more) after surgery or because of chronic pancreatitis were randomly assigned to groups given the THC tablet or identical matching placebos for 50-52 days...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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