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Air pollution

Anyu Yu, Guangshe Jia, Jianxin You, Puwei Zhang
The particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) is a serious air-pollutant emission in China, which has caused serious risks to public health. To reduce the pollution and corresponding public mortality, this paper proposes a method by incorporating slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) and an integrated exposure risk (IER) model. By identifying the relationship between the PM2.5 concentration and mortality, the potential PM2.5 concentration efficiency and mortality reduction were measured. The proposed method has been applied to China's 243 cities in 2015...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michelle Wong, Esther Bejarano, Graeme Carvlin, Katie Fellows, Galatea King, Humberto Lugo, Michael Jerrett, Dan Meltzer, Amanda Northcross, Luis Olmedo, Edmund Seto, Alexa Wilkie, Paul English
Air pollution continues to be a global public health threat, and the expanding availability of small, low-cost air sensors has led to increased interest in both personal and crowd-sourced air monitoring. However, to date, few low-cost air monitoring networks have been developed with the scientific rigor or continuity needed to conduct public health surveillance and inform policy. In Imperial County, California, near the U.S./Mexico border, we used a collaborative, community-engaged process to develop a community air monitoring network that attains the scientific rigor required for research, while also achieving community priorities...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jiaqi Zhang, Zipeng Xing, Jiayi Cui, Zhenzi Li, Siyu Tan, Junwei Yin, Jinlong Zou, Qi Zhu, Wei Zhou
Herein, C,N co-doped porous TiO2 hollow sphere visible light photocatalysts were fabricated using biocompatible N-lauroyl-l-glutamic acid as a doped precursor and soft-template by a mild and facile self-assembly soft-template method, followed by calcination at 550 °C in air. The structure, morphology, and surface elemental composition were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Érica Prado Domingues, Guilherme Gomes Silva, Andrei Barbassa Oliveira, Lorrany Marins Mota, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Edimar Olegário de Campos, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Workers in several occupational environments are exposed to pollutants. Street vendors, for example, typically work in a high-traffic urban environment and are exposed to numerous air pollutants, including genotoxic substances emitted by motor vehicles. This study examined the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution. We conducted cytological analyses to assess frequencies of micronucleated (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in a sample of exfoliated oral mucosa cells. We compared street vendors and control subjects in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and also collected quantitative information on exposure conditions of all test subjects, including concentrations of particulate matter...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ali Abdolahnejad, Negar Jafari, Amir Mohammadi, Mohammad Miri, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
Background: The presence of air pollutants such as CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , and PM in the ambient air mainly emitted from fossil fuels combustion has become a major health concern. The aims of this study were to estimate the attribution of NO2 , SO2 , and O3 in the premature deaths and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Isfahan in 2013-2014. Methods: In this study, short-term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute myocardial infarction) of exposure NO2 , SO2 , and O3 on the population of Isfahan were assessed using AirQ 2...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jia Wu, Adam Elliston, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Ian J Colquhoun, Samuel R A Collins, Ian P Wood, Jo Dicks, Ian N Roberts, Keith W Waldron
Background: Rice straw and husk are globally significant sources of cellulose-rich biomass and there is great interest in converting them to bioethanol. However, rice husk is reportedly much more recalcitrant than rice straw and produces larger quantities of fermentation inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying differences between rice straw and rice husk with reference to the composition of the pre-treatment liquors and their impacts on saccharification and fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zhaoheng Liu, Wei Wang, Fang Cao, Shuo Liu, Xinxin Zou, Guodong Li, Haojie Yang, Yang Jiao
Air pollution is the main cause of respiratory diseases. Fine particulates with the diameter below 2.5  μ m can get into the alveoli and then enter the blood circulation through the lung tissue ventilation function and cause multiple systemic diseases especially the respiratory diseases. This study investigated the pathological mechanism of the lungs injury in rats induced by PM2.5 and the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine number 2 Feibi Recipe (number 2 FBR) on lungs injury. In this experiment, Wistar rats were used...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ellen Generaal, Erik J Timmermans, Jasper E C Dekkers, Johannes H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Which neighbourhood factors most consistently impact on depression and anxiety remains unclear. This study examines whether objectively obtained socioeconomic, physical and social aspects of the neighbourhood in which persons live are associated with the presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data are from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including participants (n = 2980) with and without depressive and anxiety disorders in the past year (based on DSM-based psychiatric interviews)...
March 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Yang Bai, Hannelore Bové, Tim S Nawrot, Benoit Nemery
BACKGROUND: Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM) has been proposed as an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived pollutant particles. However, it is not known how this biomarker is affected by changes in exposure. We studied the clearance kinetics of black carbon (BC) in AM, obtained by sputum induction, in a one-year panel study. METHODS: AM BC was measured 8 times with 6 weeks intervals in healthy young subjects: 15 long-term residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE, mean annual PM10 20-30 μg/m3 ) and 30 newcomers having arrived recently (< 3 weeks) in Leuven from highly polluted cities (mean annual PM10  > 50 μg/m3 ) in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, n = 15), or from low to moderately polluted cities in high-income countries (HIC, n = 15)...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Weize Song, Haifeng Jia, Zhilin Li, Deliang Tang
Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO2 and PM2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO2 and PM2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adrian Blanco Machin, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento
Exposure to air pollutants, usually measured by environmental agencies that are not present in all states, may be associated with respiratory admissions in children. An ecological time series study was conducted with data on hospitalizations due to selected respiratory diseases in children under 10 years of age in 2012 in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated with a mathematical model, data on low temperatures and relative humidity were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology, and the numbers of brush burnings were obtained from the Environmental Information System...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Peng-Fei Liu, Peng Yan, Da-Hui Zhao, Wen-Fang Shi, Song Meng, Yang Liu, Bin Liu, Guo-Feng Li, Li-Xin Xie
Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of environmental factors on the differential expression of microRNAs in the peripheral blood of migratory and local patients in northern People's Republic of China and on clinical symptoms of local patients in northern People's Republic of China with COPD. Methods: A total of 118 patients in the northern region and 8 migratory patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We collected general information...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Sheryl Magzamen, Assaf P Oron, Emily R Locke, Vincent S Fan
BACKGROUND: Studies have linked ambient air pollution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) healthcare encounters. However, the association between air quality and rescue medication use is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the role of air pollution exposure for increased short-acting beta-2-agonist (SABA) use in patients with COPD through use of remote monitoring technology. METHODS: Participants received a portable electronic inhaler sensor to record the date, time and location for SABA use over a 3-month period...
March 13, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Hang Qiu, Kun Tan, Feiyu Long, Liya Wang, Haiyan Yu, Ren Deng, Hu Long, Yanlong Zhang, Jingping Pan
Evidence on the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity attributable to the interaction between ambient air pollution and temperature has been limited. This study aimed to examine the modification effect of temperature on the association of ambient air pollutants (including particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10 ) and <2.5 μm (PM2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O₃)) with risk of hospital admissions (HAs) for COPD, as well as the associated morbidity burden in urban areas of Chengdu, China, from 2015 to 2016...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yi Wang, Hao Fan, Rudy Banerjee, Anne M Weaver, Michael Weiner
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases disease risk in older adults. Nursing facilities located near major roadways potentially expose older adults to traffic pollution. No studies, however, have described the association between nursing facilities and traffic pollution. We obtained data on facility- and census-tract-level characteristics of 15,706 U.S. facilities from the Medicare Nursing Home Compare datasets. We calculated distance to major roadways and traffic density for each facility. In the contiguous U...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Swapna Upadhyay, Lena Palmberg
Air pollution leads to inhalation of several pulmonary stimulants that includes particulate matter (PM), and gaseous substances contributing significantly to the development of chronic lung diseases. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of air pollutant mediated pulmonary toxicity remains unclear. This is primarily due to the lack of efficient test systems, mimicing human inhalation exposure scenarios to air pollutants. The majority of the pulmonary in vitro-studies have been conducted using cell lines in submerged cell culture conditions and thereby overlooking the pulmonary physiology...
March 9, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Shwetha V Kumar, Philip J Lupo, Lisa A Pompeii, Heather E Danysh
The environmental determinants of pediatric embryonal tumors remain unclear. Because of the growing concern over the impact of exposures to traffic-related air pollution on pediatric cancer, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the impact of maternal residential proximity to major roadways on the risk of pediatric embryonal tumors in offspring. We identified children diagnosed with neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, retinoblastoma, or hepatoblastoma at <5 years of age from the Texas Cancer Registry and selected unaffected controls from birth certificates...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sunhye Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Muk Yi, Jongbae Heo
The sources of different pollutants contributing to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 ) on Daebu Island, Korea, were estimated. Twenty four hour integrated filter samples were collected from May 21-November 1, 2016, and analyzed for organic carbon, elemental carbon, ions, and trace elements. Positive matrix factorization was conducted on the PM2.5 chemical speciation data from the samples to define the pathways and sources of PM2.5 at the sampling site. A total of 80 samples and 24 chemical species were used to run the model and a total of nine sources were identified: secondary sulfate (29...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Lizhong Peng, Chad Meyerhoefer, Shin-Yi Chou
We investigate the health impacts of unconventional natural gas development of Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania between 2001 and 2013 by merging well permit data from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with a database of all inpatient hospital admissions. After comparing changes in hospitalization rates over time for air pollution-sensitive diseases in counties with unconventional gas wells to changes in hospitalization rates in nonwell counties, we find a significant association between shale gas development and hospitalizations for pneumonia among the elderly, which is consistent with higher levels of air pollution resulting from unconventional natural gas development...
March 13, 2018: Health Economics
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