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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448915/ozone-exposure-affects-tree-defoliation-in-a-continental-climate
#1
Alessandra De Marco, Marcello Vitale, Ionel Popa, Alessandro Anav, Ovidiu Badea, Diana Silaghi, Stefan Leca, Augusto Screpanti, Elena Paoletti
Ground-level ozone (O3) affects trees through visible leaf injury, accelerating leaf senescence, declining foliar chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, growth, carbon sequestration, predisposing to pests attack and a variety of other physiological effects. Tree crown defoliation is one of the most important parameters that is representative of forest health and vitality. Effects of air pollution on forests have been investigated through manipulative experiments that are not representative of the real environmental conditions observed in the field...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448823/accumulative-effects-of-indoor-air-pollution-exposure-on-leukocyte-telomere-length-among-non-smokers
#2
Nan Lin, Xinlin Mu, Guilian Wang, Yu'ang Ren, Shu Su, Zhiwen Li, Bin Wang, Shu Tao
Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448694/the-joint-effect-of-air-pollution-exposure-and-copy-number-variation-on-risk-for-autism
#3
Dokyoon Kim, Heather Volk, Santhosh Girirajan, Sarah Pendergrass, Molly A Hall, Shefali S Verma, Rebecca J Schmidt, Robin L Hansen, Debashis Ghosh, Yunin Ludena-Rodriguez, Kyoungmi Kim, Marylyn D Ritchie, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Scott B Selleck
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex trait with a high degree of heritability as well as documented susceptibility from environmental factors. In this study the contributions of copy number variation, exposure to air pollutants, and the interaction between the two on autism risk, were evaluated in the population-based case-control Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) Study. For the current investigation, we included only those CHARGE children (a) who met criteria for autism or typical development and (b) for whom our team had conducted both genetic evaluation of copy number burden and determination of environmental air pollution exposures based on mapping addresses from the pregnancy and early childhood...
April 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448366/project-tendr
#4
Laura Anderko
: Chemicals are ubiquitous in the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the products we use at work and in our personal lives. Toxic chemicals increase the risk of cognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental disorders throughout the life span. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 was intended to allow for the collection of data on and regulation of these chemicals but has been criticized for its significant limitations in protecting the public's health. In recognition of the scientific evidence demonstrating the connection between toxic environmental chemicals and neurodevelopmental disorders, Project TENDR (Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks)-a collaborative initiative of scientists, health professionals, and children's health advocates-produced a call to action last July with the aim of reducing exposure to chemicals and pollutants that contribute to the development of these disorders...
May 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447232/distribution-seasonal-variation-and-inhalation-risks-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-the-atmosphere-of-beijing-china
#5
Yanfen Hao, Yingming Li, Thanh Wang, Yongbiao Hu, Huizhong Sun, Julius Matsiko, Shucheng Zheng, Pu Wang, Qinghua Zhang
Spatial distribution, seasonal variation and potential inhalation risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in the atmosphere of Beijing, using passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam disks. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs, ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs ranged from 8.4 to 179 fg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3), 38.6-139 and 1.5-176 pg/m(3), respectively. PCDFs showed higher air concentrations than those of PCDDs, indicating the influence of industrial activities and other combustion processes...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445398/consensus-based-cooperative-control-based-on-pollution-sensing-and-traffic-information-for-urban-traffic-networks
#6
Antonio Artuñedo, Raúl M Del Toro, Rodolfo E Haber
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445051/potential-air-pollutant-emissions-and-permitting-classifications-for-two-biorefinery-process-designs-in-the-united-states
#7
Annika Eberle, Arpit Bhatt, Yimin Zhang, Garvin A Heath
Advanced biofuel production facilities (biorefineries), such as those envisioned by the United States (U.S.) Renewable Fuel Standard and U.S. Department of Energy's research and development programs, often lack historical air pollutant emissions data, which can pose challenges for obtaining air emission permits that are required for construction and operation. To help fill this knowledge gap, we perform a thorough regulatory analysis and use engineering process designs to assess the applicability of federal air regulations and quantify air pollutant emissions for two feasibility-level biorefinery designs...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444645/outdoor-ambient-air-pollution-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-neuroinflammation-hypothesis
#8
REVIEW
Richard L Jayaraj, Eric A Rodriguez, Yi Wang, Michelle L Block
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating research indicates that ambient outdoor air pollution impacts the brain and may affect neurodegenerative diseases, yet the potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: The neuroinflammation hypothesis holds that elevation of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in the brain mediates the deleterious effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in human and animal research document that neuroinflammation occurs in response to several inhaled pollutants...
April 25, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444603/physiological-functioning-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-l-under-heavy-roadside-traffic-an-approach-to-screen-potential-species-for-abatement-of-urban-air-pollution
#9
H Singh, Savita, R Sharma, S Sinha, M Kumar, P Kumar, A Verma, S K Sharma
The mitigation potential of avenue tree species needs a sound understanding, especially for landscape planning or planting tree species on roadside, especially in city limits where there is huge traffic due to more number of vehicles. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the impact of heavy traffic movement and pollution thereof on physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa trees planted on roadside in terms of carbon absorption, mitigation potential and adaptive behavior. Trees on roadside exhibited reduced carbon assimilation (36...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444548/post-effect-of-air-quality-improvement-on-biomarkers-for-systemic-inflammation-and-microparticles-in-asthma-patients-after-the-2008-beijing-olympic-games-a-pilot-study
#10
Jinming Gao, Xiaohua Xu, Zhekang Ying, Lei Jiang, Mianhua Zhong, Aixia Wang, Lung-Chi Chen, Bo Lu, Qinghua Sun
This study's aim was to investigate the post-effect of an air quality improvement on systemic inflammation and circulating microparticles in asthmatic patients during, and 2 months after, the Beijing Olympics 2008. We measured the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and microparticles in the peripheral blood from asthma patients and healthy controls during (phase 1), and 2 months after (phase 2) the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The concentrations of circulating cytokines (including TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were still seen reduced in phase 2 when compared with those in phase 1...
April 25, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444106/the-association-of-air-pollution-with-pubertal-development-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#11
Jian V Huang, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Many pollutants are endocrine disruptors with impacts on reproduction and health in animals, but evidence in humans, of which sex-specific effects on pubertal development may be an indicator, is less clear. We examined the association of air pollution in utero and during early life with pubertal development in Hong Kong, China, an area with a high level of air pollution compared with other similarly developed cities. We assessed sex-specific associations of particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in diameter (PM10), nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide in different growth phases with clinically assessed pubertal stage at approximately age 11 years (as indicated by Tanner stage) in a large population-representative birth cohort, the "Children of 1997...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442773/efficacy-of-recent-emissions-controls-on-road-vehicles-in-europe-and-implications-for-public-health
#12
Roy M Harrison, David C Beddows
Road traffic is a major source of urban air pollution responsible for substantial premature mortality. Until recently, attention has focussed primarily on exhaust emissions of particulate matter from traffic as a causal factor. From analysis of air quality measurement data from the UK and France, we demonstrate that road traffic exhaust has a far greater impact on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide than of PM2.5. PM2.5 and carbonaceous particle concentrations have been declining appreciably since 2010/11 due to the use of diesel particle filters, but little change is seen in nitrogen dioxide over the period from 1995 to 2015...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441633/a-health-intervention-or-a-kitchen-appliance-household-costs-and-benefits-of-a-cleaner-burning-biomass-fuelled-cookstove-in-malawi
#13
Katie Cundale, Ranjeeta Thomas, Jullita Kenala Malava, Deborah Havens, Kevin Mortimer, Lesong Conteh
Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality for children under five years in sub-Saharan Africa. Household air pollution has been found to increase risk of pneumonia, especially due to exposure from dirty burning biomass fuels. It has been suggested that advanced stoves, which burn fuel more efficiently and reduce smoke emissions, may help to reduce household air pollution in poor, rural settings. This qualitative study aims to provide an insight into the household costs and perceived benefits from use of the stove in Malawi...
April 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441601/improving-understanding-of-mixed-land-use-watershed-suspended-sediment-regimes-mechanistic-progress-through-high-frequency-sampling
#14
Elliott Kellner, Jason A Hubbart
Given the importance of suspended sediment to biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and the increasing concern of mixed-land-use effects on pollutant loading, there is an urgent need for research that quantitatively characterizes spatiotemporal variation of suspended sediment dynamics in contemporary watersheds. A study was conducted in a representative watershed of the central United States utilizing a nested-scale experimental watershed design, including five gauging sites (n=5) partitioning the catchment into five sub-watersheds...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441488/formaldehyde-hcho-as-a-hazardous-air-pollutant-mapping-surface-air-concentrations-from-satellite-and-inferring-cancer-risks-in-the-united-states
#15
Lei Zhu, Daniel J Jacob, Frank N Keutsch, Loretta J Mickley, Richard D Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Bernhard Rappenglueck, Dylan B Millet, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, Lyatt Jaeglé, Viral Pinakin Shah
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we use 2005-2016 summertime HCHO column data from the OMI satellite instrument, validated with high-quality aircraft data and oversampled on a 5 × 5 km(2) grid, to map surface air HCHO concentrations across the contiguous US...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441399/ghgs-and-air-pollutants-embodied-in-china-s-international-trade-temporal-and-spatial-index-decomposition-analysis
#16
Zhengyan Liu, Xianqiang Mao, Peng Song
Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441236/the-new-mirus-system-for-short-term-sedation-in-postsurgical-icu-patients
#17
Stefano Romagnoli, Cosimo Chelazzi, Gianluca Villa, Giovanni Zagli, Francesco Benvenuti, Paola Mancinelli, Giulio Arcangeli, Stefano Dugheri, Alessandro Bonari, Lorenzo Tofani, Andrea Belardinelli, A Raffaele De Gaudio
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the MIRUS system (Pall International, Sarl, Fribourg, Switzerland) for sedation with sevoflurane for postsurgical ICU patients and to evaluate atmospheric pollution during sedation. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Surgical ICU. February 2016 to December 2016. PATIENTS: Postsurgical patients requiring ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and sedation...
April 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440694/fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-a-risk-factor-of-rat-gestational-diabetes-with-altered-blood-glucose-and-pancreatic-glut2-expression
#18
Liu Yi, Chen Wei, Wang Fan
Recent studies have shown an association between air pollution and diabetic risk. This study was to investigate the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on glucose consequences and pancreas glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) expression and its related mechanisms in a gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rat model. GDM rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose while the controls received saline. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and blood routine tests (BRT) were detected for analyzing coagulation and inflammation. Pancreas tissues underwent pathologic examination, the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were detected for oxidative stress estimation, and the degree of GLUT2 expression of pancreas was analyzed...
April 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440643/field-calibration-of-xad-based-passive-air-sampler-on-the-tibetan-plateau-wind-influence-and-configuration-improvement
#19
Ping Gong, Xiao-Ping Wang, Xiande Liu, Frank Wania
The passive air sampler based on XAD-2 resin (XAD-PAS) has proven useful for collecting atmospheric persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote regions. Whereas laboratory studies have shown that, due to the open bottom of its housing, the passive sampling rate (PSR) of the XAD-PAS is susceptible to wind and other processes causing air turbulence, the sampler has not been calibrated in the field at sites experiencing high winds. In this study, the PSRs of the XAD-PAS were calibrated at three sites on the Tibetan Plateau, covering a wide range in temperature (T), pressure (P) and wind speed (v)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440282/understanding-the-rising-phase-of-the-pm2-5-concentration-evolution-in-large-china-cities
#20
Baolei Lv, Jun Cai, Bing Xu, Yuqi Bai
Long-term air quality observations are seldom analyzed from a dynamic view. This study analyzed fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution processes using long-term PM2.5 observations in three Chinese cities. Pollution processes were defined as linearly growing PM2.5 concentrations following the criteria of coefficient of determination R(2) > 0.8 and duration time T ≥ 18 hrs. The linear slopes quantitatively measured pollution levels by PM2.5 concentrations rising rates (PMRR, μg/(m(3)·hr))...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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