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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944158/environmental-chemicals-and-preterm-birth-biological-mechanisms-and-the-state-of-the-science
#1
Kelly K Ferguson, Helen B Chin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is a significant worldwide health problem of uncertain origins. The extant body of literature examining environmental contaminant exposures in relation to preterm birth is extensive but results remain ambiguous for most organic pollutants, metals and metalloids, and air pollutants. In the present review we examine recent epidemiologic studies investigating these associations, and identify recent advances and the state of the science. Additionally, we highlight biological mechanisms of action in the pathway between chemical exposures and preterm birth, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption, that deserve more attention in this context...
March 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943351/sources-distribution-and-export-coefficient-of-phosphorus-in-lowland-polders-of-lake-taihu-basin-china
#2
Jiacong Huang, Junfeng Gao, Yong Jiang, Hongbin Yin, Bahman Jabbarian Amiri
Identifying phosphorus (P) sources, distribution and export from lowland polders is important for P pollution management, however, is challenging due to the high complexity of hydrological and P transport processes in lowland areas. In this study, the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of P export coefficient (PEC) from all the 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, China were estimated using a coupled P model for describing P dynamics in a polder system. The estimated amount of P export from polders in Lake Taihu Basin during 2013 was 1916...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943349/assessment-of-annual-air-pollution-levels-with-pm1-pm2-5-pm10-and-associated-heavy-metals-in-algiers-algeria
#3
Abdelhamid Talbi, Yacine Kerchich, Rabah Kerbachi, Ménouèr Boughedaoui
Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM1, PM2...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942473/renewable-energy-carbon-emissions-and-economic-growth-in-24-asian-countries-evidence-from-panel-cointegration-analysis
#4
Wen-Cheng Lu
This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942008/transport-of-ellipsoid-fibers-in-oscillatory-shear-flows-implications-for-aerosol-deposition-in-deep-airways
#5
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941801/spatiotemporal-interpolation-of-air-pollutants-in-the-greater-cairo-and-the-delta-egypt
#6
Sara Osama Ahmed, Reda Mazloum, Hala Abou-Ali
This paper analyses the spatiotemporal variability of air pollutants in Egypt using monthly averages from the air quality monitoring network from 2011 to 2015. Particulate Matters (PM10) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), measured by the monitoring stations network are studied. A log transformation is applied for the three pollutants to achieve normality. The sum-metric function is utilized for modelling the spatiotemporal variogram as it gave the smallest Mean Squared Error (MSE) compared to other forms namely separable, metric, and product sum models...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941800/factors-affecting-variability-in-pm2-5-exposure-concentrations-in-a-metro-system
#7
Zhiyuan Li, Wenwei Che, H Christopher Frey, Alexis K H Lau
The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate PM2.5 inflow to metro train cabins when doors open at stations; (2) assess the spatial and temporal variability in PM2.5 exposure concentration; and (3) quantify the relationship between in-cabin concentration versus outdoor and non-ambient PM2.5. We measured in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations using portable monitors at the door-side and center of a train cabin simultaneously on a Hong Kong metro line. In addition, platform and in-cabin pollutant concentrations near a train door were simultaneously measured...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941717/the-cold-effect-of-ambient-temperature-on-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-hospital-admissions-a-large-database-study-in-beijing-china-between-years-2013-and-2014-utilizing-a-distributed-lag-non-linear-analysis
#8
Yanxia Luo, Haibin Li, Fangfang Huang, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, Qin Xu, Anxin Wang, Jin Guo, Lixin Tao, Xia Li, Mengyang Liu, Deqiang Zheng, Sipeng Chen, Feng Zhang, Xinghua Yang, Peng Tan, Wei Wang, Xueqin Xie, Xiuhua Guo
The effects of ambient temperature on stroke death in China have been well addressed. However, few studies are focused on the attributable burden for the incident of different types of stroke due to ambient temperature, especially in Beijing, China. We purpose to assess the influence of ambient temperature on hospital stroke admissions in Beijing, China. Data on daily temperature, air pollution, and relative humidity measurements and stroke admissions in Beijing were obtained between 2013 and 2014. Distributed lag non-linear model was employed to determine the association between daily ambient temperature and stroke admissions...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939124/daily-air-quality-index-forecasting-with-hybrid-models-a-case-in-china
#9
Suling Zhu, Xiuyuan Lian, Haixia Liu, Jianming Hu, Yuanyuan Wang, Jinxing Che
Air quality is closely related to quality of life. Air pollution forecasting plays a vital role in air pollution warnings and controlling. However, it is difficult to attain accurate forecasts for air pollution indexes because the original data are non-stationary and chaotic. The existing forecasting methods, such as multiple linear models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector regression (SVR), cannot fully capture the information from series of pollution indexes. Therefore, new effective techniques need to be proposed to forecast air pollution indexes...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939048/seasonal-effect-on-association-between-atmospheric-pollutants-and-hospital-emergency-room-visit-for-stroke
#10
Hua Zhong, Zhihao Shu, Yuqing Zhou, Yao Lu, Bin Yi, Xiaohong Tang, Chan Liu, Qihong Deng, Hong Yuan, Zhijun Huang
BACKGROUND: The relationship between air pollution and stroke is conflicting. This study was conducted to document the relationship between daily changes in atmospheric pollutants and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) for stroke. METHODS: Data of daily hospital ERVs for stroke and atmospheric pollutants in Changsha city between 2008 and 2009 were collected. Using a time-stratified bidirectional case-crossover design, we analyzed the association between atmospheric pollutants and stroke incidence in 4 seasons...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938911/psychosocial-and-demographic-predictors-of-adherence-and-non-adherence-to-health-advice-accompanying-air-quality-warning-systems-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Donatella D'Antoni, Louise Smith, Vivian Auyeung, John Weinman
BACKGROUND: Although evidence shows that poor air quality can harm human health, we have a limited understanding about the behavioural impact of air quality forecasts. Our aim was to understand to what extent air quality warning systems influence protective behaviours in the general public, and to identify the demographic and psychosocial factors associated with adherence and non-adherence to the health advice accompanying these warnings. METHOD: In August 2016 literature was systematically reviewed to find studies assessing intended or actual adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems, and encouraging people to reduce exposure to air pollution...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938579/the-effects-of-air-pollution-on-mortality-and-clinicopathological-features-of-esophageal-cancer
#12
Xiaochen Huang, Shanghui Guan, Jiangfeng Wang, Linli Zhao, Yibin Jia, Zilong Lu, Cuiping Yin, Shengsi Yang, Qingxu Song, Lihui Han, Cong Wang, Jingyi Li, Wei Zhou, Xiaolei Guo, Yufeng Cheng
This study aimed to estimate the associations between air pollution and esophageal cancer. In the ecologic cross-sectional study, correlation analyses were made between city-level mean concentrations of particulate matter less than 10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), SO2, NO2 and city-level age-standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer in Shandong Province, China. PM10 (p=0.046) and NO2 (p=0.03) both had significant linear correlations with esophageal cancer mortality rates. After introducing smoking as a risk factor in models of multiple linear regression analyses, PM10 was still an independent risk factor that increased esophageal cancer mortality rates...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938217/deriving-nitrogen-critical-levels-and-loads-based-on-the-responses-of-acidophytic-lichen-communities-on-boreal-urban-pinus-sylvestris-trunks
#13
Sirkku Manninen
The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4-5μgm(-3) to >50μgm(-3)...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938211/current-surface-ozone-concentrations-significantly-decrease-wheat-growth-yield-and-quality
#14
Håkan Pleijel, Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills
Tropospheric ozone is known to adversely affect crops and other vegetation. Most studies have focussed on the effects of elevated ozone levels vs. present ambient. We investigated the effect of present ambient surface ozone (O3) concentrations vs. preindustrial on a range of agronomically important response variables in field-grown wheat, using results from 33 experiments (representing 9 countries, 3 continents, 17 cultivars plus one set of 4 cultivars) having both charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) air treatments...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938101/exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-large-cohorts-of-us-nurses
#15
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937752/inverse-association-between-ambient-sulfur-dioxide-exposure-and-semen-quality-in-wuhan-china
#16
Yuewei Liu, Yun Zhou, Jixuan Ma, Wei Bao, Jingjing Li, Ting Zhou, Xiuqing Cui, Zhe Peng, Hai Zhang, Min Feng, Yuan Yuan, Yuanqi Chen, Xiji Huang, Yonggang Li, Yonggang Duan, Tingming Shi, Lei Jin, Li Wu
Evidence concerning the association between ambient gaseous air pollutant exposures and semen quality is sparse, and findings in previous studies remain largely inconsistent. We enrolled 1759 men with 2184 semen examinations at a large reproductive medical center in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2015. Inverse distance weighting interpolation was performed to estimate individual exposures to SO2, NO2, CO and O3 during the entire period (lag 0-90 days) and key periods (lag 0-9, 10-14, 70-90 days) of sperm development...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936425/gut-dysbiosis-in-animals-due-to-environmental-chemical-exposures
#17
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935655/particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-the-risk-of-incident-ckd-and-progression-to-esrd
#18
Benjamin Bowe, Yan Xie, Tingting Li, Yan Yan, Hong Xian, Ziyad Al-Aly
Elevated levels of fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes and death, but their association with risk of CKD and ESRD is unknown. We linked the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Veterans Affairs databases to build an observational cohort of 2,482,737 United States veterans, and used survival models to evaluate the association of PM2.5 concentrations and risk of incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), incident CKD, eGFR decline ≥30%, and ESRD over a median follow-up of 8...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935614/randomized-trial-of-interventions-to-improve-childhood-asthma-in-homes-with-wood-burning-stoves
#19
Curtis W Noonan, Erin O Semmens, Paul Smith, Solomon W Harrar, Luke Montrose, Emily Weiler, Marcy McNamara, Tony J Ward
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935404/chemical-characteristics-and-sources-of-pm1-during-the-2016-summer-in-hangzhou
#20
Kangwei Li, Linghong Chen, Stephen J White, Xianjue Zheng, Biao Lv, Chao Lin, Zhier Bao, Xuecheng Wu, Xiang Gao, Fang Ying, Jiandong Shen, Merched Azzi, Kefa Cen
During the 2016 Hangzhou G20 Summit, the chemical composition of submicron particles (PM1) was measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with a suite of collocated instruments. The campaign was undertaken between August 5 and September 23, 2016. The impacts of emission controls and meteorological conditions on PM1 chemical composition, diurnal cycles, organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment, size distribution and elemental ratios were characterized in detail...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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