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Organophosphates poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904524/prevalence-circumstances-and-management-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-hospitals-in-kampala-city-uganda
#1
Charles Ssemugabo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Ruth Mubeezi Neebye, Victoria Nabankema, Massy Moses Kasule, Deogratius Ssekimpi, Erik Jørs
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901626/acute-poisonings-during-pregnancy-and-in-other-non-pregnant-women-in-emergency-departments-of-four-government-hospitals-addis-ababa-ethiopia-2010-2015
#2
Mebrahtu Eyasu, Tolesa Dida, Yoseph Worku, Solomon Worku, Mensur Shafie
OBJECTIVE: To characterise acute poisonings in pregnant and non-pregnant women treated at emergency departments of government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: All data for acutely poisoned women were retrospectively collected from patient medical charts at the emergency departments of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ras Desta Memorial Hospital, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College and Zewditu Memorial Hospital...
September 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894590/trpa1-channel-mediates-organophosphate-induced-delayed-neuropathy
#3
Qiang Ding, Sui Fang, Xueqin Chen, Youxin Wang, Jian Li, Fuyun Tian, Xiang Xu, Bernard Attali, Xin Xie, Zhaobing Gao
The organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), often leads to paresthesias, ataxia and paralysis, occurs in the late-stage of acute poisoning or after repeated exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides or nerve agents, and may contribute to the Gulf War Syndrome. The acute phase of OP poisoning is often attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the underlying mechanism for the delayed neuropathy remains unknown and no treatment is available. Here we demonstrate that TRPA1 channel (Transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1) mediates OPIDN...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853097/application-of-tetrameric-recombinant-human-butyrylcholinesterase-as-a-biopharmaceutical-for-amelioration-of-symptoms-of-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#4
S S Terekhov, V A Palikov, Y A Palikova, I A Dyachenko, O G Shamborant, I V Smirnov, P Masson, A G Gabibov
We present a procedure for optimizing the expression of recombinant tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase that enables large-scale production with the yield >30 mg/liter (>90 mg/roller bottle). Intravenous injection of the preparation significantly increased survival and decreased the severity of symptoms of poisoning with paraoxon, an organophosphorus toxin.
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811766/prognostic-factors-determining-morbidity-and-mortality-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#5
Ayca Acikalin, Nezihat Rana Dişel, Selcuk Matyar, Ahmet Sebe, Zeynep Kekec, Yuksel Gokel, Emre Karakoc
OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this retrospective study was to determine the factors affecting poor prognosis and mortality of organophosphate (OP) poisoning by reviewing patient data. We also reviewed present knowledge to make conclusions on certain longstanding debates in light of the literature. METHODS: In this retrospective descriptive study, patients who were admitted to and hospitalized in the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital with the diagnosis of OP poisoning between December 2010 and December 2015 were evaluated...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808374/hypothermia-in-organophosphate-compound-poisoning-recognizing-the-big-chill
#6
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Nanjundan Karthikeyan, Ritesh G Menezes, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761199/a-narrative-review-of-acute-adult-poisoning-in-iran
#7
REVIEW
Samira Alinejad, Nasim Zamani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Mehrpour
Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756521/increased-risk-for-hypothyroidism-after-anticholinesterase-pesticide-poisoning-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#8
Hung-Sheng Huang, Keng-Wei Lee, Chung-Han Ho, Chien-Chin Hsu, Shih-Bin Su, Jhi-Joung Wang, Hung-Jung Lin, Chien-Cheng Huang
PURPOSE: Previous animal studies have reported that acute anticholinesterase pesticide (organophosphate and carbamate) poisoning may affect thyroid hormones. However, there is no human study investigating the association between hypothyroidism and anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning, and therefore, we conducted a retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study to delineate this issue. METHODS: We identified 10,372 anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning subjects and matched 31,116 non-anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning subjects between 2003 and 2012 from the Nationwide Poisoning Database and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, respectively, in a 1:3 ratio by index date, age, and sex for this study...
July 29, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743514/precision-cut-lung-slices-as-test-system-for-candidate-therapeutics-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#9
Julia Herbert, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Timo Wille
Standard therapeutic options in organophosphate (OP) poisoning are limited to the administration of atropine and oximes, a regimen often lacking in efficacy and applicability. Treatment alternatives are needed, preferably covering a broad spectrum of OP intoxications. Although recent research yielded several promising compounds, e.g. bioscavengers, modulators of the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor or bispyridinium non-oximes, these substances still need further evaluation, especially regarding effects on the potentially lethal respiratory symptoms of OP poisoning...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722512/in-silico-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-two-novel-oximes-k378-and-k727-in-comparison-to-k27-and-pralidoxime-against-paraoxon-ethyl-intoxication
#10
Maria Chaudhry, Muhammad Qaiser Fatmi, Kamil Musilek, Alamdar Hussain, Kamil Kuca, Georg Petroianu, Huba Kalasz, Syed Muhammad Nurulain
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major global health issue; while compounds from this group have been used intensively over the last century, an effective antidote is still lacking. Oxime-type AChE reactivators are used to reactivate the OP inhibited AChE. Pralidoxime is the only US Food and Drug Administration, (FDA) approved oxime for therapeutic use but its efficacy has been disappointing. Two novel oximes (K378 and K727) were investigated in silico and in vitro and compared with an experimental oxime (kamiloxime; K-27) and pralidoxime...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717090/delayed-polyneuropathy-induced-by-organophosphate-poisoning
#11
Shunsuke Kobayashi, Reiko Okubo, Yoshikazu Ugawa
An 89-year-old man attempted suicide by ingesting a pesticide (trichlorfon). After surviving the initial critical period in the intensive care unit, he developed rapidly progressive distal weakness and sensory disturbance. Electrophysiological examinations revealed sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy. Delayed polyneuropathy is a rare manifestation of organophosphate poisoning. Nerve conduction studies play an important role in the diagnosis of this rare clinical condition.
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695492/patterns-of-acute-poisoning-with-pesticides-in-the-paediatric-age-group
#12
Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Chamilka Y Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Pesticides are identified as one of the dangerous poisons globally in children and are associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity. Pesticide poisoning is the most common method of self-poisoning among adults in rural Sri Lanka, and the clinical management is associated with significant healthcare costs to the country. There is however little data published on acute pesticide poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. The current study aimed to comprehensively evaluate clinical profiles, harmful first aid measures, emergency clinical management, complications and outcomes related to acute pesticide poisoning among children in the rural community of Sri Lanka...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693885/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reverses-early-and-advanced-symptoms-in-macaques-exposed-to-sarin-vapor
#13
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets...
August 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681657/fatal-poisoning-by-terbufos-following-occupational-exposure
#14
Yue Liang, Fang Tong, Lin Zhang, Wenhe Li, Weisheng Huang, Yiwu Zhou
CONTEXT: Terbufos (TBF) is a class Ia (extremely hazardous) organophosphate pesticide (OP) and its distribution in industrialized countries has been severely restricted. Thus, acute occupational poisoning is rather uncommon. However, it still occurs in rural areas of some developing countries, where the sale of TBF is not controlled and its use is thus not properly regulated. We report a case of a 43-year-old female farmer who died after applying TBF granules. CASE: The patient died within 3 h after applying 20 bags of 5% TBF granules (900 g per bag)...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673345/pesticide-poisoning-in-chitwan-nepal-a-descriptive-epidemiological-study
#15
Deepak Gyenwali, Abhinav Vaidya, Sundar Tiwari, Prakash Khatiwada, Daya Ram Lamsal, Shrikrishana Giri
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. METHODS: A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District...
July 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659131/childhood-pesticide-poisoning-in-zhejiang-china-a-retrospective-analysis-from-2006-to-2015
#16
Aziguli Yimaer, Guangdi Chen, Meibian Zhang, Lifang Zhou, Xinglin Fang, Wei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. METHODS: The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China...
June 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652853/protection-studies-of-new-bis-quaternary-2-hydroxyimino-n-pyridin-3yl-acetamide-derivatives-hnk-series-oximes-against-acute-poisoning-by-dichlorvos-ddvp-in-swiss-albino-mice
#17
Pravin Kumar, Devyani Swami, Hitendra N Karade, Manindar Singh, Anupma Tiwari, Kshetra Pal Singh
The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI) and AChE reactivation in brain and serum...
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610598/forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-self-poisoning-suicidal-deaths-in-tehran-iran-trends-between-2011-2015
#18
Roya Kordrostami, Maryam Akhgari, Maryam Ameri, Masoud Ghadipasha, Kamran Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners...
June 13, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599200/assessment-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-intoxicated-with-organophosphates-by-a-novel-surface-electromyographic-index
#19
María Bernarda Salazar Sánchez, Alher Mauricio Hernández Valdivieso, Miguel Ángel Mañanas Villanueva
PURPOSE: We present a new electromyographic index, named Engagement of Respiratory Muscle (ERM), for assessing the level of participation of respiratory muscles during spontaneous breathing test in patients poisoned with organophosphorus compound. METHODS: Diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid muscles activity was recorded by surface electromyography during spontaneous breathing test. A population of 23 patients poisoned with organophosphates and mechanically ventilated, and a control group of 28 healthy subjects were analyzed...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593011/pesticide-exposure-and-subjective-symptoms-of-cut-flower-farmers
#20
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nagami, Takajiro Suenaga, Mineko Nakazaki
Sales of cut-flowers depend much on the outer appearance of the flowers. They are not intended to be used as foodstuffs; thus, pesticides are used more liberally for cut flower growing than for other agricultural products. Flower production is often carried out in greenhouses; therefore, pesticide exposure seems to reach not only the person spraying the pesticides, but also the non-spraying workers as well. In 2009, a special research project on pesticide poisoning, affiliated with the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, developed a study that focused on cut-flower farmers' exposure to pesticide, subsequent adverse symptoms experienced, and treatment modalities to relieve pesticide-related symptoms...
May 2017: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
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