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Organophosphates poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610598/forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-self-poisoning-suicidal-deaths-in-tehran-iran-trends-between-2011-2015
#1
Roya Kordrostami, Maryam Akhgari, Maryam Ameri, Masoud Ghadipasha, Kamran Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners...
June 13, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599200/assessment-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-intoxicated-with-organophosphates-by-a-novel-surface-electromyographic-index
#2
María Bernarda Salazar Sánchez, Alher Mauricio Hernández Valdivieso, Miguel Ángel Mañanas Villanueva
PURPOSE: We present a new electromyographic index, named Engagement of Respiratory Muscle (ERM), for assessing the level of participation of respiratory muscles during spontaneous breathing test in patients poisoned with organophosphorus compound. METHODS: Diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid muscles activity was recorded by surface electromyography during spontaneous breathing test. A population of 23 patients poisoned with organophosphates and mechanically ventilated, and a control group of 28 healthy subjects were analyzed...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593011/pesticide-exposure-and-subjective-symptoms-of-cut-flower-farmers
#3
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nagami, Takajiro Suenaga, Mineko Nakazaki
Sales of cut-flowers depend much on the outer appearance of the flowers. They are not intended to be used as foodstuffs; thus, pesticides are used more liberally for cut flower growing than for other agricultural products. Flower production is often carried out in greenhouses; therefore, pesticide exposure seems to reach not only the person spraying the pesticides, but also the non-spraying workers as well. In 2009, a special research project on pesticide poisoning, affiliated with the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, developed a study that focused on cut-flower farmers' exposure to pesticide, subsequent adverse symptoms experienced, and treatment modalities to relieve pesticide-related symptoms...
May 2017: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564626/pesticide-incidence-in-poisoned-baits-a-10-year-report
#4
Mario Chiari, Cristina Cortinovis, Nicoletta Vitale, Mariagrazia Zanoni, Elena Faggionato, Alberto Biancardi, Francesca Caloni
The incidence of pesticides in poisoned baits recovered from 2005 to 2014 in Italian northern regions of Emilia Romagna and Lombardy was analysed. A total of 956 baits tested positive for pesticides during the study period. In 9.3% (n=89) of the baits analysed more than one toxic compound was present. Insecticides (53.2%) proved to be the pesticides most commonly involved followed by rodenticides (34.3%), molluscicides (12.3%) and herbicides (0.2%). Among insecticides, the anticholinesterases (organophosphates and carbamates) were the most frequently detected (59...
May 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515582/evaluation-of-mr-perfusion-abnormalities-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-and-its-correlation-with-spect
#5
K Uday Bhanu, Niranjan Khandelwal, Sameer Vyas, Paramjeet Singh, Anuj Prabhakar, B R Mittal, Ashish Bhalla
AIM: Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510081/qt-prolongation-as-an-isolated-long-term-cardiac-manifestation-of-dichlorvos-organophosphate-poisoning-in-rats
#6
Arthur Shiyovich, Ran Matot, Sigal Elyagon, Noah Liel-Cohen, Yossi Rosman, Shai Shrot, Michael Kassirer, Amos Katz, Yoram Etzion
Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. In group I, poisoning (0.25-, 0.75-, 1.4-LD50) was followed by application of atropine and obidoxime. In group II, poisoning (0.35-, 0.5-LD50) was done without antidotes. Cardiac evaluation included electrocardiography and echocardiography 2- and 6-week post-exposure, arrhythmia susceptibility following administration of Isoproterenol (150 mcg/kg), and histological evaluation...
May 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469452/risk-factors-of-pesticide-poisoning-and-pesticide-users-cholinesterase-levels-in-cotton-production-areas-glazou%C3%A3-and-sav%C3%A3-townships-in-central-republic-of-benin
#7
REVIEW
Hinson Antoine Vikkey, Dossou Fidel, Yehouenou Pazou Elisabeth, Hountikpo Hilaire, Lawin Hervé, Aguèmon Badirou, Koudafoke Alain, Houngbégnon Parfait, Gounongbé Fabien, Fayomi Benjamin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469445/epidemiology-of-organophosphate-poisoning-in-the-tshwane-district-of-south-africa
#8
REVIEW
L L Razwiedani, Pgd Rautenbach
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate poisoning is a major public health problem in South Africa. Individuals get exposed to organophosphate in both the domestic and industrial spheres. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using retrospective, secondary data of organophosphate poisoning cases over a 3-year period, reported at the Tshwane District surveillance office. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and Epi Info version 7 was used for descriptive statistics...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469444/knowledge-and-practices-relating-to-acute-pesticide-poisoning-among-health-care-providers-in-selected-regions-of-tanzania
#9
Elikana Lekei, Aiwerasia V Ngowi, Habib Mkalanga, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs) undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. METHODOLOGY: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91). The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%)...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465191/activity-of-cholinesterases-in-a-young-and-healthy-middle-european-population-relevance-for-toxicology-pharmacology-and-clinical-praxis
#10
Jana Zdarova Karasova, Zuzana Maderycova, Martina Tumova, Daniel Jun, Vit Rehacek, Kamil Kuca, Jan Misik
The activity of human cholinesterases, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) represents an important marker when monitoring exposure to pesticides/nerve agents, and may also be used in occupational medicine in diagnosis and prognosis of some diseases. In this study "normal/baseline" AChE and BChE activity has been investigated in a young and healthy population, with subsequent evaluation of several intra-population factors including sex, age (categories 18-25, 26-35 and 36-45 years old) and smoker status...
April 30, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403672/toxic-megacolon-as-a-rare-complication-following-atropine-therapy-due-to-organophosphate-poisoning-a-case-report
#11
Babak Mostafazadeh, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Maryam Paeezi, Farahnaz Nikkhah
The main therapeutic basis for a case of organophosphate poisoning is a combination therapy which includes atropine as an anticholinergic drug and pralidoxime. If the poisoning is severe, a high dose of this combination of medicines may be needed, but this may cause serious side effects: paralytic ileus or even megacolon; however, these gastrointestinal events are very rare. Here, we report a case of organophosphate poisoning where atropine therapy was given and led to drug-associated toxic megacolon.
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400690/transient-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#12
Ram Narayan, Mansoor C Abdulla, Jemshad Alungal
Renal complications due to organophosphate poisoning are very rare. We are presenting a unique case of transient distal renal tubular acidosis due to organophosphate poisoning, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind. An elderly female after deliberate self-harm with ingestion of chlorpyrifos had multiple ventricular arrhythmias due to hypokalemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis which improved completely after treatment.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376842/pattern-of-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning-at-university-of-gondar-teaching-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Getnet Mequanint Adinew, Assefa Belay Asrie, Eshetie Melese Birru
BACKGROUND: Despite the apparent benefits of organophosphate compounds (OPCs) acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poison is an increasing problem worldwide. In a country like Ethiopia, where agriculture is a major component of the economy, these compounds are readily available to the general public. There is paucity of evidence from Ethiopia showing the pattern of organophosphate poisoning (OPP) in healthcare facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pattern of acute OPP at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital in northwest Ethiopia, during September 2010 through December 2014 was conducted...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306345/a-retrospective-study-on-non-drug-related-poisoning-in-the-community-among-children-from-south-india
#14
Debasis Das Adhikari, Saibal Das, Blessed Winston A, Kaysina Vazhudhi, Aniket Kumar, Margaret Shanthi Fx, Indira Agarwal
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence, demographic distribution, types and outcomes across various non-drug related poisonings among children attending a tertiary care center in south India. METHODS: All children from 0-16 years who presented to the Paediatric Emergency Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore with non-drug related poisoning from October 2004 to September 2013 were included. RESULTS: Out of the total 997 cases of poisoning, 629 (63...
April 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296779/efficacy-of-fresh-packed-red-blood-transfusion-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hang-Xing Bao, Pei-Jian Tong, Cai-Xia Li, Jing Du, Bing-Yu Chen, Zhi-Hui Huang, Ying Wang
The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times.Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Fresh RBCs (packed RBCs stored less than 10 days) and longer-storage RBCs (stored more than 10 days but less than 35 days) were randomly transfused or not into OP poisoning patients...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263541/phone-camera-detection-of-glucose-blood-level-based-on-magnetic-particles-entrapped-inside-bubble-wrap
#16
Pavla Martinkova, Miroslav Pohanka
OBJECTIVES: Glucose is an important diagnostic biochemical marker of diabetes but also for organophosphates, carbamates, acetaminophens or salicylates poisoning. Hence, innovation of accurate and fast detection assay is still one of priorities in biomedical research. METHODS: Glucose sensor based on magnetic particles (MPs) with immobilized enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed and the GOx catalyzed reaction was visualized by a smart-phone-integrated camera...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250609/role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-diagnosing-neurological-complications-in-intermediate-syndrome-of-organophosphate-poisoning
#17
Reddy Ravikanth
Organophosphate poisoning (OP) is a very common mode of suicide in rural and urban areas due to the wide availability of pesticides. The identification of OP and timely referral for appropriate supportive care can be lifesaving. Injury to the central nervous system is a serious entity in acute OP. Application of modern imaging techniques like diffusion weighted imaging increases the diagnostic rate of brain injury in the early period and can provide evidence for medical treatment. We present the imaging features in the intermediate syndrome of OP...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243486/abnormal-spontaneous-eye-movements-as-initial-presentation-of-organophosphate-poisoning
#18
Igor De Lima Teixeira, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Arthur Oscar Schelp, Gustavo José Luvizutto, Fabrício Diniz De Lima, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: Atypical ocular bobbing may result from an intentional poisoning from an organophosphate compound. PHENOMENOLOGY SHOWN: The patient exhibited conjugated, slow, arrhythmic, unpredictable eye movements in all directions, diagnosed as atypical ocular bobbing. EDUCATIONAL VALUE: This is a rare, well-documented, clinically relevant case for medical students for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of organophosphate intoxication...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238224/a-comparative-toxidrome-analysis-of-human-organophosphate-and-nerve-agent-poisonings-using-social-media
#19
D S Reddy, E Colman
Here we utilized social media to compare the toxidrome of three lethal chemical exposures worldwide. YouTube videos were the main source from which the data were collected, but published reports and news were also utilized to fill in some gaps. All videos were organized in a database detailing symptoms and severity of each victim, along with demographics such as approximate age and gender. Each symptom was rated as mild, moderate, or severe and corresponding pie graphs for each incident were compared. The videos displayed symptoms ranging from mild to severe cholinergic toxicity and life-threatening convulsions...
May 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208980/contributing-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-organophosphate-poisoning-on-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-study-in-a-teaching-hospital
#20
Gurulingappa Patil, Navya Murthy, M Nikhil
INTRODUCTION: One of the most common causes of poisoning in agricultural based developing countries like India is due to Organophosphorus (OP) compound. Its widespread use and easy availability has increased the likelihood of poisoning with these compounds. AIM: To study the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study constituting patients of all age groups admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with diagnosis of OP poisoning between January 2015 to December 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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