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Organophosphates poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744248/high-dose-of-pralidoxime-reverses-paraoxon-induced-respiratory-toxicity-in-mice
#1
Pascal Houzé, Thomas Berthin, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Alice Hutin, J Frédéric Baud
Objective: The efficiency of pralidoxime in the treatment of human organophosphates poisoning is still unclear. In a rat model, we showed that pralidoxime induced a complete but concentration-dependent reversal of paraoxon-induced respiratory toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of pralidoxime in a species other than rats. Methods: A dose of diethylparaoxon corresponding to 50% of the median lethal dose was administered subcutaneously to male F1B6D2 mice...
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736246/effects-of-magnesium-chloride-on-in-vitro-cholinesterase-and-atpase-poisoning-by-organophosphate-chlorpyrifos
#2
Bamidele S Ajilore, Adetayo A Alli, Tolulope O Oluwadairo
The present study investigated possible benefits of magnesium ion (as MgCl2 ) in organophosphorus poisoning targeting its ability to interact with substrates and membrane enzymes. Blood samples collected from volunteered healthy adult by venepuncture into anticoagulant test tubes containing EDTA were separated into plasma and red blood cell and divided into three groups namely: normal, pesticide only (0.25-2.0 mmol/L chlorpyrifos) and pesticide (0.25-2.0 mmol/L chlorpyrifos) + 0.1 mol/L MgCl2 . Acetylcholinesterase, Na+ /K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase activities were evaluated...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704941/geographical-characteristics-influencing-the-risk-of-poisoning-in-pet-dogs-results-of-a-large-population-based-epidemiological-study-in-italy
#3
L Calzetta, P Roncada, C Piras, A Soggiu, G Liccardi, M Mattei, E Pistocchini
Pets can act as sentinels for human health and thus surveillance of pet dogs has the potential to improve awareness of emerging risks for animal and public health. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the risk of canine poisoning. In a large population-based epidemiological investigation in Italy performed from January 2015 to January 2016 and April 2016 to April 2017, descriptive statistics were acquired and analysed to determine variables associated with poisoning events in pet dogs...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692585/leukocyte-count-a-reliable-marker-for-the-severity-of-organophosphate-intoxication
#4
Sunil Kumar, Sachin Agrawal, Nitin Raisinghani, Shameem Khan
INTRODUCTION: Organophosphorus poisoning (OPP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Leukocyte count is a simple and inexpensive test, and elevated count is associated with acute inflammation and increased oxidative stress-like OPP. This study was done to correlate the severity of acute OPP with leukocyte count and also to assess the prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational clinical study was done on 80 patients suspected of OPP of age >15 years admitted to emergency unit at a tertiary rural teaching health-care center of Central India...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614332/new-therapeutic-approaches-and-novel-alternatives-for-organophosphate-toxicity
#5
Francine S Katz, Stevan Pecic, Laura Schneider, Zhengxiang Zhu, Ashley Hastings, Michal Luzac, Joanne Macdonald, Donald W Landry, Milan N Stojanovic
Organophosphate compounds (OPCs) are commonly used as pesticides and were developed as nerve agents for chemical warfare. Exposure to OPCs results in toxicity due to their covalent binding and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Treatment for toxicity due to OPC exposure has been largely focused on the reactivation of AChE by oxime-based compounds via direct nucleophilic attack on the phosphorous center. However, due to the disadvantages to existing oxime-based reactivators for treatment of OPC poisoning, we considered non-oxime mechanisms of reactivation...
March 31, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601635/fatal-poisoning-with-both-dichlorvos-and-phenthoate
#6
Akina Nara, Chiho Yamada, Takanori Kodama, Kanju Saka, Tetsuya Takagi
Organophosphates are widely used as pesticides. However, organophosphates are occasionally orally ingested to commit suicide. In this case, a man in his late 80s committed suicide by ingesting both dichlorvos and phenthoate. Autopsy findings revealed a characteristic volatile odor from his mouth, stomach, lungs, liver, and kidneys. The esophageal mucosa was denatured and had lost elasticity. Serum cholinesterase activity was 9 IU/L. Toxicological analyses performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that dichlorvos concentrations in the left and right cardiac blood samples were 11...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557685/magnesium-sulfate-and-calcium-channel-blocking-drugs-as-antidotes-for-acute-organophosphorus-insecticide-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Miran Brvar, Ming Yin Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Richard R Ribchester, Michael Eddleston
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of acute organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide self-poisoning is often ineffective, with tens of thousands of deaths occurring every year. Researchers have recommended the addition of magnesium sulfate or calcium channel blocking drugs to standard care to reduce acetylcholine release at cholinergic synapses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review systematically the evidence from preclinical studies in animals exposed to organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides concerning the efficacy of magnesium sulfate and calcium channel blocking drugs as therapy compared with placebo in reducing mortality or clinical features of poisoning...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516527/oxidative-stress-in-organophosphate-poisoning-role-of-standard-antidotal-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Nela Vanova, Jaroslav Pejchal, David Herman, Alzbeta Dlabkova, Daniel Jun
Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434782/effects-of-il-10-on-ox62-mhc-ii-and-cd86-in-bone-marrow-dcs-in-rats-with-organophosphate-poisoning
#9
Ning Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ronggang Jiang
This study investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of OX62, MHC-II and CD86 in bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) in rats with organophosphorus poisoning. Sixty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A) (20 rats), 20 rats with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (group B), 20 rats with organophosphorus poisoning, and IL-10 treated (group C). Group A was not treated with special treatment. Group B was treated with 4% omethoate by gavage to establish the model of organophosphate poisoning...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403130/suicidal-nonorganophosphate-poisoning-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-south-india-nature-prevalence-risk-factors
#10
Rohit Ninan Benjamin, Thambu David, Ramya Iyadurai, K S Jacob
Background: People who deliberately ingest poisons commonly present to emergency departments of hospitals in India. However, there is a dearth of information on poisoning using nonorganophosphorus pesticides. Methods: This prospective, hospital-based study attempted to examine the nonorganophosphorus poisons used to attempt suicide. Data on sociodemographic characteristics of patients, site and source of poisons, co-ingested substances, premeditation, and reason for poisoning were collected...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362639/management-diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-acetylcholinesterase-as-a-biomarker-of-the-toxic-effects-of-pesticides-in-people-occupationally-exposed
#11
Mitar Lutovac, Olga V Popova, Zoran Jovanovic, Hatidza Berisa, Radoman Kristina, Sonja Ketin, Marko Bojic
AIM: The paper presents research on the most common causes of exposure that leads to disorders of cholinesterase activity, as well as an overview of the results of cholinesterase activity with the poisoned people. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a group of 35 acute poisoned patients by organophosphate compounds has led to inhibition of AchE. A total number of examined workers are 175 in the chemical industry and agricultural production in the area of Rasina District-Serbia...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332674/sleep-apnea-and-pesticide-exposure-in-a-study-of-us-farmers
#12
Brittney O Baumert, Megan Ulmer Carnes, Jane A Hoppin, Chandra L Jackson, Dale P Sandler, Laura Beane Freeman, Paul K Henneberger, David M Umbach, Srishti Shrestha, Stuart Long, Stephanie J London
INTRODUCTION: Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and poisoning leads to respiratory depression. Thus, involvement in sleep apnea is plausible, but no data exist at lower levels of exposure. Other pesticides could impact sleep apnea by different mechanisms but have not been studied. Our study examines the associations between pesticide exposure and sleep apnea among pesticide applicators from a US farming population. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 1569 male pesticide applicators, mostly farmers, from an asthma case-control study nested within the prospective Agricultural Health Study...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317766/clinical-characteristics-of-stress-cardiomyopathy-in-patients-with-acute-poisoning
#13
Ung Jeon, Samel Park, SangHo Park, Eun-Young Lee, Hyo-Wook Gil
Patients who attempt intentional suicide suffer from physical or emotional stress. This situation might be an important factor that causes takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We retrospectively investigated the clinical features of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with acute poisoning. This study included patients who were admitted from January 2010 to December 2015 because of intentional poisoning by ingestion. Among these patients, we selectively collected data of patients who underwent an echocardiogram. We divided the patients into three groups according to the echocardiogram; the non-cardiomyopathy group, the global hypokinesia group, and the takotsubo cardiomyopathy group...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299760/correction-to-utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Adam Blumenberg, Roshank Benabbas, Ian de Souza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
The names of coauthors Roshanak Benabbas and and Ian S. deSouza were given incorrectly (as "Roshnak Benabbas" and "Ian de Souza", respectively) in this article as originally published.
March 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279642/imidacloprid-poisoning-an-emerging-cause-of-potentially-fatal-poisoning
#15
Sanjay A Mundhe, Siddheshwar V Birajdar, Sheshrao S Chavan, Nikhil R Pawar
There are a variety of pesticides that are used to control the pests in agricultural lands and other places. Newer pesticides, developed as an alternative to highly toxic organophosphates such as imidacloprid including other neonicotinoid compounds, are being increasingly used considering their less harmful effects in case of human exposures. Though it is considered relatively safer to human beings, it can lead to potentially life-threatening complications and acute poisoning with these compounds may be fatal in large ingestion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233034/base-deficit-is-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-organophosphate-insecticide-poisoning
#16
S B Lee, C Kang, D H Kim, T Kim, S H Lee, J H Jeong, S C Kim, D Y Rhee, D Lim
OBJECTIVE: Organophosphate insecticide (OPI) self-poisoning is a major medical problem in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that the base deficit (BD) is a prognostic tool that is correlated with the severity of injury and predicted mortality, particularly in trauma patients. Here, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of BD in OPI poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted between January 1, 2006, and January 31, 2015, at a single emergency department (ED)...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230717/utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Adam Blumenberg, Roshanak Benabbas, Ian S deSouza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#18
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost 2 centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to nontarget species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
March 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169297/massive-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-after-organophosphate-poisoning-a-case-report
#20
Sourabh Gupta, Ruchika Kumar, Archana Agrawal, Bindu Aggarwal, Sanjay Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
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