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Organophosphates poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070599/organophosphate-neurotoxicity-to-the-voluntary-motor-system-on-the-trail-of-environment-caused-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-the-known-the-misknown-and-the-unknown
#1
Samantha J Merwin, Teresa Obis, Yanelli Nunez, Diane B Re
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset paralytic disorder. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons controlling voluntary movement. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive, a fact that has precluded development of effective treatments. ALS presents as a sporadic condition 90-95% of the time, i.e., without familial history or obvious genetic mutation. This suggests that ALS has a strong environmental component. Organophosphates (OPs) are prime candidate neurotoxicants in the etiology of ALS, as exposure to OPs was linked to higher ALS incidence among farmers, soccer players, and Gulf War veterans...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050396/pharmacokinetic-potentiation-of-mixed-organophosphate-and-pyrethroid-poison-leading-to-prolonged-delayed-neuropathy
#2
Meenakshi Srinivasan, Ruhul Amin, Girish Thunga, Shivashankar Kaniyoor Nagiri, Chandrashekar Udyavara Kudru
Organophosphate (OP) and mixed pesticide poisoning remains an important cause of hospital admission. Therefore, physician must be aware of atypical presentations of delayed neurological complications of poisoning by taking proper patient history. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with high stepping gait and muscle wasting in hands. Patient history revealed consumption of approximately 4ml of mixed pesticide, consisting of 50% chlorpyrifos with synthetic pyrethroid, 5% cypermethrin. The prolonged and severe nature of delayed peripheral neuropathy, persisting at two years of follow-up, suggests that even small quantities of OP taken in combination with a pyrethroid can result in significant morbidity and is irreversible...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043418/the-effectiveness-of-patient-tailored-treatment-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#3
Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
BACKGROUND: To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. METHODS: This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043415/pralidoxime-and-pesticide-poisoning-a-question-of-severity
#4
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight new data supporting the use of pralidoxime in the treatment of cases of organophosphate poisoning, which also suggest that WHO treatment guidelines should be updated. We also learn about a modified surgical technique to repair severe spinal injuries, as well as new insight into the structure of human adenovirus that could inform vaccine development.
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002976/exposure-to-organophosphate-op-pesticides-and-health-conditions-in-agricultural-and-non-agricultural-workers-from-maule-chile
#5
María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada, Boris Lucero, Verónica Iglesias, Karen Levy, María Pía Muñoz, Eduardo Achú, Claudia Cornejo, Carlos Concha, Ana María Brito, Marcos Villalobos
The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning...
February 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964728/the-use-of-self-reported-symptoms-as-a-proxy-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-after-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-50-plus-cypermethrin-5-among-nepali-farmers-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#6
Dea Haagensen Kofod, Erik Jørs, Anshu Varma, Shankuk Bhatta, Jane Frølund Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies stating a high prevalence of occupational acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries have mainly relied on measurements of the rather non-specific self-reported acute pesticide poisoning symptoms. Only a few studies have measured the biomarker plasma cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure...
December 13, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959689/tongue-fasciculations-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#7
Bharath A Chhabria, Ashish Bhalla
A 15-year-old boy who lived with his family on a farm presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of vomiting, diarrhea, and altered sensorium. On initial assessment, he was drowsy and had tachypnea and hypotension. Auscultation of the lungs revealed diffuse crepitations. His pupils..
December 8, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942347/pattern-of-acute-poisoning-in-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-south-west-ethiopia
#8
Eyosias Teklemariam, Shibiru Tesema, Awol Jemal
BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People can be exposed to poisons either intentionally or accidentally. Designing appropriate treatment or prevention approaches depends on understanding of the nature and pattern of poisoning in a specific place. Information on the patterns of acute poisoning in Ethiopian hospitals is limited. This study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the patterns of acute poisoning in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), South West Ethiopia...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942054/effect-of-melatonin-on-duration-of-delirium-in-organophosphorus-compound-poisoning-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
H N Vijayakumar, K Ramya, Devika Rani Duggappa, Km Veeranna Gowda, K Sudheesh, S S Nethra, R S Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Organophosphate compound poisoning (OPCP) is associated with high incidence of delirium. Melatonin has been tried in the treatment of delirium and has shown a beneficial effect in OPCP. This study was conducted to know the effect of melatonin on duration of delirium and recovery profile in OPCP patients. METHODS: Double-blind randomised placebo control trial in which 56 patients of OPCP confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged >18 years and weighing between 50 and 100 kg, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of <20 were studied...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896325/utilization-of-plasmapheresis-for-organophosphate-intoxication-a-case-report
#10
Nezihat Rana Disel, Ayca Acikalin, Zeynep Kekec, Ahmet Sebe
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are extremely toxic chemicals that may be absorbed via skin, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Treatment of OP poisoning is a critical and aggressive process which includes decontamination, antidote administration (atropin and oximes), mechanical ventilation support and extracorporeal elimination procedures if needed. Here we present a young female patient who was unintentionally poisoned by an OP (trichlorfon) after using it to moisture her skin. The importance of this patient is the dermal disease that makes her unprotective to dermal exposure of chemicals and application of plasmapheresis to treat her poisoning...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845442/harnessing-nature-s-diversity-discovering-organophosphate-bioscavenger-characteristics-among-low-molecular-weight-proteins
#11
Reed B Jacob, Kenan C Michaels, Cathy J Anderson, James M Fay, Nikolay V Dokholyan
Organophosphate poisoning can occur from exposure to agricultural pesticides or chemical weapons. This exposure inhibits acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels within the synaptic cleft causing loss of muscle control, seizures, and death. Mitigating the effects of organophosphates in our bodies is critical and yet an unsolved challenge. Here, we present a computational strategy that integrates structure mining and modeling approaches, using which we identify novel candidates capable of interacting with a serine hydrolase probe (with equilibrium binding constants ranging from 4 to 120 μM)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830420/organophosphate-hydrolyzing-enzymes-as-first-line-of-defence-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-perspectives-and-the-road-ahead
#12
REVIEW
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
December 2016: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781262/risk-of-parkinson-disease-after-organophosphate-or-carbamate-poisoning
#13
C-S Chuang, H-L Su, C-L Lin, C-H Kao
AIMS: Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of PD in patients with organophosphate (OP) or carbamate (CM) poisoning by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study involving a cohort of 45 594 patients (9128 patients with a history of OP or CM poisoning and 36 466 control patients) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 26, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728587/pralidoxime-in-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-randomized-trial
#14
Bammigatti C, M Vinod Babu, T Kadhiravan, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727872/organophosphate-poisoning-predicting-the-need-for-ventilatory-support
#15
Suresh B N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688820/interrelation-of-glycemic-status-and-neuropsychiatric-disturbances-in-farmers-with-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#16
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666915/indoxacarb-poisoning-presenting-as-methemoglobinemia-and-seizure
#17
J Shashibhushan, Vishwanatha Huggi, N Sunil Kumar, Malappa Poojari, Rakesh Bobba
We are reporting a case of poisoning with a non-organophosphate pesticide (indoxacarb) resulting in methemoglobinemia and seizures, and successfully treated with ventilator care and intravenous ascorbic acid. Since there are limited data concerning the human toxicity of indoxacarb, physicians in emergency rooms should be aware of this rare poison and also its clinical presentations.
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651556/acute-poisoning-in-a-child-following-topical-treatment-of-head-lice-pediculosis-capitis-with-an-organophosphate-pesticide
#18
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648190/evaluating-the-protective-effects-of-vitamin-c-on-serum-and-erythrocyte-cholinesterase-activity-of-male-rats-exposed-to-malathion
#19
Faezeh Ghorbani Taherdehi, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Mehdi Jalali, Alireza Fazel
INTRODUCTION: Malathion is one of organophosphate poisons (OPPs) that inhibit cholinesterase activity and induce oxidative stress in target organs, such as the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Malathion on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in male rats and also to assess the protective effects of vitamin C in this regard. METHODS: This experimental study was performed in the Pharmacology Laboratory of the Pharmacy Faculty and in the Advanced Histology Techniques Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in January 2014...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605747/the-red-blood-cell-acetylcholinesterase-levels-of-depressive-patients-with-suicidal-behavior-in-an-agricultural-area
#20
Vesile Altinyazar, Fevziye Burcu Sirin, Recep Sutcu, Ibrahim Eren, Imran Kurt Omurlu
Long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) without acute poisoning can lead to various OPs. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be associated with depression and suicide attempts in a population living in a rural agricultural area. Patients (n = 149) suffering from major depressive disorder (with and without attempted suicide) and a control group of healthy individuals (n = 64) who had been living in the same rural district for at least 1 year were selected. Red blood cell acetylcholine esterase (RBC-AChE) activity was examined as the basis of evaluating the degree of chronic environmental exposure to OPs residues...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
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