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Air pollutant

Aziza Hadj Ltaïef, Simona Sabatino, Federica Proietto, Salah Ammar, Abdellatif Gadri, Alessandro Galia, Onofrio Scialdone
The treatment of toxic organic pollutants by electro-Fenton (EF) presents some drawbacks such as the necessity to work at low pH and the low solubility of oxygen in water contacted with air or oxygen at room pressure that results often in slow and relatively low abatements. Here, the coupled adoption of natural heterogeneous catalysts and of relatively high pressure was proposed in order to improve the performances of EF for the treatment of organic pollutants. Caffeic acid (CA) and 3-chlorophenol were used as model resistant organic pollutants...
March 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiaowei Cong, Xijin Xu, Long Xu, Minghui Li, Cheng Xu, Qilin Qin, Xia Huo
Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Chih-Fu Wei, Mei-Huei Chen, Ching-Chun Lin, Yueliang Leon Guo, Shio-Jean Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from biomass burning were associated with neurodevelopmental deceleration, but limited studies concerned about the effect of indoor biomass burning. Incense burning is a common household ritual practice in Taiwan, while past studies mainly focused on birth weight and allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find the association between incense burning exposure and children's neurodevelopment. METHODS: In Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS), a nationwide representative birth cohort study, children were assessed upon home interview with structured questionnaires upon six and eighteen months old...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
M J Friedrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life. Many non-genetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. METHODS: We searched PubMed to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of T2DM. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size, its 95% confidence and prediction interval, and the I2 metric...
2018: PloS One
Daniela Dias, Oxana Tchepel
Analyzing individual exposure in urban areas offers several challenges where both the individual's activities and air pollution levels demonstrate a large degree of spatial and temporal dynamics. This review article discusses the concepts, key elements, current developments in assessing personal exposure to urban air pollution (seventy-two studies reviewed) and respective advantages and disadvantages. A new conceptual structure to organize personal exposure assessment methods is proposed according to two classification criteria: (i) spatial-temporal variations of individuals' activities (point-fixed or trajectory based) and (ii) characterization of air quality (variable or uniform)...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ge Li, Baodong Wang, Wayne Qiang Xu, Yonglong Li, Yifan Han, Qi Sun
Nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) are major air pollutants, so simultaneously removing them from gases emitted during fossil fuel combustion in stationary systems is important. Wet denitrification using urea is used for a wide range of systems. Additives have strong effects on wet denitrification using urea, and different mechanisms are involved and different effects found using different additives. In this study, the effects of different additives, initial urea concentrations, reaction temperatures, initial pH values, gas flow rates, and reaction times on the simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification efficiencies achieved using wet denitrification using urea were studied in single factor experiment...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Tamara L Sheldon, Chandini Sankaran
Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires.2 This air pollution is associated with increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia, among other ailments...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Xin Dai, Gayan Bowatte, Adrian J Lowe, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, John A Burgess, Shyamali C Dharmage, Caroline J Lodge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes are involved in oxidative stress management and may modify the impact of indoor air pollution. We aimed to assess the influence of GST genes on the relationship between indoor air pollution and allergy/lung function. RECENT FINDINGS: Our systematic review identified 22 eligible studies, with 15 supporting a gene-environment interaction. Carriers of GSTM1/T1 null and GSTP1 val genotypes were more susceptible to indoor air pollution exposures, having a higher risk of asthma and lung function deficits...
March 20, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Tianqi Chen, Hua Liao
Solid fuels, such as coal, straw, and firewood are wildly used for cooking and heating in China, with the negative side effects of indoor air pollution and residential health problems. This article investigates the current and historical trend of China's disease burden caused by indoor air pollution (IAP) at the provincial level. The Global Burden Disease data set and national/provincial yearbooks are used. The results show the following: (1) In recent years, the burden of disease caused by IAP is decreasing; (2) in all health aspects, eastern coastal regions performed better than inland regions; (3) health risk is extremely severe in Henan, Sichuan, and Guizhou provinces; (4) IAP gives rise to serious diseases, including chronic obstructive respiratory diseases and cerebrovascular diseases...
March 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Lamri Naidja, Hocine Ali-Khodja, Salah Khardi
In order to assess the significance of PM in ambient air, it is necessary to evaluate their physical and chemical characteristics as well as identify their major emission sources. On a global scale, particulate matter in the atmosphere arises mainly from the combustion process of motorized vehicles, but natural sources are still considered as the major contributors. In Africa, PM emissions differ from those in developed countries; human activities such as biomass burning in households, poor household waste management, and the high number of diesel-powered vehicles are the predominant anthropogenic sources...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaowei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Mingqiang Yi, Yingjie Wang, Pengjun Wang, Jun Xu, Fenglei Niu, Feng Lin
Airborne particulate matter (PM) is causing more and more serious air pollution and threatening the public health. However, existing air filter technologies with the easy-to-block manner can rarely meet the requirements of high-performance PM filters. Here we propose a conceptually new type of inertial impaction filters for rapidly high-efficiency PM removal. Under the airflow velocity of 8.0 m/s, the real inertial impaction filters show high PM removal efficiencies of up to 97.77 ± 1.53% and 99.47 ± 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nur Adilla Che Samsuddin, Md Firoz Khan, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Ahmad Hazuwan Hamid, Fahia Tarannum Munna, Muhammad Aizat Ab Rahim, Mohd Talib Latif, Md Akhtaruzzaman
Southeast Asian haze is a semi-natural phenomenon that chokes the region each year during the dry monsoon season. Smoke-haze episodes caused by the vegetation and peat fires in Indonesia severely affected large parts of Malaysia during the 2015 El Niño phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that influenced the concentrations of aerosol and trace gases during the 2015 haze and non-haze period on a semi-urban site in the southern part of Malaysian peninsula that facing Sumatra (Muar, Site A), and on an urban site near to Kuala Lumpur, influenced by the city centre (Cheras, Site B)...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Saddaf Rashid, Muhammad Arshad, Maryam Siddiqa, Rafiq Ahmad
Air quality in urban areas is generally poor especially at traffic intersections and roadsides due to continuous vehicular emissions comprising poly aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, benzene, diesel soot etc. The objective of this study was to compare the primary DNA damage in traffic police wardens occupationally exposed to airborne Cd and Zn (exposed group) and educational institution with negligible exposure to airborne Cd and Zn (control group). Blood levels of Cd and Zn in traffic police wardens and control group were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and DNA damage was assessed by using Comet assay...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
O Naughton, A Donnelly, P Nolan, F Pilla, B D Misstear, B Broderick
Estimating pollutant concentrations at a local and regional scale is essential in environmental and health policy decision making. Here we present a novel land use regression (LUR) modelling methodology that exploits the high temporal resolution of fixed-site monitoring (FSM) to produce a national-scale air quality model for the key pollutant NO2 . The methodology partitions concentration time series from a national FSM network into wind-dependent sectors or "wedges". A LUR model is derived using predictor variables calculated within the directional wind sectors, and compared against the long-term average concentrations within each sector...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hao Yin, Massimo Pizzol, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen, Linyu Xu
Air pollution from PM2 .5 affects many cities worldwide, causing both health impacts and mood depression. One of the obstacles to implementing environmental regulations for PM2 .5 reduction is that there are limited studies of PM2 .5 welfare loss and few investigations of mood depression caused by PM2 .5 . This article describes a survey study conducted in Beijing, China to estimate the welfare loss due to PM2 .5 . In total, 1709 participants completed either a face-to-face or online survey. A contingent valuation method was applied to elicit people's willingness to pay to avoid PM2 ...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wayne R Lawrence, Mo Yang, Shao Lin, Si-Quan Wang, Yimin Liu, Huimin Ma, Duo-Hong Chen, Bo-Yi Yang, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Li-Wen Hu, Guang-Hui Dong
The effect of ambient air pollution exposure on childhood hypertension has emerged as a concern in China, and previous studies suggested pet ownership is associated with lower blood pressure (BP). However, limited information exists on the interactive effects pet ownership and air pollution exposure has on hypertension. We investigated the interactions between exposure to pet ownership and air pollutants on hypertension in Chinese children. 9354 students in twenty-four elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) in Northeastern China were evaluated during 2012-2013...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Julien Caubel, Vi H Rapp, Sharon S Chen, Ashok J Gadgil
Nearly 40% of the world's population regularly cooks on inefficient biomass stoves that emit harmful airborne pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM). Secondary air injection can significantly reduce PM mass emissions to mitigate the health and climate impacts associated with biomass cookstoves. However, secondary air injection can also increase the number of ultrafine particles emitted, which may be more harmful to health. This research investigates the effect of secondary air injection on the mass and size distribution of PM emitted during solid biomass combustion...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yiying Yue, William M Moe, Jianqiang Chen, Jiao Wang, Jingquan Han
Experiments were carried out to test the capacity for a laboratory-scale biofilter operated at an elevated temperature level (∼50°C) to remove an air stream containing β-caryophyllene, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene of environmental concern emitted from wood-related industrial facilities. A water jacket was used to maintain high temperatures in a laboratory-scale biofilter. Inocula, pollutant loading and nutrient supply rate effects were evaluated over 84 days of biofilter operation. The start-up process took over two months when citrus peels were used as inocula while a relatively short start-up period was achieved after introducing forest compost products...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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