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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151000/implementing-clinical-practice-changes-in-critical-care-lessons-learned-in-a-national-collaborative-of-over-60-icu-teams
#1
Ruth Kleinpell, Jerry J Zimmerman
Improving care in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a global area of focus for clinicians worldwide. The complexity of the ICU environment, compounded by multiple patient comorbidities and high acuity levels, makes the ICU a unique and challenging area of clinical practice. The essence of quality improvement - designing and implementing strategies to enhance care - fit well with the ICU setting. However, implementing clinical change is challenging, regardless of the clinical setting. A national collaborative targeting ICU settings was initiated which provided a number of lessons learned regarding implementing quality of care initiatives in critical care...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150989/an-evaluation-of-the-sentifit-270-analyser-for-quantitation-of-faecal-haemoglobin-in-the-investigation-of-patients-with-suspected-colorectal-cancer
#2
Josep M Auge, Cristina Rodriguez, Oihana Espanyol, Liseth Rivero, Silvia Sandalinas, Jaume Grau, Wladimiro Jimenez, Antoni Castells
BACKGROUND: An evaluation of SENTiFIT® 270 (Sentinel Diagnostics, Italy; Sysmex, Spain) analyser for the quantitation of faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) was performed. METHODS: The analytical imprecision, linearity, carry over and f-Hb stability were determined. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy was performed on 487 patients. RESULTS: Within-run and between-run imprecision ranged 1.7%-5.1% and 3.8%-6.2%, respectively. Linearity studies revealed a mean recovery of 101...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150978/mice-lacking-a-functional-nmda-receptor-exhibit-social-subordination-in-a-group-housed-environment
#3
Waka Ujita, Ayako Kohyama-Koganeya, Nozomi Endo, Toki Saito, Hiroshi Oyama
Social dominance, in which an individual asserts control over others or benefits most after social conflict, has an influence on social behaviour. However, the mechanisms mediating social dominance remain unclear. Social dominance within social groups determines the distribution of rewards such as food and access to mating partners, which can act as reinforcers. In this study, we used the water competition test to determine whether mice were dominant or subordinate. We have previously reported that mice heterozygous for a missense mutation in Grin1 (Grin1(Rgsc174) ) showed altered social behaviour, with increased locomotor activity, novelty-seeking and anxiety...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#4
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150969/non-operative-treatment-as-a-strategy-for-patients-with-parastomal-hernia-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
L F Kroese, D P V Lambrichts, J Jeekel, G J Kleinrensink, A G Menon, E J R de Graaf, W A Bemelman, J F Lange
AIM: Parastomal hernia is the most common complication following stoma construction. Surgical treatment is usually chosen over non-operative treatment, but a clear rationale for the choice of management is often lacking. This study aims to investigate the reasons for non-operative treatment, cross-over rates, and postoperative complications. METHOD: A multicentre, retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients diagnosed with a parastomal hernia between January 2007 and December 2012 were included...
November 18, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150949/chromium-hazard-and-risk-assessment-new-insights-from-a-detailed-speciation-study-in-a-standard-test-medium
#6
Imad Aharchaou, Jean-Sebastien Py, Sebastien Cambier, Jean-Luc Loizeau, Geert Cornelis, Philippe Rousselle, Eric Battaglia, Davide A L Vignati
Despite the consensus about the importance of chemical speciation in controlling the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of trace elements, detailed speciation studies during laboratory ecotoxicity testing remain scarce, contributing to uncertainty when extrapolating laboratory findings to real field situations in risk assessment. We characterized the speciation and ecotoxicological effects of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the ISO medium for algal ecotoxicity testing. Total and dissolved (<0.22 μm) Cr concentrations showed little variability in media spiked with Cr(VI) , while dissolved Cr concentration decreased by as much as 80% over 72 hours in medium amended with Cr(III) ...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#7
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#8
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150932/high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-blocks-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4%C3%AE-and-leads-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#9
Dongsheng Yu, Gang Chen, Minglin Pan, Jia Zhang, Wenping He, Yang Liu, Xue Nian, Liang Sheng, Bin Xu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease with manifestation of over-accumulation of fat in liver. Increasing evidences indicate that NAFLD may be in part caused by malfunction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), a nuclear receptor protein, plays an important role in sustain hepatic lipid homeostasis via transcriptional regulation of genes involved in secretion of VLDL, such as apolipoprotein B (ApoB). However, the exact functional change of HNF4α in NAFLD remains to be elucidated...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150926/viral-short-orfs-and-their-possible-functions
#10
REVIEW
Yaara Finkel, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Michal Schwartz
Definition of functional genomic elements is one of the greater challenges of the genomic era. Traditionally, putative short Open Reading Frames (sORFs) coding for less than 100 amino acids were disregarded due to computational and experimental limitations, however it has become clear over the past several years that translation of sORFs is pervasive and serves diverse functions. The development of ribosome profiling, allowing identification of translated sequences genome-wide, revealed wide-spread, previously unidentified translation events...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150922/prospective-evaluation-of-a-nonsurgical-device-for-rhinoplasty
#11
M A Deggeller, D Holzmann, M B Soyka
BACKGROUND: Rhinoplasty represents one of the most challenging and frequently performed procedures in plastic surgery and non-surgical rhinoplasty is rarely considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Nasella Nose Former (NNF), a newly developed non-surgical rhinoplasty device, could improve objective and subjective results following surgical rhinoplasty and even correct the shape of the nose without any surgery at all. METHODOLOGY: In this prospective, monocentric, two-armed, non-blinded randomized, controlled clinical trial, a total of 43 participants were included...
November 18, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150919/a-focus-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-alpha-synuclein-and-a-re-appraisal-of-synucleinopathies
#12
Larisa Ryskalin, Carla L Busceti, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Francesco Fornai
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owing an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations)...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150913/molecular-epidemiology-of-goat-pox-viruses
#13
P Roy, S Jaisree, S Balakrishnan, K Senthilkumar, R Mahaprabhu, A Mishra, B Maity, T K Ghosh, A P Karmakar
Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150888/systematic-review-of-disparities-in-surgical-care-for-m%C3%A4-ori-in-new-zealand
#14
REVIEW
Jamie-Lee Rahiri, Zanazir Alexander, Matire Harwood, Jonathan Koea, Andrew G Hill
BACKGROUND: Health equity for Indigenous peoples in the context of surgery has recently become topical amongst surgeons in Australasia. Health inequities are amongst the most consistent and compelling disparities between Māori and New Zealand Europeans (NZE) in New Zealand (NZ). We aimed to investigate where ethnic disparities in surgical care may occur and highlight some of the potential contributing factors, over all surgical specialties, between Māori and NZE adults in NZ. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
November 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150875/treatment-of-acquired-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-the-u-s-remains-heterogeneous-current-and-future-points-of-clinical-equipoise
#15
Marshall A Mazepa, Jay S Raval, Mark E Brecher, Yara A Park
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this survey was to describe current practices in the U.S. for treatment of acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), compare these with prior U.S. and current Canadian practices, and identify areas of clinical equipoise. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A research team member administered the survey by telephone. Questions included an estimate of the annual patient volume treated, apheresis and medical therapy practices for acquired TTP...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150872/predicting-the-onset-of-freezing-of-gait-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Emily L Lukasik, Matthew J Georgiades, Moran Gilat, Julie M Hall, Courtney C Walton, Simon J G Lewis
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease that ultimately affects approximately 80% of patients, yet very little research has focused on predicting the onset of freezing of gait and tracking the longitudinal progression of symptoms prior to its onset. The objective of the current study was to examine longitudinal data spanning the transition period when patients with PD developed freezing of gait to identify symptoms that may precede freezing and create a prediction model that identifies those "at risk" for developing freezing of gait in the year to follow...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150862/randomised-crossover-trial-showed-that-using-breast-milk-or-sucrose-provided-the-same-analgesic-effect-in-preterm-infants-of-at-least-28-weeks
#17
L Collados-Gómez, P Ferrera-Camacho, E Fernandez-Serrano, V Camacho-Vicente, C Flores-Herrero, A M García-Pozo, R Jiménez-García
AIM: Repeated, on-going exposure to pain influences the growth, cognitive and motor functions, behaviour, personality and neurodevelopment of preterm infants. We compared the analgesic effects of expressed breast milk and 24% oral sucrose on preterm neonates during venipuncture. METHODS: This multicentre randomised, non-inferiority, cross-over trial focused on five neonatal university units in Madrid, Spain, from October 2013 to October 2014. It comprised 66 preterm infants born at less than 37 weeks and randomly split into two groups...
November 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150856/defining-sepsis-on-the-wards-results-of-a-multi-centre-point-prevalence-study-comparing-two-sepsis-definitions
#18
T Szakmany, R Pugh, M Kopczynska, R M Lundin, B Sharif, P Morgan, G Ellis, J Abreu, S Kulikouskaya, K Bashir, L Galloway, H Al-Hassan, T Grother, P McNulty, S T Seal, A Cains, M Vreugdenhil, M Abdimalik, N Dennehey, G Evans, J Whitaker, E Beasant, C Hall, M Lazarou, C V Vanderpump, K Harding, L Duffy, A Guerrier Sadler, R Keeling, C Banks, S W Y Ng, S Y Heng, D Thomas, E W Puw, I Otahal, C Battle, O Minik, R A Lyons, J E Hall
Our aim was to prospectively determine the predictive capabilities of SEPSIS-1 and SEPSIS-3 definitions in the emergency departments and general wards. Patients with National Early Warning Score (NEWS) of 3 or above and suspected or proven infection were enrolled over a 24-h period in 13 Welsh hospitals. The primary outcome measure was mortality within 30 days. Out of the 5422 patients screened, 431 fulfilled inclusion criteria and 380 (88%) were recruited. Using the SEPSIS-1 definition, 212 patients had sepsis...
November 17, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#19
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150840/longitudinal-pathways-between-mental-health-difficulties-and-academic-performance-during-middle-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#20
Jessica Deighton, Neil Humphrey, Jay Belsky, Jan Boehnke, Panos Vostanis, Praveetha Patalay
There is a growing appreciation that child functioning in different domains, levels, or systems are interrelated over time. Here, we investigate links between internalizing symptoms, externalizing problems, and academic attainment during middle childhood and early adolescence, drawing on two large data sets (child: mean age 8.7 at enrolment, n = 5,878; adolescent: mean age 11.7, n = 6,388). Using a 2-year cross-lag design, we test three hypotheses - adjustment erosion, academic incompetence, and shared risk - while also examining the moderating influence of gender...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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