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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786970/density-functional-theory-calculations-revealing-metal-like-band-structures-for-ultrathin-ge-111-and-211-surface-layers
#1
Chih-Shan Tan, Michael Hsuan-Yi Huang
To find out if germanium should also possess facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties, surface state density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on 1-6 layers of Ge (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes. Tunable Ge (100) and (110) planes always present the same semiconducting band structure with a band gap of 0.67 eV expected of bulk germanium. In contrast, 1, 2, 4, and 5 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models show metal-like band structures with continuous density of states (DOS) throughout the entire band...
May 21, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786957/statistical-approaches-to-adjusting-weights-for-dependent-arms-in-network-meta-analysis
#2
Yu-Xuan Su, Yu-Kang Tu
Network meta-analysis compares multiple treatments in terms of their efficacy and harm by including evidence from randomized controlled trials. Most clinical trials use parallel design, where patients are randomly allocated to different treatments and receive only one treatment. However, some trials use within person designs such as split-body, split-mouth and cross-over designs, where each patient may receive more than one treatment. Data from treatment arms within these trials are no longer independent, so the correlations between dependent arms need to be accounted for within the statistical analyses...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786954/urinary-metabolites-predict-prolonged-duration-of-delayed-graft-function-in-dcd-kidney-transplant-recipients
#3
S Kostidis, J R Bank, D Soonawala, E Nevedomskaya, C van Kooten, O A Mayboroda, J W de Fijter
Extending kidney donor criteria, including donation after circulatory death (DCD), has resulted in increased rates of delayed graft function (DGF) and primary nonfunction. Here, we used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to analyze the urinary metabolome of DCD transplant recipients at multiple time points (days 10, 42, 180 and 360 after transplantation). The aim was to identify markers that predict prolonged duration of functional DGF (fDGF). Forty-seven metabolites were quantified and their levels were evaluated in relation to fDGF...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786937/the-effect-of-the-weekend-upon-admissions-to-general-medicine
#4
Tessa Potezny, Chris Horwood, Paul Hakendorf, Campbell Thompson
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: A reduction in the provision of hospital services on the weekend probably explains higher mortality for patients who are either admitted to hospital or undergo procedures on the weekend. The aim was to examine the effect of the day of the week of admission (DOWOA) upon the efficiency and quality of care for a cohort of General Medical inpatients. METHODS: Electronic records were selected for unplanned adult admissions to 2 large public hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia, July 2012 to June 2017...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786931/real-time-monitoring-of-prodrug-activation-by-direct-mode-of-chemiluminescence
#5
Doron Shabat, Samer Gnaim, Anna Scomparin, Sayantan Das, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro
The majority of theranostic prodrugs reported so far relay information through a fluorogenic response generated upon release of the active chemotherapeutic agent. A chemiluminescence detection mode offers significant advantages over fluorescence, mainly due to the superior signal-to-noise ratio of chemiluminescence. Here we report the design and synthesis of the first theranostic prodrug monitored by a chemiluminescence diagnostic mode. As a representative model we prepared a prodrug from the chemotherapeutic monomethyl auristatin E designed for activation by β-galactosidase...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786926/catalytic-thorpe-ingold-effect-for-branch-selective-alkylation-of-unactivated-aryl-fluorides
#6
Matthew J O'Neill, Tim Riesebeck, Josep Cornella
Herein, we present a general protocol for the alkylation of simple aryl fluorides with unbiased secondary Grignard reagents by means of Ni catalysis. This study revealed a general Thorpe-Ingold effect in the ligand backbone which confers a high degree of selectivity for the secondary position in the C-C coupling event. Such protocol is characterized by its mild conditions, robustness and simplicity. Both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl fluorides are suitable candidates in this transformation. Equally amenable are a variety of heterocycles, permitting the coupling without over alkylation at the electrophilic sites...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786923/biodiversity-of-the-human-oral-mycobiome-in-health-and-disease
#7
H M H N Bandara, C P Panduwawala, L P Samaranayake
The organisms that colonize the human body over a lifetime are diverse, extensive and gargantuan. A fair proportion of the microbiota that constitutes this human microbiome live within our oral cavities mostly as harmonious associates causing only sporadic disease. An important core constituent of the microbiome is the mycobiome, representing various fungal genera. Up until recently, only a few species of fungi, mainly Candida species, were thought to constitute the human oral mycobiome. The reasons for this are manifold, although the uncultivable nature of many fungi in conventional laboratory media, and their complex genetic composition seem to be the major factors which eluded their detection over the years...
May 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786897/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-for-the-diagnosis-of-patients-with-rare-congenital-anemias
#8
Noa Shefer Averbuch, Orna Steinberg-Shemer, Orly Dgany, Tanya Krasnov, Sharon Noy-Lotan, Joanne Yacobovich, Amir A Kuperman, Antonis Kattamis, Ayelet Ben Barak, Batia Roth-Jelinek, Evgeni Chubar, Evelyn Shabad, Gustavo Dufort, Martin Ellis, Ofir Wolach, Idit Pazgal, Abed Abu Quider, Hagit Miskin, Hannah Tamary
BACKGROUND: Most patients with anemia are diagnosed through clinical phenotype and basic laboratory testing. Nonetheless, in cases of rare congenital anemias, some patients remain undiagnosed despite undergoing an exhaustive workup. Genetic testing is complicated by the large number of genes involved in rare anemias and the similarities in the clinical presentation of the different syndromes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to enhance the diagnosis of patients with congenital anemias by using targeted next-generation sequencing...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786895/deep-brain-stimulation-treated-dystonia-trajectory-via-status-dystonicus
#9
Elodie Nerrant, Victoria Gonzalez, Christophe Milesi, Xavier Vasques, Diane Ruge, Thomas Roujeau, Isabel De Antonio Rubio, Fabienne Cyprien, Emilie Chan Seng, Diane Demailly, Agathe Roubertie, Alain Boularan, Fréderic Greco, Pierre-François Perrigault, Gilles Cambonie, Philippe Coubes, Laura Cif
BACKGROUND: Status dystonicus (SD) is a life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In a dystonia cohort who developed status dystonicus, we analyzed demographics, background dystonia phenomenology and complexity, trajectory previous to-, via status dystonicus episodes, and evolution following them. RESULTS: Over 20 years, 40 of 328 dystonia patients who were receiving DBS developed 58 status dystonicus episodes. Dystonia was of pediatric onset (95%), frequently complex, and had additional cognitive and pyramidal impairment (62%) and MRI alterations (82...
May 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786884/bone-morbidity-and-recovery-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-results-of-a-six-year-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Leanne M Ward, Jinhui Ma, Bianca Lang, Josephine Ho, Nathalie Alos, Mary Ann Matzinger, Nazih Shenouda, Brian Lentle, Jacob L Jaremko, Beverly Wilson, David Stephure, Robert Stein, Anne Marie Sbrocchi, Celia Rodd, Victor Lewis, Sara Israels, Ronald M Grant, Conrad V Fernandez, David B Dix, Elizabeth A Cummings, Robert Couch, Elizabeth Cairney, Ronald Barr, Sharon Abish, Stephanie A Atkinson, John Hay, Frank Rauch, David Moher, Kerry Siminoski, Jacqueline Halton
Osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Our objective was to determine the incidence and predictors of fractures and recovery from osteoporosis in pediatric ALL over 6 years following glucocorticoid initiation. Vertebral fractures (VF) and vertebral body reshaping were assessed on annual spine radiographs, low-trauma non-VF were recorded at regular intervals and spine bone mineral density (BMD) was captured every 6 months for 4 years and then annually...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786883/left-ventricular-aneurysms-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-with-midventricular-obstruction-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#11
Moustafa O Elsheshtawy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdelghany, Ida H Suen, Adnan Sadiq, Jacob Shani
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with or without left ventricular apical aneurysm (LVA) had been studied in the past. Midventricular obstruction associated with HCM and LVA is a unique entity that has not been distinguished previously as a separate phenotypic disease in HCM patients. METHODS: A systematic review of Pubmed and Google Scholar was conducted from inception until September 2017 for all observational studies conducted on HCM with midventricular obstruction and LVA...
May 22, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786864/testing-the-roles-of-vertical-transmission-and-drought-stress-in-the-prevalence-of-heritable-fungal-endophytes-in-annual-grass-populations
#12
Brittany R Cavazos, Teresa F Bohner, Marion L Donald, Michelle E Sneck, Alan Shadow, Marina Omacini, Jennifer A Rudgers, Tom E X Miller
Beneficial inherited symbionts are expected to reach high prevalence in host populations, yet many are observed at intermediate prevalence. Theory predicts that a balance of fitness benefits and efficiency of vertical transmission may interact to stabilize intermediate prevalence. We established populations of grass hosts (Lolium multiflorum) that varied in prevalence of a heritable fungal endophyte (Epichloё occultans), allowing us to infer long-term equilibria by tracking change in prevalence over one generation...
May 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#13
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786858/ecosystem-heterogeneity-and-diversity-mitigate-amazon-forest-resilience-to-frequent-extreme-droughts
#14
Marcos Longo, Ryan G Knox, Naomi M Levine, Luciana F Alves, Damien Bonal, Plinio B Camargo, David R Fitzjarrald, Matthew N Hayek, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Scott R Saleska, Rodrigo da Silva, Scott C Stark, Raphael P Tapajós, Kenia T Wiedemann, Ke Zhang, Steven C Wofsy, Paul R Moorcroft
The impact of increases in drought frequency on the Amazon forest's composition, structure and functioning remain uncertain. We used a process- and individual-based ecosystem model (ED2) to quantify the forest's vulnerability to increased drought recurrence. We generated meteorologically realistic, drier-than-observed rainfall scenarios for two Amazon forest sites, Paracou (wetter) and Tapajós (drier), to evaluate the impacts of more frequent droughts on forest biomass, structure and composition. The wet site was insensitive to the tested scenarios, whereas at the dry site biomass declined when average rainfall reduction exceeded 15%, due to high mortality of large-sized evergreen trees...
May 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786854/muffins-elaborated-with-optimized-monoglycerides-oleogels-from-solid-fat-replacer-obtention-to-product-quality-evaluation
#15
Anabella S Giacomozzi, María E Carrín, Camila A Palla
This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using oleogels from high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and monoglycerides as solid fat replacers in a sweet bakery product. Firstly, a methodology to obtain oleogels with desired properties based on mathematical models able to describe relationships between process and product characteristics variables followed by multi-objective optimization was applied. Later, muffins were prepared with the optimized oleogels and their physicochemical and textural properties were compared with those of muffins formulated using a commercial margarine (Control) or only HOSO...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786852/evolution-of-lobar-abnormalities-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-41-children-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#16
Tuhina Govil-Dalela, Ajay Kumar, Michael E Behen, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed long-term changes of lobar glucose metabolic abnormalities in relation to clinical seizure variables and development in a large group of children with medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Forty-one children (25 males) with drug-resistant epilepsy had a baseline positron emission tomography (PET) scan at a median age of 4.7 years; the scans were repeated after a median of 4.3 years. Children with progressive neurological disorders or space-occupying lesion-related epilepsy and those who had undergone epilepsy surgery were excluded...
May 22, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786838/edible-gum-phenolic-lipid-incorporated-gluten-films-for-food-packaging
#17
Rui Liu, Xu Cong, Yingshi Song, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
The aim of this investigation was to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of gluten films and further explore their application in the packaging of seasonings. The effects of flaxseed gum (FG), oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs), and lauric acid (LA) on the water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, and peroxide value (POV) were determined. FG and OPCs improved the WVP properties of the gluten films, whereas LA significantly improved the oxygen-barrier properties. The FG/OPCs/LA/GP composite film was then optimized, and the morphological, microstructural, and thermal properties of the composite gluten film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface hydrophobicity analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786830/blue-light-filtering-intraocular-lenses-iols-for-protecting-macular-health
#18
REVIEW
Laura E Downie, Ljoudmila Busija, Peter R Keller
BACKGROUND: An intraocular lens (IOL) is a synthetic lens that is surgically implanted within the eye following removal of the crystalline lens, during cataract surgery. While all modern IOLs attenuate the transmission of ultra-violet (UV) light, some IOLs, called blue-blocking or blue-light filtering IOLs, also reduce short-wavelength visible light transmission. The rationale for blue-light filtering IOLs derives primarily from cell culture and animal studies, which suggest that short-wavelength visible light can induce retinal photoxicity...
May 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786823/application-of-hybrid-external-fixation-by-the-joystick-method-in-bicondylar-tibial-plateau-fractures-technical-note
#19
Ersin Kuyucu, Adnan Kara, Ferhat Say, Mehmet Erdil, Murat Bülbül, Barış Gülenç
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to present clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures who were treated with hybrid external fixators and describe the details of our technique. Schanz screws were synchronously applied and used as a joystick for fracture reduction. METHODS: The study population included 72 patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures classified as type 41-C2 according to the AO classification. Joint reduction was maintained using Schanz screws transmitted through tibial condyles as a joystick under fluoroscopy...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786820/determination-of-trace-element-levels-in-patients-with-burst-fractures
#20
Shahab Ahmed Salih Gezh, Abdurrahman Aycan, Halit Demir, Cemal Bozlına
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine trace element levels (Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Cd, Co, and Pb) in patients with burst fractures in Van Province, Turkey. METHODS: The study included a total of 44 participants with no additional pathologies, including 22 patients with burst fractures aged over 18 years who were admitted to the neurosurgery departments at two hospitals between June 15, 2015 and January 20, 2016 and 22 healthy volunteers. Serum samples were obtained from all participants to measure the serum levels of trace and heavy elements, including Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe, Co and Zn, using atomic absorbance spectrophotometry...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
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