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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475077/inequality-between-biases-in-face-memory-event-related-potentials-reveal-dissociable-neural-correlates-of-own-race-and-own-gender-biases
#1
Holger Wiese, Stefan R Schweinberger
Humans are more accurate at remembering faces from their own relative to a different ethnic group (own-race bias). Moreover, better memory for faces from an observer's own relative to the other-gender (own-gender bias) has also been reported, particularly for female participants. Theoretical explanations for these effects either emphasize differential perceptual expertise or socio-cognitive factors. Importantly, both types of explanations typically assume a single common mechanism for the various biases. The present study examined event-related potentials (ERP) in a combined own-race/own-gender bias experiment...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467698/dual-systems-for-spatial-updating-in-immediate-and-retrieved-environments-evidence-from-bias-analysis
#2
Chuanjun Liu, Chengli Xiao
The spatial updating and memory systems are employed during updating in both the immediate and retrieved environments. However, these dual systems seem to work differently, as the difference of pointing latency and absolute error between the two systems vary across environments. To verify this issue, the present study employed the bias analysis of signed errors based on the hypothesis that the transformed representation will bias toward the original one. Participants learned a spatial layout and then either stayed in the learning location or were transferred to a neighboring room directly or after being disoriented...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466804/phenotypic-variability-in-autosomal-dominant-familial-alzheimer-disease-due-to-the-s170f-mutation-of-presenilin-1
#3
Hannes O Tiedt, Beate Benjamin, Michael Niedeggen, Andreas Lueschow
BACKGROUND: In rare cases, patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) present at an early age and with a family history suggestive of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Mutations of the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene are the most common causes of dementia in these patients. Early-onset and particularly familial AD patients frequently present with variable non-amnestic cognitive symptoms such as visual, language or behavioural changes as well as non-cognitive, e.g. motor, symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the phenotypic variability in carriers of the PSEN1 S170F mutation...
February 22, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463183/younger-and-older-adults-associative-memory-for-medication-interactions-of-varying-severity
#4
Mary B Hargis, Alan D Castel
While older adults face various deficits in binding items in memory, they are often able to remember information that is deemed important. In Experiment 1, we examined how younger and older adults remember medication interactions of varying severity. There were no age differences in overall memory accuracy, but older adults' performance depended on the severity of the interactions (such that the interactions associated with the most severe health outcomes were remembered most accurately) while younger adults' did not...
February 21, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456422/understanding-the-meaning-of-food-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-living-in-northern-appalachia
#5
Elizabeth A Beverly, Marilyn D Ritholz, Linda A Wray, Ching-Ju Chiu, Emmy Suhl
Purpose: Food and eating convey memories and feelings and serve important functions in creating and maintaining relationships. Given the increasing rate of diabetes in the United States, research understanding the meaning of food may shed light on how patients negotiate everyday food choices while managing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of food among adults with type 2 diabetes living in Northern Appalachia. Methods: In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with type 2 diabetes patients...
February 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454895/ensemble-coding-of-face-identity-is-present-but-weaker-in-congenital-prosopagnosia
#6
Matthew Robson, Romina Palermo, Linda Jeffery, Markus F Neumann
Individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) are impaired at identifying individual faces but do not appear to show impairments in extracting the average identity from a group of faces (known as ensemble coding). However, possible deficits in ensemble coding in a previous study (CPs n=4) may have been masked because CPs relied on pictorial (image) cues rather than identity cues. Here we asked whether a larger sample of CPs (n=11) would show intact ensemble coding of identity when availability of image cues was minimised...
February 15, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450791/face-processing-skills-predict-faithfulness-of-portraits-drawn-by-novices
#7
Christel Devue, Gina M Grimshaw
Individuals show astonishing variability in their face recognition abilities, and the causes and consequences of this heterogeneity are unclear. Special expertise with faces, for example in portraitists, is associated with advantages on face processing tasks, especially those involving perceptual abilities. Do face processing skills improve through practice, or does drawing skill reflect pre-existing individual differences? If the latter, then the association between face processing skills and production of faithful portraits should also exist in people without practice in drawing...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450789/control-by-association-transfer-of-implicitly-primed-attentional-states-across-linked-stimuli
#8
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447377/behavioral-and-neural-indices-of-affective-coloring-for-neutral-social-stimuli
#9
Daniel W Grupe, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Andrew J Schoen, Lauren K Gresham, Jeanette A Mumford, Richard J Davidson
Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures presented 2s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs...
February 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445317/resolving-crystallization-kinetics-of-gete-phase-change-nanoparticles-by-ultrafast-calorimetry
#10
Bin Chen, Dennis de Wal, Gert H Ten Brink, George Palasantzas, Bart J Kooi
Chalcogenide-based phase change materials (PCMs) are promising candidates for the active element in novel electrical nonvolatile memories and have been applied successfully in rewritable optical disks. Nanostructured PCMs are considered as the next generation building blocks for their low power consumption, high storage density, and fast switching speed. Yet their crystallization kinetics at high temperature, the rate-limiting property upon switching, faces great challenges due to the short time and length scales involved...
February 7, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430652/the-many-faces-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#11
Hélène Girouard, Lisa M Munter
This Preface introduces the articles of the special issue on "Vascular Dementia" in which several recognized experts provide an overview of this research field. The brain is a highly vascularized organ and consequently, vascular dysfunction and related pathways affect cognitive performance and memory. Vascular dementia or vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and both disorders often occur in parallel. With this special issue, we hope to provide insight and a stimulating discussion for the future development of this research field...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428548/the-impact-from-the-aftermath-of-chronic-stress-on-hippocampal-structure-and-function-is-there-a-recovery
#12
REVIEW
J Bryce Ortiz, Cheryl D Conrad
Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the brain and especially the hippocampus. Decades of research have provided insights into the mechanisms by which chronic stress impairs hippocampal-mediated cognition and the corresponding reduction of hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic complexity. Yet, when chronic stress ends and time passes, which we refer to as a "post-stress rest period," hippocampal-mediated spatial memory deficits begin to improve and CA3 apical dendritic arbors increase in complexity...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427182/neural-mechanisms-underlying-subsequent-memory-for-personal-beliefs-an-fmri-study
#13
Erik A Wing, Vijeth Iyengar, Thomas M Hess, Kevin S LaBar, Scott A Huettel, Roberto Cabeza
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures...
February 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415272/can-t-read-my-broker-face-learning-about-trustworthiness-with-age
#14
Eileen C Rasmussen, Angela Gutchess
Objectives: We assessed how age impacted learning who to trust, and the extent to which this type of learning relied on explicit memory. In contrast to prior studies, target faces were neutral without prior reputational information. Method: Younger and older adults made investment decisions for 36 brokers, who yielded a good, neutral, or bad outcome. Brokers were encountered three times to measure adaptive learning. After the investment task, participants completed a surprise explicit source memory test for brokers...
February 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407241/cross-race-correlations-in-the-abilities-to-match-unfamiliar-faces
#15
Eesha Kokje, Markus Bindemann, Ahmed M Megreya
The other-race effect in face identification has been documented widely in memory tasks, but it persists also in identity-matching tasks, in which memory contributions are minimized. Whereas this points to a perceptual locus for this effect, it remains unresolved whether matching performance with same- and other-race faces is driven by shared cognitive mechanisms. To examine this question, this study compared Arab and Caucasian observers' ability to match faces of their own race with their ability to match faces of another race using one-to-one (Experiment 1) and one-to-many (Experiment 2) identification tasks...
February 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402152/a-signal-detection-item-response-theory-model-for-evaluating-neuropsychological-measures
#16
Michael L Thomas, Gregory G Brown, Ruben C Gur, Tyler M Moore, Virginie M Patt, Victoria B Risbrough, Dewleen G Baker
INTRODUCTION: Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401240/long-term-associations-between-physical-frailty-and-performance-in-specific-cognitive-domains
#17
David Bunce, Philip J Batterham, Andrew J Mackinnon
Objectives: No longitudinal epidemiological research has reported associations between physical frailty and performance in specific cognitive domains. Our aim was to investigate whether such associations existed in the absence of accompanying neurodegenerative disorders such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Method: We addressed this issue in a population-based sample of 896 adults aged 70 years and older over 4 waves of data covering a 12-year period...
February 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401230/differential-age-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-associative-memory
#18
Ryan C Leach, Matthew P McCurdy, Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Eric D Leshikar
Objectives: Older adults experience associative memory deficits relative to younger adults (Old & Naveh-Benjamin, 2008). The aim of this study was to test the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on face-name associative memory in older and younger adults. Method: Experimenters applied active (1.5 mA) or sham (0.1 mA) stimulation with the anode placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during a face-name encoding task, and measured both cued recall and recognition performance...
February 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396751/cue-quality-and-criterion-setting-in-recognition-memory
#19
Christopher Kent, Koen Lamberts, Richard Patton
Previous studies on how people set and modify decision criteria in old-new recognition tasks (in which they have to decide whether or not a stimulus was seen in a study phase) have almost exclusively focused on properties of the study items, such as presentation frequency or study list length. In contrast, in the three studies reported here, we manipulated the quality of the test cues in a scene-recognition task, either by degrading through Gaussian blurring (Experiment 1) or by limiting presentation duration (Experiment 2 and 3)...
February 2, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395407/can-live-music-therapy-reduce-distress-and-pain-in-children-with-burns-after-wound-care-procedures-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Marianne J E van der Heijden, Johannes Jeekel, Heinz Rode, Sharon Cox, Joost van Rosmalen, Myriam G M Hunink, Monique van Dijk
OBJECTIVE: Burn wound care procedures are very painful and lead to distress. Live music therapy has shown beneficial effects on distress and pain in specific pediatric patient populations. In this study we measured whether live music therapy has beneficial effects in terms of less distress and pain in children with burns after wound care procedures. METHODS: This randomized assessor-blinded controlled trial (RCT) took place at the burns unit of the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa...
January 30, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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