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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675706/audiomotor-integration-of-angry-and-happy-prosodies
#1
Sélim Yahia Coll, Sascha Frühholz, Didier Grandjean
Different parts of our brain code the perceptual features and actions related to an object, causing a binding problem: how does the brain discriminate the information of a particular event from the features of other events? Hommel (1998) suggested the event file concept: an episodic memory trace binding perceptual and motor information pertaining to an object. By adapting Hommel's paradigm to emotional faces in a previous study (Coll & Grandjean, 2016), we demonstrated that emotion could take part in an event file with motor responses...
April 19, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672553/memory-deficits-for-facial-identity-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#2
Egemen Savaskan, Daniel Summermatter, Clemens Schroeder, Hartmut Schächinger
Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672120/context-retrieval-and-description-benefits-for-recognition-of-unfamiliar-faces
#3
Todd C Jones, Kealagh Robinson, Brenna C Steel
Describing unfamiliar faces during or immediately after their presentation in a study phase can produce better recognition memory performance compared with a view-only control condition. We treated descriptions as elaborative information that is part of the study context and investigated how context retrieval influences recognition memory. Following general dual-process theories, we hypothesized that recollection would be used to recall descriptions and that description recall would influence recognition decisions, including the level of recognition confidence...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672119/remembering-who-was-where-a-happy-expression-advantage-for-face-identity-location-binding-in-working-memory
#4
Sara Spotorno, Megan Evans, Margaret C Jackson
It is well established that visual working memory (WM) for face identity is enhanced when faces display threatening versus nonthreatening expressions. During social interaction, it is also important to bind person identity with location information in WM to remember who was where, but we lack a clear understanding of how emotional expression influences this. Here, we conducted two touchscreen experiments to investigate how angry versus happy expressions displayed at encoding influenced the precision with which participants relocated a single neutral test face to its original position...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667704/investigating-the-other-race-effect-in-working-memory
#5
Marleen Stelter, Juliane Degner
People have difficulties in remembering other-race faces; this so-called other-race effect (ORE) has been frequently observed in long-term recognition memory (LTM). Several theories argue that the ORE in LTM is caused by differences in earlier processing stages, such as encoding of ingroup and outgroup faces. We test this hypothesis by exploring whether the ORE can already be observed in visual working memory (VWM)-an intermediate system located between encoding processes and LTM storage. In four independent experiments, we observed decreased performance for outgroup faces compared to ingroup faces using three different VWM tasks: an adaptive N-back task, a self-ordered pointing task, and a change detection task...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659363/-late-diagnosis-of-whim-sydrome
#6
María V Paolini, Silvia Danielian, Emma Prieto, María Fernanda Tami, Matías M Oleastro, Diego S Fernández Romero
WHIM syndrome is a primary autosomal dominant immuno deficiency due to CXCR4 mutations characterized by mucocutaneous warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and myelokathesis. Treatment consists in prophylactic antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement and granulocyte or granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factors. We present the case of a 21 year old woman who showed leukopenia at 10 months of age and one year later multiple infections with hypogammaglobulinemia requiring intravenous immunoglobulin...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651249/ontogenetic-and-experience-dependent-changes-in-defensive-behavior-in-captive-bred-hawaiian-bobtail-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#7
Kia Seehafer, Samantha Brophy, Sara R Tom, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are known for their extensive behavioral repertoire and their impressive learning abilities. Their primary defensive behaviors, such as camouflage, have received detailed study, but knowledge is limited to intensive study of relatively few species. A considerable challenge facing cephalopod research is the need to establish new models that can be captive bred, are tractable for range of different experimental procedures, and that will address broad questions in biological research. The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid ( Euprymna scolopes ) is a small, tropical cephalopod that has a long history of research in the field of microbial symbiosis, but offers great promise as a novel behavioral and neurobiological model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625718/septal-anchoring-suture-a-key-suture-to-improve-the-nasolabial-symmetry-in-unilateral-cheiloplasty
#8
T-C Lu, S Filson, C-F Yao, P K-T Chen
Since 2008, a septal anchoring suture has been used in unilateral cleft lip repair at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in order to stabilize the lateral lip centrally. This study compared the symmetry of two groups of patients: those treated with and without an anchoring suture. Multiple standardized direct and photographic facial measurements were performed on the faces of all patients pre-cheiloplasty and at 5 years post-cheiloplasty. The degree of nasolabial symmetry was evaluated by comparing the ratios of measurements of the cleft vs...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618271/harmful-or-helpful-a-systematic-review-of-how-those-bereaved-through-suicide-experience-research-participation
#9
Karl Andriessen, Karolina Krysinska, Brian Draper, Michael Dudley, Philip B Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Many of the bereaved through suicide are interested in participating in postvention studies. However, there is a contradiction between the positive experiences of research participation and concerns raised by ethical boards. AIMS: To review studies on the experience of research participation by those bereaved through suicide, including initial contact with the study and its short- and long-term impacts. METHOD: Systematic searches in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, as well as Google Scholar identified 12 papers reporting on 11 studies...
April 5, 2018: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615893/a-new-measure-for-neural-compensation-is-positively-correlated-with-working-memory-and-gait-speed
#10
Lanxin Ji, Godfrey D Pearlson, Keith A Hawkins, David C Steffens, Hua Guo, Lihong Wang
Neuroimaging studies suggest that older adults may compensate for declines in brain function and cognition through reorganization of neural resources. A limitation of prior research is reliance on between-group comparisons of neural activation (e.g., younger vs. older), which cannot be used to assess compensatory ability quantitatively. It is also unclear about the relationship between compensatory ability with cognitive function or how other factors such as physical exercise modulates compensatory ability...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608776/the-unexpected-relationship-between-retrieval-demands-and-memory-performance-when-older-adults-are-faced-with-age-related-stereotypes
#11
Ayanna K Thomas, Amy M Smith, Marie Mazerolle
Objectives: In two studies, we examined the effects of age-related stereotype threat on eyewitness memory using the misinformation paradigm to (1) examine stereotype threat in the context of a more ecologically valid memory task and (2) determine the relationship between task difficulty and susceptibility to stereotype threat. Methods: After watching a video that depicted a crime, older and younger adult participants were presented with a written synopsis in which information consistent or inconsistent with the original event was presented...
March 28, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608413/the-relationship-between-discrimination-and-memory-for-spacing-and-feature-changes-in-houses
#12
Rachel A Robbins, Terri L Lewis, Daphne Maurer
Adults need to discriminate between stimuli and recognize those previously seen. For faces, feature changes (e.g., different eyes) and spacing changes (e.g., distances between eyes) are important cues. In two experiments, we assessed the influence of these on discrimination and recognition of houses, a commonly used control in face studies. In both experiments, discrimination was better for feature than spacing changes. Memory for spacing changes was generally poor but aided by extra learning and intermixing change types...
April 2, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607257/the-leuven-embedded-figures-test-l-eft-measuring-perception-intelligence-or-executive-function
#13
Hanne Huygelier, Ruth Van der Hallen, Johan Wagemans, Lee de-Wit, Rebecca Chamberlain
Performance on the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) has been interpreted as a reflection of local/global perceptual style, weak central coherence and/or field independence, as well as a measure of intelligence and executive function. The variable ways in which EFT findings have been interpreted demonstrate that the construct validity of this measure is unclear. In order to address this lack of clarity, we investigated to what extent performance on a new Embedded Figures Test (L-EFT) correlated with measures of intelligence, executive functions and estimates of local/global perceptual styles...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604986/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#14
Ruaridh Cameron Smail, Bruce James Brew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects roughly half the HIV-positive population. The symptoms of cognitive slowing, poor concentration, and memory problems can impact on everyday life. Its diagnosis is validated where possible by identifying deficits in two cognitive domains on neuropsychologic testing in patients either with or without symptoms. Corroborating evidence may be found on imaging, blood tests, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, though sensitive and specific biomarkers are currently lacking...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604300/face-memory-and-face-recognition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Maria Romani, Miriam Vigliante, Noemi Faedda, Serena Rossetti, Lina Pezzuti, Vincenzo Guidetti, Francesco Cardona
This review focuses on facial recognition abilities in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to May 2017 pertaining to memory, face recognition, affect recognition, facial expression recognition and recall of faces in children and adolescents with ADHD. The qualitative synthesis based on different studies shows a particular focus of the research on facial affect recognition without paying similar attention to the structural encoding of facial recognition...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597112/we-cannot-change-the-past-but-we-can-change-its-meaning-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-effects-of-self-help-imagery-rescripting-on-depression
#16
Steffen Moritz, Jana Ahlf-Schumacher, Birgit Hottenrott, Ulrike Peter, Stephanie Franck, Thomas Schnell, Helmut Peter, Brooke C Schneider, Lena Jelinek
BACKGROUND: Imagery rescripting is a psychotherapeutic technique that aims to ameliorate negative emotions by altering (i.e., rescripting) inner representations of negative memories and images. Although the treatment was initially developed for traumatized individuals, face-to-face interventions have yielded promising results for patients with other diagnoses as well. The present study explored the feasibility and efficacy of the approach when used as a self-help intervention for depression...
February 26, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582004/now-and-at-the-hour-of-death
#17
Susan M Wieczorek
With Alzheimer disease, the challenge of death can be unique to each who experience it: the caretaker, the family, the health-care professional, and the victim himself. Death of personality, of memory, and of physical skills wears away the fabric of relationships, leaving little hope of any return to normalcy. To some, this reflection exhibits how faith sustains hope and comforts those afflicted, despite the odds of inevitable loss. To others it reflects upon the poignant complexities associated with palliative care and the demand for individualized attention to the beliefs, norms, and values of each situation, no matter the culture, religion, age, or race...
March 2018: Journal of Patient Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578947/chronic-pain-impairs-cognitive-flexibility-and-engages-novel-learning-strategies-in-rats
#18
Stephen L Cowen, Caroline E Phelps, Edita Navratilova, David L McKinzie, Alec Okun, Omar Husain, Scott D Gleason, Jeffrey M Witkin, Frank Porreca
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behavior to changing outcomes, is critical for survival. The prefrontal cortex is a key site of cognitive control and chronic pain is known to lead to significant morphological changes to this brain region. Nevertheless, the effects of chronic pain on cognitive flexibility and learning remain uncertain. We used an instrumental paradigm to assess adaptive learning in an experimental model of chronic pain induced by tight ligation of the spinal nerves L5/6 (SNL model)...
March 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572201/investigating-the-impact-of-hearing-aid-use-and-auditory-training-on-cognition-depressive-symptoms-and-social-interaction-in-adults-with-hearing-loss-protocol-for-a-crossover-trial
#19
Joanna Nkyekyer, Denny Meyer, Peter J Blamey, Andrew Pipingas, Sunil Bhar
BACKGROUND: Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit among older adults. Some of the psychosocial consequences of this condition include difficulty in understanding speech, depression, and social isolation. Studies have shown that older adults with hearing loss show some age-related cognitive decline. Hearing aids have been proven as successful interventions to alleviate sensorineural hearing loss. In addition to hearing aid use, the positive effects of auditory training-formal listening activities designed to optimize speech perception-are now being documented among adults with hearing loss who use hearing aids, especially new hearing aid users...
March 23, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571716/mapping-working-memory-retrieval-in-space-and-in-time-a-combined-electroencephalography-and-electrocorticography-approach
#20
Qiong Zhang, Marieke van Vugt, Jelmer P Borst, John R Anderson
In this study, we investigated the time course and neural correlates of the retrieval process underlying visual working memory. We made use of a rare dataset in which the same task was recorded using both scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocorticography (ECoG), respectively. This allowed us to examine with great spatial and temporal detail how the retrieval process works, and in particular how the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved. In each trial, participants judged whether a probe face had been among a set of recently studied faces...
March 20, 2018: NeuroImage
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