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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533951/face-recognition-is-similarly-affected-by-viewpoint-in-school-aged-children-and-adults
#1
Marisa Nordt, Sarah Weigelt
There is an ongoing debate on the question when face processing abilities mature. One aspect that has been part of this debate is the ability to recognize faces in and across different viewpoints. Here, we tested 128 participants consisting of school-age children (ages, 5-10 years) and adults (ages, 19-37 years) in two experiments to investigate the effects of different viewpoints (including front, three-quarter, profile view) on face recognition during development. Furthermore, we compared recognition performance for faces to that of another object category (cars)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#2
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530123/-we-are-a-team-couple-identity-and-memory-loss
#3
Elise Hernandez, Beth Spencer, Berit Ingersoll-Dayton, Alexandra Faber, Allison Ewert
Couplehood can be an important source of resilience in the face of memory loss, but couple identity has only recently been explored and has rarely been measured. This paper examines older spouses' descriptions of their couple identity and discusses salient themes. Data come from 19 couples from the Couples Life Story Project, a life review intervention where one partner has memory loss. Using baseline data, we analyzed how partners depicted their couple identity using a series of separate and overlapping circles...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529173/what-s-in-a-context-cautions-limitations-and-potential-paths-forward
#4
REVIEW
Shauna M Stark, Zachariah M Reagh, Michael A Yassa, Craig E L Stark
The purpose of memory is to guide current and future behavior based on previous experiences. Part of this process involves either discriminating between or generalizing across similar experiences that contain overlapping conditions (such as space, time, or internal state), which we often conceptualize as "contexts". In this review, we highlight major challenges facing the field as we attempt a neuroscience-based approach to the study of context and its impact on learning and memory. Here, we review some of the methodologies and approaches used to investigate context in both animals and humans, including the neurobiological mechanisms involved...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506806/selective-associative-phonagnosia-after-right-anterior-temporal-stroke
#5
Simona Luzzi, Michela Coccia, Gabriele Polonara, Carlo Reverberi, Gabriella Ceravolo, Mauro Silvestrini, Fabio Fringuelli, Sara Baldinelli, Leandro Provinciali, Guido Gainotti
We report the case of a 48 year old men who developed a selective impairment in famous voice recognition after ischemic stroke in right subcortical structures (lenticular nucleus and head of the caudate) and right anterior temporal lobe. He underwent fibrinolytic treatment. During the following days he progressively recovered and was discharged without neurological focal sign. Patent foramen ovale was found. When he got back to his house he noticed that he was unable to recognize the voice of his favoured singers and needed to ask who was the singer to his relatives...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506289/a-preliminary-investigation-to-explore-the-cognitive-resources-of-physicians-experiencing-difficulty-in-training
#6
Fiona Patterson, Fran Cousans, Iain Coyne, Jo Jones, Sheona Macleod, Lara Zibarras
BACKGROUND: Treating patients is complex, and research shows that there are differences in cognitive resources between physicians who experience difficulties, and those who do not. It is possible that differences in some cognitive resources could explain the difficulties faced by some physicians. In this study, we explore differences in cognitive resources between different groups of physicians (that is, between native (UK) physicians and International Medical Graduates (IMG); those who continue with training versus those who were subsequently removed from the training programme); and also between physicians experiencing difficulties compared with the general population...
May 15, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498866/cognitive-adaptation-in-asexual-and-sexual-wasps-living-in-contrasted-environments
#7
Lucie Froissart, Martin Giurfa, Sandrine Sauzet, Emmanuel Desouhant
Differences in learning and memory dynamics between populations are suspected to result from differences in ecological constraints such as resource distribution. The two reproductive modes (strains) of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens share the same geographical areas but live in contrasting habitats: arrhenotokous wasps live in the wild (generally orchards), whereas thelytokous ones live mostly in stored-products buildings (e.g. granaries). This species thus represents a relevant biological model for understanding the relationship between the ecological constraints faced by a species and its memory and learning ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498492/multiple-roles-of-afadin-in-the-ultrastructural-morphogenesis-of-mouse-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#8
Kousyoku Sai, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Takeshi Fujiwara, Tomohiko Maruo, Yu Itoh, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Tomohiro Haruta, Hideo Nishioka, Yuki Motojima, Miyuki Komura, Kazushi Kimura, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai, Akira Mizoguchi
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse, which is implicated in learning and memory, has a complex structure in which mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. Here, we electron microscopically analyzed the ultrastructure of this synapse in afadin-deficient mice. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that typical PAJs with prominent symmetrical plasma membrane darkening undercoated with the thick filamentous cytoskeleton were observed in the control synapse, whereas in the afadin-deficient synapse, atypical PAJs with the symmetrical plasma membrane darkening, which was much less in thickness and darkness than those of the control typical PAJs, were observed...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497781/face-classification-using-electronic-synapses
#9
Peng Yao, Huaqiang Wu, Bin Gao, Sukru Burc Eryilmaz, Xueyao Huang, Wenqiang Zhang, Qingtian Zhang, Ning Deng, Luping Shi, H-S Philip Wong, He Qian
Conventional hardware platforms consume huge amount of energy for cognitive learning due to the data movement between the processor and the off-chip memory. Brain-inspired device technologies using analogue weight storage allow to complete cognitive tasks more efficiently. Here we present an analogue non-volatile resistive memory (an electronic synapse) with foundry friendly materials. The device shows bidirectional continuous weight modulation behaviour. Grey-scale face classification is experimentally demonstrated using an integrated 1024-cell array with parallel online training...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497111/investigating-the-influence-of-biological-sex-on-the-behavioral-and-neural-basis-of-face-recognition
#10
K Suzanne Scherf, Daniel B Elbich, Natalie V Motta-Mena
There is interest in understanding the influence of biological factors, like sex, on the organization of brain function. We investigated the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition in healthy, young adults. In behavior, there were no sex differences on the male Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)+ or the female CFMT+ (that we created) and no own-gender bias (OGB) in either group. We evaluated the functional topography of ventral stream organization by measuring the magnitude and functional neural size of 16 individually defined face-, two object-, and two place-related regions bilaterally...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494223/audiovisual-integration-supports-face-name-associative-memory-formation
#11
Hweeling Lee, Ruediger Stirnberg, Tony Stöcker, Nikolai Axmacher
Prior multisensory experience influences how we perceive our environment, and hence how memories are encoded for subsequent retrieval. This study investigated if audiovisual integration and associative memory formation rely on overlapping or distinct processes. Our fMRI results demonstrate that the neural mechanisms underlying audiovisual integration and associative memory overlap substantially. In particular, activity in anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is increased during audiovisual integration and also determines the success of novel audiovisual face-name association formation...
May 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488889/experiencing-place-younger-people-with-dementia-facing-aged-care
#12
Sally Rimkeit, Jacqueline McIntosh
OBJECTIVES: There are currently few facilities for people with younger onset dementia and they are placed by default into dementia care facilities designed for the elderly. There is limited understanding of how people with younger onset dementia and their care givers anticipate or experience aged residential care. This qualitative study has used semi-structured interviews to give voice to the opinions and perspectives of nine people with younger onset dementia and 11 care givers. METHOD: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used for idiographic analysis, allowing examination of the lived experience of younger people with dementia and an iterative exploration of what their experiences mean...
May 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481574/knowing-how-you-are-feeling-depends-on-what-s-on-my-mind-cognitive-load-and-expression-categorization
#13
Lubna Ahmed
The ability to correctly interpret facial expressions is key to effective social interactions. People are well rehearsed and generally very efficient at correctly categorizing expressions. However, does their ability to do so depend on how cognitively loaded they are at the time? Using repeated-measures designs, we assessed the sensitivity of facial expression categorization to cognitive resources availability by measuring people's expression categorization performance during concurrent low and high cognitive load situations...
May 8, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480126/the-life-process-of-children-who-survived-the-manjil-earthquake-a-decaying-or-renewing-process
#14
Abbas Shamsalinia, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri, Sarieh Poortaghi
INTRODUCTION: Among earthquake survivors, children are more vulnerable than other age groups due to their exposure to harrowing scenes of devastation as well as their drastically new living situations that result from an earthquake disaster. The life process of children survivors undergoes many different changes that are affected by a wide range of factors. Understanding the life process of these children may lead to effective outcomes and interventions. In addition, observing children survivors establishes knowledge and understanding of the challenges that correspond with earthquake disasters...
April 4, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476571/identification-and-intensity-of-disgust-distinguishing-visual-linguistic-and-facial-expressions-processing-in-parkinson-disease
#15
Anna Sedda, Sara Petito, Maria Guarino, Andrea Stracciari
OBJECTIVES & METHODS: Most of the studies since now show an impairment for facial displays of disgust recognition in Parkinson disease. A general impairment in disgust processing in patients with Parkinson disease might adversely affect their social interactions, given the relevance of this emotion for human relations. However, despite the importance of faces, disgust is also expressed through other format of visual stimuli such as sentences and visual images. The aim of our study was to explore disgust processing in a sample of patients affected by Parkinson disease, by means of various tests tackling not only facial recognition but also other format of visual stimuli through which disgust can be recognized...
May 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476207/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-amygdala-neurofeedback-changes-positive-information-processing-in-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Kymberly D Young, Masaya Misaki, Catherine J Harmer, Teresa Victor, Vadim Zotev, Raquel Phillips, Greg J Siegle, Wayne C Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
BACKGROUND: In participants with major depressive disorder who are trained to upregulate their amygdalar hemodynamic responses during positive autobiographical memory recall with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training, depressive symptoms diminish. This study tested whether amygdalar rtfMRI-nf also changes emotional processing of positive and negative stimuli in a variety of behavioral and imaging tasks. METHODS: Patients with major depressive disorder completed two rtfMRI-nf sessions (18 received amygdalar rtfMRI-nf, 16 received control parietal rtfMRI-nf)...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475122/harnessing-local-immunity-for-an-effective-universal-swine-influenza-vaccine
#17
REVIEW
Elma Tchilian, Barbara Holzer
Influenza A virus infections are a global health threat to humans and are endemic in pigs, contributing to decreased weight gain and suboptimal reproductive performance. Pigs are also a source of new viruses of mixed swine, avian, and human origin, potentially capable of initiating human pandemics. Current inactivated vaccines induce neutralising antibody against the immunising strain but rapid escape occurs through antigenic drift of the surface glycoproteins. However, it is known that prior infection provides a degree of cross-protective immunity mediated by cellular immune mechanisms directed at the more conserved internal viral proteins...
May 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471731/efficacy-and-safety-of-ashwagandha-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-root-extract-in-improving-memory-and-cognitive-functions
#18
Dnyanraj Choudhary, Sauvik Bhattacharyya, Sekhar Bose
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline is often associated with the aging process. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) has long been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine to enhance memory and improve cognition. AIM: This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) in improving memory and cognitive functioning in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 50 adults...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446858/a-case-of-autoimmune-polyglandular-syndrome-ype-2-associated-with-atypical-form-of-scleromyxedema
#19
Oleksander Prylutskyi, Olga Prylutska, Anatoliy Degonskyi, Kseniia Tkachenko
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 represents an uncommon endocrine disorder composed by Addison's disease with autoimmune thyroid disease (Schmidt's syndrome) and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Scleromyxedema is a rare progressive cutaneous mucinosis usually associated with systemic involvement and paraproteinemia. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case report of Schmidt's syndrome associated with scleromyxedema. CASE DETAILS: A 34-year-old woman was admitted to Donetsk Clinical Territorial Medical Association due to acute general weakness, reduced vision, dryness of integuments, memory decline, fatigue, weight loss, rash on the face trunk and extremities...
September 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444832/real-time-activation-of-central-cholinergic-circuits-during-recognition-memory
#20
Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Short Latency Afferent Inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol that consists in the inhibition of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) by afferent sensory impulses. SAI is thought to be mediated by cholinergic projections over M1 and can be considered a putative marker of central cholinergic activity. It's known that memory processes are regulated by acetylcholine. Nonetheless the influence of memory tasks on SAI has not been investigated. Here we tested changes in SAI circuits in healthy subjects performing a computerized non-verbal recognition memory task (RMT) requiring to recognize previously encoded faces...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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