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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097835/cognitive-profiles-of-patients-with-early-detected-and-treated-congenital-hypothyroidism
#1
María L Pardo Campos, Mariel Musso, Ana Keselman, Laura Gruñeiro, Ignacio Bergadá, Ana Chiesa
INTRODUCTION: Children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by newborn screening and adequately treated may have mild cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES">To assess the intelligence quotient of children with CH and identify the presence of specific cognitive deficits. POPULATION AND METHODS: A group of 60 children with CH detected by newborn screening, who were aged 9-10 years old and received adequate treatment since their first month of life was selected and compared to a control group of 60 children without CH in the same age range...
February 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#2
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094647/using-drawings-as-a-reflective-tool-to-enhance-communication-in-dementia-care
#3
Phil McEvoy, Sue Bellass
Communication skills training can be a valuable means of supporting professional and family carers of people with dementia. Most communication skills training programmes for those caring for people with dementia focus on dementia awareness and the technical aspects of communication, such as the pace and volume of the carer's speech. However, it is also important to examine what is conveyed about a carer's internal experience in their non-verbal interactions with people living with dementia. This article explores how drawings can be used to help carers to reflect on what is communicated and question any hidden assumptions...
January 4, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093475/hippocampal-contribution-to-context-encoding-across-development-is-disrupted-following-early-life-adversity
#4
Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly Sambrook, Maya Rosen, Mary K Askren, Katie A McLaughlin
: Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N=60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077292/general-and-specific-factors-in-the-processing-of-faces
#5
Roeland J Verhallen, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Gary Bargary, J D Mollon
The ability to recognize faces varies considerably between individuals, but does performance co-vary for tests of different aspects of face processing? For 397 participants (of whom the majority were university students) we obtained scores on the Mooney Face Test, Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT), Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Composite Face Test. Overall performance was significantly correlated for each pair of tests, and we suggest the term f for the factor underlying this pattern of positive correlations...
January 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068117/the-neural-representation-of-the-gender-of-faces-in-the-primate-visual-system-a-computer-modeling-study
#6
Thomas Minot, Hannah L Dury, Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many realistic images of male and female faces, during which the synaptic connections are modified using biologically plausible local associative learning rules. After training, we found that different subsets of output neurons have learned to respond exclusively to either male or female faces...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060919/the-older-adult-positivity-effect-in-evaluations-of-trustworthiness-emotion-regulation-or-cognitive-capacity
#7
Leslie A Zebrowitz, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Angela Gutchess, Nouchine Hadjikhani
An older adult positivity effect, i.e., the tendency for older adults to favor positive over negative stimulus information more than do younger adults, has been previously shown in attention, memory, and evaluations. This effect has been attributed to greater emotion regulation in older adults. In the case of attention and memory, this explanation has been supported by some evidence that the older adult positivity effect is most pronounced for negative stimuli, which would motivate emotion regulation, and that it is reduced by cognitive load, which would impede emotion regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059625/a-review-of-self-processing-biases-in-cognition
#8
Sheila J Cunningham, David J Turk
When cues in the environment are associated with self (e.g., one's own name, face, or coffee cup), these items trigger processing biases such as increased attentional focus, perceptual prioritization and memorial support. This paper reviews the existing literature on self-processing biases before introducing a series of studies that provide new insight into the influence of the self on cognition. In particular, the studies examine affective and memorial biases for self-relevant stimuli, and their flexible application in response to different task demands...
January 6, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059460/memory-for-incidentally-perceived-social-cues-effects-on-person-judgment
#9
Ralph Pawling, Alexander J Kirkham, Steven P Tipper, Harriet Over
Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054815/try-to-look-on-the-bright-side-children-and-adults-can-sometimes-override-their-tendency-to-prioritize-negative-faces
#10
Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
We used eye tracking to examine 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 173) visual attention to negative (anger, fear, sadness, disgust) and neutral faces when paired with happy faces in 2 experimental conditions: free-viewing ("look at the faces") and directed ("look only at the happy faces"). Regardless of instruction, all age groups more often looked first to negative versus positive faces (no age differences), suggesting that initial orienting is driven by bottom-up processes. In contrast, biases in more sustained attention-last looks and looking duration-varied by age and could be modified by top-down instruction...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049026/memory-consolidation-of-socially-relevant-stimuli-during-sleep-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-what-you-can-see-in-their-eyes
#11
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Ina Molzow, Alexandra Förster, Nadine Siebenhühner, Maxime Gesch, Christian D Wiesner, Lioba Baving
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m...
December 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042064/homeless-individuals-approaching-the-end-of-life-symptoms-and-attitudes
#12
Matthew Tobey, Julia Manasson, Kristen Decarlo, Katrina Ciraldo-Maryniuk, Jessie M Gaeta, Erica Wilson
CONTEXT: Over a million individuals in the United States experience homelessness annually and homeless individuals die at a higher rate than domiciled peers. Homeless individuals often have unique experiences at the end of life (EOL). OBJECTIVES: This study examined the symptoms experienced by homeless individuals nearing the EOL and explored social background, attitudes and experiences. METHODS: Investigators conducted surveys of homeless individuals approaching the EOL at a medical respite home...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041917/cognitive-remediation-and-occupational-outcome-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-2year-follow-up-study
#13
June Ullevoldsæter Lystad, Erik Falkum, Vegard Øksendal Haaland, Helen Bull, Stig Evensen, Susan R McGurk, Torill Ueland
Neurocognitive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia and a significant predictor of poor occupational outcomes. Vocational rehabilitation (VR) is frequently implemented to counteract high unemployment rates. Individuals with schizophrenia however face numerous challenges such as neurocognitive impairments and psychotic symptoms. Hence, augmenting VR to address illness-related factors may optimize occupational outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cognitive Remediation (CR) combined with VR(CR+VR) compared to techniques from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) combined with VR(CBT+VR) on neurocognition and occupational functioning over a 2year period...
December 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034340/topographic-processing-in-developmental-prosopagnosia-preserved-perception-but-impaired-memory-of-scenes
#14
Solja K Klargaard, Randi Starrfelt, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing - that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants included nine individuals with developmental prosopagnosia and 18 matched controls. The group with developmental prosopagnosia had no difficulty with topographic perception, but was reliably poorer in the retention of topographic information...
December 30, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028199/idiosyncratic-patterns-of-representational-similarity-in-prefrontal-cortex-predict-attentional-performance
#15
Jeongmi Lee, Joy J Geng
: The efficiency of finding an object in a crowded environment depends largely on the similarity of non-targets to the search target. Models of attention theorize that the similarity is determined by representations stored within an "attentional template" held in working memory. However, the degree to which the contents of the attentional template are individually-unique and where those idiosyncratic representations are encoded in the brain, are unknown. We investigated this problem using representational similarity analysis (RSA) of human fMRI data to measure the common and idiosyncratic representations of famous face morphs during an identity categorization task; data from the categorization task were then used to predict performance on a separate identity search task...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025050/hometown-size-affects-the-processing-of-naturalistic-face-variability
#16
Benjamin Balas, Alyson Saville
Face exposure during development determines adults' abilities to recognize faces and the information they use to process them. Individual differences in the face categories represented in the visual environment can lead to category-specific deficits for recognizing faces that are atypical of observer's experience (e.g. the other-race effect). But what happens when observers have limited opportunities to learn about faces in general? In previous work, we found that observers from depopulated areas have poorer face recognition performance than observers from larger communities, suggesting that impoverished face experience limits face processing broadly...
December 23, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018990/the-tcf1-bcl6-axis-counteracts-type-i-interferon-to-repress-exhaustion-and-maintain-t-cell-stemness
#17
Tuoqi Wu, Yun Ji, E Ashley Moseman, Haifeng C Xu, Monica Manglani, Martha Kirby, Stacie M Anderson, Robin Handon, Elizabeth Kenyon, Abdel Elkahloun, Weiwei Wu, Philipp A Lang, Luca Gattinoni, Dorian B McGavern, Pamela L Schwartzberg
During chronic viral infections and in cancer, T cells become dysfunctional, a state known as T cell exhaustion. Although it is well recognized that memory CD8 T cells account for the persistence of CD8 T cell immunity after acute infection, how exhausted T cells persist remains less clear. Using chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 and tumor samples, we demonstrate that CD8 T cells differentiate into a less exhausted TCF1(high) and a more exhausted TCF1(low) population. Virus-specific TCF1(high) CD8 T cells, which resemble T follicular helper (TFH) cells, persist and recall better than do TCF1(low) cells and act as progenitor cells to replenish TCF1(low) cells...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013081/perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-of-mental-health-service-utilization-in-adult-trauma-survivors-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Viktoria Kantor, Matthias Knefel, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster
Many trauma survivors seem to be reluctant to seek professional help. The aim of the current review was to synthesize relevant literature, and to systematically classify trauma survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators regarding mental health service utilization. The systematic search identified 19 studies addressing military personnel and 17 studies with trauma survivors of the general population. The data analysis revealed that the most prominent barriers included concerns related to stigma, shame and rejection, low mental health literacy, lack of knowledge and treatment-related doubts, fear of negative social consequences, limited resources, time, and expenses...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007313/neuropsychological-alterations-and-neuroradiological-findings-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-concussion-results-of-a-pilot-study
#19
A Rădoi, M A Poca, V Cañas, J M Cevallos, L Membrado, M C Saavedra, M Vidal, F Martínez-Ricarte, J Sahuquillo
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has traditionally been considered to cause no significant brain damage since symptoms spontaneously remit after a few days. However, this idea is facing increasing scrutiny. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presence of early cognitive alterations in a series of patients with mTBI and to link these findings to different markers of brain damage. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of a consecutive series of patients with mTBI who were evaluated over a 12-month period...
December 19, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998753/effects-of-intra-hippocampal-microinjection-of-vitamin-b12-on-the-orofacial-pain-and-memory-impairments-induced-by-scopolamine-and-orofacial-pain-in-rats
#20
Amir Erfanparast, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Shaghayegh Nemati
In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1.5%, 50μl) into the right vibrissa pad, and the durations of face rubbing were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for evaluation of learning and memory...
December 18, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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