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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028880/semantic-memory-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-an-evaluation-of-the-cortical-versus-subcortical-hypothesis
#1
Savanna Tierney, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela Verduzco, Jessica Beltran, Paul J Massman, Rodrigo Hasbun
Objective: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have historically been characterized as a subcortical condition that does not affect semantic memory; however, recent evidence suggests that the cortical regions that support semantic memory may be affected in HIV. Method: The current study examined the effects of HAND on semantic memory in 85 HIV+ individuals with HAND, 193 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 181 HIV- individuals who completed the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Famous Faces subtest of the Kauffman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT-FF)...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027494/discriminating-non-native-segmental-length-contrasts-under-increased-task-demands
#2
Yuki Asano
The present study examines how vulnerable perception of second language prosody is to increased task demands. German learners of Japanese, German non-learners without exposure to Japanese, and Japanese native listeners were tested in their ability to discriminate consonant length contrasts (compared to vowel length contrasts that served as a control condition). Memory load was increased by a longer inter-stimulus interval (2500 ms compared to 300 ms) and the demand on attention control was enhanced through the addition of the acoustic complexity of the stimuli (i...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024221/dendrites-deep-learning-and-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Upinder S Bhalla
The hippocampus places us both in time and space. It does so over remarkably large spans: milliseconds to years, and centimeters to kilometers. This works for sensory representations, for memory, and for behavioral context. How does it fit in such wide ranges of time and space scales, and keep order among the many dimensions of stimulus context? A key organizing principle for a wide sweep of scales and stimulus dimensions is that of order in time, or sequences. Sequences of neuronal activity are ubiquitous in sensory processing, in motor control, in planning actions, and in memory...
October 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022853/destination-memory-in-social-interaction-better-memory-for-older-than-for-younger-destinations-in-normal-aging
#4
Mohamad El Haj, Stéphane Raffard, Luciano Fasotti, Philippe Allain
Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i...
October 12, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021623/preference-for-novel-faces-in-male-infant-monkeys-predicts-cerebrospinal-fluid-oxytocin-concentrations-later-in-life
#5
Jesus E Madrid, Ozge Oztan, Valentina Sclafani, Laura A Del Rosso, Laura A Calonder, Katie Chun, John P Capitanio, Joseph P Garner, Karen J Parker
The ability to recognize individuals is a critical skill acquired early in life for group living species. In primates, individual recognition occurs predominantly through face discrimination. Despite the essential adaptive value of this ability, robust individual differences in conspecific face recognition exist, yet its associated biology remains unknown. Although pharmacological administration of oxytocin has implicated this neuropeptide in face perception and social memory, no prior research has tested the relationship between individual differences in face recognition and endogenous oxytocin concentrations...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019169/one-back-reinforcement-dissociates-implicit-procedural-and-explicit-declarative-category-learning
#6
J David Smith, Sonia Jamani, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church
The debate over unitary/multiple category-learning utilities is reminiscent of debates about multiple memory systems and unitary/dual codes in knowledge representation. In categorization, researchers continue to seek paradigms to dissociate explicit learning processes (yielding verbalizable rules) from implicit learning processes (yielding stimulus-response associations that remain outside awareness). We introduce a new dissociation here. Participants learned matched category tasks with a multidimensional, information-integration solution or a one-dimensional, rule-based solution...
October 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018342/negative-facial-expressions-but-not-visual-scenes-enhance-human-working-memory-in-younger-and-older-participants
#7
Flávia Schechtman Belham, Maria Clotilde H Tavares, Corina Satler, Ana Garcia, Rosângela C Rodrigues, Soraya L de Sá Canabarro, Carlos Tomaz
Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA) performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA) and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989788/caching-for-where-and-what-evidence-for-a-mnemonic-strategy-in-a-scatter-hoarder
#8
Mikel M Delgado, Lucia F Jacobs
Scatter-hoarding animals face the task of maximizing retrieval of their scattered food caches while minimizing loss to pilferers. This demand should select for mnemonics, such as chunking, i.e. a hierarchical cognitive representation that is known to improve recall. Spatial chunking, where caches with the same type of content are related to each other in physical location and memory, would be one such mechanism. Here we tested the hypothesis that scatter-hoarding eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are organizing their caches in spatial patterns consistent with a chunking strategy...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985005/on-demand-reconfiguration-of-nanomaterials-when-electronics-meets-ionics
#9
REVIEW
Jihang Lee, Wei D Lu
Rapid advances in the semiconductor industry, driven largely by device scaling, are now approaching fundamental physical limits and face severe power, performance, and cost constraints. Multifunctional materials and devices may lead to a paradigm shift toward new, intelligent, and efficient computing systems, and are being extensively studied. Herein examines how, by controlling the internal ion distribution in a solid-state film, a material's chemical composition and physical properties can be reversibly reconfigured using an applied electric field, at room temperature and after device fabrication...
October 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984526/the-dorsal-attention-network-reflects-both-encoding-load-and-top-down-control-during-working-memory
#10
Steve Majerus, Frédéric Péters, Marion Bouffier, Nelson Cowan, Christophe Phillips
The dorsal attention network is consistently involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM) tasks and has been associated with task-related, top-down control of attention. At the same time, WM capacity has been shown to depend on the amount of information that can be encoded in the focus of attention independently of top-down strategic control. We examined the role of the dorsal attention network in encoding load and top-down memory control during WM by manipulating encoding load and memory control requirements during a short-term probe recognition task for sequences of auditory (digits, letters) or visual (lines, unfamiliar faces) stimuli...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981869/overexpression-of-neuregulin-1-type-iii-confers-hippocampal-mrna-alterations-and-schizophrenia-like-behaviors-in-mice
#11
Juan C Olaya, Carrie L Heusner, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Duncan Sinclair, Mari A Kondo, Tim Karl, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a schizophrenia candidate gene whose protein product is involved in neuronal migration, survival, and synaptic plasticity via production of specific isoforms. Importantly, NRG1 type III (NRG1 III) mRNA is increased in humans inheriting a schizophrenia risk haplotype for the NRG1 gene (HapICE), and NRG1 protein levels can be elevated in schizophrenia. The nature by which NRG1 type III overexpression results in schizophrenia-like behavior and brain pathology remains unclear, therefore we constructed a transgenic mouse with Nrg1 III overexpression in forebrain neurons (CamKII kinase+)...
September 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977012/concomitant-diastolic-dysfunction-further-interferes-with-cognitive-performance-in-moderate-to-severe-systolic-heart-failure
#12
Mi-Seung Shin, Minjeong An, Sunhwa Kim, Jae Lan Shim, Jin-Kyu Park, JinShil Kim
BACKGROUND: Studies of the relevance of cardiac functional markers to cognitive performance in heart failure (HF) have primarily focused on systolic markers. In this study, we examine whether concomitant diastolic dysfunction further interferes with cognitive performance in memory, attention, and executive function in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional correlational study, 82 patients completed face-to-face interviews for neuropsychological testing for cognitive evaluation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974404/influence-of-venus-and-mars-in-the-cognitive-sky-of-schizophrenia-results-from-the-first-step-national-face-sz-cohort
#13
G Fond, L Boyer, M Leboyer, O Godin, P M Llorca, M Andrianarisoa, F Berna, L Brunel, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, R Rey, C Lancon, C Passerieux, P Roux, P Vidailhet, H Yazbek, F Schürhoff, E Bulzacka
OBJECTIVES: Sex differences can yield important clues regarding illness pathophysiology and its treatment. Schizophrenia (SZ) has a lower incidence rate, and a better prognosis, in women versus men. The present study investigated the cognitive profiles of both sexes in a large multi-centre sample of community-dwelling SZ patients. METHOD: 544 community-dwelling stable SZ subjects (141 women and 403 men; mean age 34.5±12.1 and 31.6±8.7years, respectively) were tested with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests...
September 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972834/how-we-care-for-an-older-patient-with-cancer
#14
Armin Shahrokni, Soo Jung Kim, George J Bosl, Beatriz Korc-Grodzicki
As the number of older patients with cancer is increasing, oncology disciplines are faced with the challenge of managing patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty maintaining independence, who may have cognitive impairment, and who also may be more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. National and international societies have recommended that all older patients with cancer undergo geriatric assessment (GA) to detect unaddressed problems and introduce interventions to augment functional status to possibly improve patient survival...
February 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971006/dysfunctional-gaze-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#15
Cristina Berchio, Camille Piguet, Christoph M Michel, Paolo Cordera, Tonia A Rihs, Alexandre G Dayer, Jean-Michel Aubry
Gaze conveys emotional information, and humans present sensitivity to its direction from the earliest days of life. Bipolar disorder is a disease characterized by fluctuating states of emotional and cognitive dysregulation. To explore the role of attentional control on face processing in bipolar patients (BP) we used gaze direction as an emotion modulation parameter in a two-back Working Memory (WM) task while high-density EEG data were acquired. Since gaze direction influences emotional attributions to faces with neutral expressions as well, we presented neutral faces with direct and averted gaze...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970192/efficacy-of-seren-ctif-a-computer-based-stress-management-program-for-patients-with-adjustment-disorder-with-anxiety-protocol-for-a-controlled-trial
#16
Dominique Servant, Anne-Claire Leterme, Olivia Barasino, Laure Rougegrez, Alain Duhamel, Guillaume Vaiva
BACKGROUND: Adjustment disorder with anxiety (ADA) is the most frequent and best characterized stress-related psychiatric disorder. The rationale for prescription of benzodiazepine monotherapy is a public health issue. Cognitive behavioral stress management programs have been studied in many countries. Several reports have shown beyond reasonable doubt their efficiency at reducing perceived stress and anxiety symptoms and improving patient quality of life. Considering the number of people who could benefit from such programs but are unable to access them, self-help programs have been offered...
October 2, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970128/gender-differences-in-performance-for-young-adults-in-cognitive-tasks-under-emotional-conflict
#17
Kangling Wang, Wen Wu, Haili Zhong, Jian Cheng
Previous studies have shown that men and women behave differently on diverse cognitive tasks. However, gender differences in recognizing and memorizing faces when in emotional conflict situations are unknown. Therefore, a face-word Stroop task (emotional conflict) and subsequent memory task were used in the present study to examine gender differences among young adults in an emotional conflict situation. Behavioural data showed that men were better able to recognize faces while in emotional conflict, whereas women performed better at the memorization task...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966602/when-emotions-matter-focusing-on-emotion-improves-working-memory-updating-in-older-adults
#18
Natalie Berger, Anne Richards, Eddy J Davelaar
Research indicates that emotion can affect the ability to monitor and replace content in working memory, an executive function that is usually referred to as updating. However, it is less clear if the effects of emotion on updating vary with its relevance for the task and with age. Here, 25 younger (20-34 years of age) and 25 older adults (63-80 years of age) performed a 1-back and a 2-back task, in which they responded to younger, middle-aged, and older faces showing neutral, happy or angry expressions. The relevance of emotion for the task was manipulated through instructions to make match/non-match judgments based on the emotion (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960603/city-memories
#19
Siu Fai Li
A city is not a city to me, It is a place of memories, A tapestry of faces, Souvenirs of residency. The coffee shop on Third, Shuttered and empty, It is Mayuri and Sarah, Whom I miss so dearly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956660/traumatic-axonal-injury-despite-clinical-phenotype-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#20
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee
OBJECTIVES: We report on a patient who suffered traumatic axonal injury (TAI) of various neural tracts despite airbag deployment following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old female patient suffered from head trauma resulting from an in-car traffic accident. At the time of head trauma, her head and face hit the deployed airbag after flexion-hyperextension-rotation injury...
September 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
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