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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910078/encoding-of-target-detection-during-visual-search-by-single-neurons-in-the-human-brain
#1
Shuo Wang, Adam N Mamelak, Ralph Adolphs, Ueli Rutishauser
Neurons in the primate medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to visual categories such as faces, contributing to how the brain represents stimulus meaning. However, it remains unknown whether MTL neurons continue to encode stimulus meaning when it changes flexibly as a function of variable task demands imposed by goal-directed behavior. While classically associated with long-term memory, recent lesion and neuroimaging studies show that the MTL also contributes critically to the online guidance of goal-directed behaviors such as visual search...
June 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909810/major-depression-impairs-incentive-processing-evidence-from-the-heart-and-the-face
#2
Jessica Franzen, Kerstin Brinkmann, Guido H E Gendolla, Othman Sentissi
BACKGROUND: The present study tested the hypothesis of a differential pattern of reward and punishment responsiveness in depression measuring effort mobilization during anticipation and facial expressions during consumption. METHODS: Twenty patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 control participants worked on a memory task under neutral, reward, and punishment instructions. Effort mobilization was operationalized as cardiovascular reactivity, while facial expressions were measured by facial electromyographic reactivity...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904017/a-parallel-software-pipeline-for-dmet-microarray-genotyping-data-analysis
#3
Giuseppe Agapito, Pietro Hiram Guzzi, Mario Cannataro
Personalized medicine is an aspect of the P4 medicine (predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) based precisely on the customization of all medical characters of each subject. In personalized medicine, the development of medical treatments and drugs is tailored to the individual characteristics and needs of each subject, according to the study of diseases at different scales from genotype to phenotype scale. To make concrete the goal of personalized medicine, it is necessary to employ high-throughput methodologies such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), Mass Spectrometry or Microarrays, that are able to investigate a single disease from a broader perspective...
June 14, 2018: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902058/differential-effects-of-angry-faces-on-working-memory-updating-in-younger-and-older-adults
#4
Natalie Berger, Anne Richards, Eddy J Davelaar
Research suggests that cognition-emotion interactions change with age. In the present study, younger and older adults completed a 2-back task, and the effects of negative stimuli were analyzed as a function of their status in the n-back sequence. Older adults were found to benefit more from angry than from neutral probes relative to younger adults. However, they were slower when lures were angry and less accurate when lures and probes had the same emotion. The results suggest that recollection of the n-back sequence was reduced in older adults, making them more susceptible to the facilitating and impairing effects of negative emotion...
June 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901988/bio-spectroscopic-imaging-provides-evidence-of-hippocampal-zn-deficiency-and-decreased-lipid-unsaturation-in-an-accelerated-ageing-mouse-model
#5
Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, Cameron M Kewish, Matthew A Albrecht, Ryu Takechi, John C L Mamo, Mark J Hackett
Western society is facing a health epidemic due to the increasing incidence of dementia in ageing populations, and there are still few effective diagnostic methods, minimal treatment options, and no cure. Ageing is the greatest risk factor for memory loss that occurs during the natural ageing process, as well as being the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the biochemical pathways that drive a healthy ageing brain towards dementia (pathological ageing or Alzheimer's disease), is required to accelerate the development of improved diagnostics and therapies...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892422/more-than-a-sum-of-parts-robust-face-recognition-by-integrating-variation
#6
Nadia Menon, Richard I Kemp, David White
Familiarity incrementally improves our ability to identify faces. It has been hypothesized that this improvement reflects the refinement of memory representations which incorporate variation in appearance across encounters. Although it is established that exposure to variation improves face identification accuracy, it is not clear how variation is assimilated into internal face representations. To address this, we used a novel approach to isolate the effect of integrating separate exposures into a single-identity representation...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892342/how-robust-is-familiar-face-recognition-a-repeat-detection-study-of-more-than-1000-faces
#7
Angus F Chapman, Hannah Hawkins-Elder, Tirta Susilo
Recent theories suggest that familiar faces have a robust representation in memory because they have been encountered over a wide variety of contexts and image changes (e.g. lighting, viewpoint and expression). By contrast, unfamiliar faces are encountered only once, and so they do not benefit from such richness of experience and are represented based on image-specific details. In this registered report, we used a repeat detection task to test whether familiar faces are recognized better than unfamiliar faces across image changes...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891774/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-warming-related-genes-in-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#8
Hayoung Song, Xiangshu Dong, Hankuil Yi, Ju Young Ahn, Keunho Yun, Myungchul Song, Ching-Tack Han, Yoonkang Hur
For sustainable crop cultivation in the face of global warming, it is important to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to a warming climate and apply this information to breeding. Thermomorphogenesis and ambient temperature signaling pathways have been well studied in model plants, but little information is available for vegetable crops. Here, we investigated genes responsive to warming conditions from two Brassica rapa inbred lines with different geographic origins: subtropical (Kenshin) and temperate (Chiifu)...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890177/role-of-human-oocyte-enriched-factors-in-somatic-cell-reprograming
#9
REVIEW
Zaynab El-Gammal, Abdelrahman AlOkda, Nagwa El-Badri
Cellular reprograming paves the way for creating functional patient-specific tissues to eliminate immune rejection responses by applying the same genetic profile. However, the epigenetic memory of a cell remains a challenge facing the current reprograming methods and does not allow transcription factors to bind properly. Because somatic cells can be reprogramed by transferring their nuclear contents into oocytes, introducing specific oocyte factors into differentiated cells is considered a promising approach for mimicking the reprograming process that occurs during fertilization...
June 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887865/human-macrophages-escape-inhibition-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-dependent-antigen-presentation-by-cytomegalovirus-and-drive-proliferation-and-activation-of-memory-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells
#10
Giada Frascaroli, Carina Lecher, Stefania Varani, Corinna Setz, Johannes van der Merwe, Wolfram Brune, Thomas Mertens
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistently infects 40-90% of the human population but in the face of a normal immune system, viral spread and dissemination are efficiently controlled thus preventing clinically signs and disease. HCMV-infected hosts produce a remarkably large amount of HCMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that can even reach 20-50% of total T memory cells in the elderly. How HCMV may elicit such large and long-lasting T-cell responses in the absence of detectable viremia has not been elucidated yet...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875370/dissociating-neural-markers-of-stimulus-memorability-and-subjective-recognition-during-episodic-retrieval
#11
Wilma A Bainbridge, Jesse Rissman
While much of memory research takes an observer-centric focus looking at participant performance, recent work has pinpointed important item-centric effects on memory, or how intrinsically memorable a given stimulus is. However, little is known about the neural correlates of memorability during memory retrieval, or how such correlates relate to subjective memory behavior. Here, stimuli and blood-oxygen-level dependent data from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study were reanalyzed using a memorability-based framework...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872429/past-life-and-future-effects-how-heterologous-infections-alter-immunity-to-influenza-viruses
#12
REVIEW
Aisha Souquette, Paul G Thomas
Influenza virus frequently mutates due to its error-prone polymerase. This feature contributes to influenza virus's ability to evade pre-existing immunity, leading to annual epidemics and periodic pandemics. T cell memory plays a key protective role in the face of an antigenically distinct influenza virus strain because T cell targets are often derived from conserved internal proteins, whereas humoral immunity targets are often sites of increased mutation rates that are tolerated by the virus. Most studies of influenza T cell memory are conducted in naive, specific pathogen free mice and do not account for repetitive influenza infection throughout a lifetime, sequential acute heterologous infections between influenza infections, or heterologous chronic co-infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868520/interactive-block-games-for-assessing-children-s-cognitive-skills-design-and-preliminary-evaluation
#13
Kiju Lee, Donghwa Jeong, Rachael C Schindler, Laura E Hlavaty, Susan I Gross, Elizabeth J Short
Background: This paper presents design and results from preliminary evaluation of Tangible Geometric Games (TAG-Games) for cognitive assessment in young children. The TAG-Games technology employs a set of sensor-integrated cube blocks, called SIG-Blocks, and graphical user interfaces for test administration and real-time performance monitoring. TAG-Games were administered to children from 4 to 8 years of age for evaluating preliminary efficacy of this new technology-based approach. Methods: Five different sets of SIG-Blocks comprised of geometric shapes, segmented human faces, segmented animal faces, emoticons, and colors, were used for three types of TAG-Games, including Assembly, Shape Matching, and Sequence Memory...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867667/the-many-faces-of-part-list-cuing-evidence-for-the-interplay-between-detrimental-and-beneficial-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Eva-Maria Lehmer, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
If participants study a list of items and, at test, receive a random selection of the studied items as retrieval cues, then such cuing often impairs recall of the remaining items. This effect, referred to as part-list cuing impairment, is a well-established finding in memory research that, over the years, has been attributed to quite different cognitive mechanisms. Here, we provide a review of more recent developments in research on part-list cuing. These developments (i) suggest a new view on part-list cuing impairment and a critical role of encoding for the effect, (ii) identify conditions in which part-list cuing impairment can turn into part-list cuing facilitation, and (iii) relate research on part-list cuing to a phenomenon from social memory, known as collaborative inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867655/working-memory-for-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-manual-gestures-evidence-theory-and-application
#15
REVIEW
Mary Rudner
Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867631/spatial-numerical-associations-enhance-the-short-term-memorization-of-digit-locations
#16
Catherine Thevenot, Jasinta Dewi, Pamela B Lavenex, Jeanne Bagnoud
Little is known about how spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) affect the way individuals process their environment, especially in terms of learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of SNAs in a digit memory task in order to determine whether spatially organized mental representations of numbers can influence the short-term encoding of digits positioned on an external display. To this aim, we designed a memory game in which participants had to match pairs of identical digits in a 9 × 2 matrix of cards...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864614/associations-between-olfactory-identification-and-social-cognitive-functioning-a-cross-sectional-study-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls
#17
Jessica de Nijs, Julia H Meijer, Lieuwe de Haan, Carin J Meijer, Richard Bruggeman, Neeltje E M van Haren, René S Kahn, Wiepke Cahn
Schizophrenia patients have difficulties identifying odors, possibly a marker of cognitive and social impairment. This study investigated olfactory identification (OI) differences between patients and controls, related to cognitive and social functioning in childhood and adolescence, to present state cognition and to present state social cognition. 132 schizophrenia patients and 128 healthy controls were assessed on OI performance with the Sniffin' Sticks task. Multiple regression analyses were conducted investigating OI in association with cognitive and social functioning measures in childhood/adolescence and in association with IQ, memory, processing speed, attention, executive functioning, face recognition, emotion recognition and theory of mind...
May 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863514/building-resilience-among-orphaned-and-vulnerable-children-through-the-memory-book-intervention
#18
Barbara J Braband, Tamara Faris, Kaye Wilson-Anderson
Children who are orphaned and vulnerable due to poverty, war, or disease (HIV/AIDS) may experience childhood traumatic grief. A qualitative phenomenological approach was implemented to explore and compare the lived experiences of orphaned children, adolescents, and caregivers who had used the Memory Book intervention at six children's homes in India, Kenya, and South Africa. Study findings revealed similar themes between the countries, with primary themes of identity and relationships, and secondary themes of coping, hope, and emotion...
July 2018: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859335/hippocampal-activations-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-due-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-observational-study-on-intramural-encoding-delayed-recall-paradigms-using-task-based-memory-fmri
#19
Rajesh Pg, Thomas Bejoy, Chandrasekhar Pammi Vs, Kesavadas Chandrasekharan, Radhakrishnan Ashalatha, Alexander Aley, Thomas Sanjeev V, Menon Ramshekhar N
OBJECTIVES: To validate concurrent utility of within-scanner encoding and delayed recognition-memory paradigms to ascertain hippocampal activations during task-based memory fMRI. METHODS: Memory paradigms were designed for faces, word-pairs and abstract designs. A deep-encoding task was designed comprising of a total of 9 cycles run within a 1.5T MRI scanner. A recall session was performed after 1 h within the scanner using an event-related design. Group analysis was done with 'correct-incorrect' responses applied as parametric modulators in Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8 using boot-strap method to enable estimation of laterality indices (LI) using custom anatomical masks involving the medio-basal temporal structures...
May 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850247/cognitive-strategies-and-physical-activity-in-older-adults-a-discriminant-analysis
#20
Nathalie André, Claude Ferrand, Cédric Albinet, Michel Audiffren
Background: Although a number of studies have examined sociodemographic, psychosocial, and environmental determinants of the level of physical activity (PA) for older people, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of cognitive strategies for independently living older adults. However, cognitive strategies have recently been considered to be critical in the management of day-to-day living. Methods: Data were collected from 243 men and women aged 55 years and older living in France using face-to-face interviews between 2011 and 2013...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
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