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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821746/neural-circuitry-governing-anxious-individuals-mis-allocation-of-working-memory-to-threat
#1
Daniel M Stout, Alexander J Shackman, Walker S Pedersen, Tara A Miskovich, Christine L Larson
Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816475/the-role-of-stimulus-complexity-and-salience-in-memory-for-face-name-associations-in-healthy-adults-friend-or-foe
#2
Andrew R Bender, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Katheryn Amann, Naftali Raz
The associative deficit hypothesis (ADH) posits that age-related differences in recognition of associations are disproportionately larger than age differences in item recognition because of age-related difficulty in binding and retrieval of two or more pieces of information in a memory episode. This proposition rests on the observation of disproportionately greater age differences in memory for associations than in recognition of individual items. Although ADH has been supported in experiments with verbal and nonverbal stimuli, the effects of task or stimulus characteristics on its generalizability remain unclear...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805291/harms-of-unsuccessful-donation-after-circulatory-death-an-exploratory-study
#3
Lauren J Taylor, Anne Buffington, Joseph R Scalea, Norman Fost, Kenneth D Croes, Joshua D Mezrich, Margaret L Schwarze
While donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded options for organ donation, many who wish to donate are still unable to do so. We conducted face-to-face interviews with family members (n=15) who had direct experience with unsuccessful DCD and five focus groups with professionals involved in the donation process. We used qualitative content analysis to characterize harms of non-donation as perceived by participants. Participants reported a broad spectrum of harms impacting organ recipients, donors and donor families...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#4
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802769/electrophysiological-correlates-of-voice-memory-for-young-and-old-speakers-in-young-and-old-listeners
#5
Romi Zäske, Katharina Limbach, Dana Schneider, Verena G Skuk, Christian Dobel, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Stefan Robert Schweinberger
Faces of one's own-age group are easier to recognize than other-age faces. Using behavioural measures and EEG, we studied whether an own-age bias (OAB) also exists in voice memory. Young (19 - 26 years) and old (60 - 75 years) participants studied young (18 - 25 years) and old (60 - 77 years) unfamiliar voices from short sentences. Subsequently, they classified studied and novel voices as "old" (i.e. studied) or "new", from the same sentences. Recognition performance was higher in young compared to old participants, and for old compared to young voices, with no OAB...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802103/where-you-are-affects-what-you-can-easily-imagine-environmental-geometry-elicits-sensorimotor-interference-in-remote-perspective-taking
#6
Bernhard E Riecke, Timothy P McNamara
Imagined perspective switches are notoriously difficult, a fact often ascribed to sensorimotor interference between one's to-be-imagined versus actual orientation. Here, we demonstrate similar interference effects, even if participants know they are in a remote environment with unknown spatial relation to the learning environment. Participants learned 15 target objects irregularly arranged in an office from one orientation (0°, 120°, or 240°). Participants were blindfolded and disoriented before being wheeled to a test room of similar geometry (exp...
August 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801195/avoidance-of-accelerated-aging-in-schizophrenia-clinical-and-biological-characterization-of-an-exceptionally-high-functioning-individual
#7
Barton W Palmer, Raeanne C Moore, Lisa T Eyler, Luz L Pinto, Elyn R Saks, Dilip V Jeste
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of an exceptionally high functioning index person (IP) with schizophrenia in her mid-50s, which may represent compensatory mechanisms, and potentially, avoidance of the accelerated aging typically associated with schizophrenia. METHOD: IP, 11 other women with schizophrenia, and 11 non-psychiatric comparison (NC) women were assessed with standard ratings of psychopathology, neurocognitive function, decisional capacity, and functional brain imaging...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795001/evaluation-and-management-of-sport-related-concussions-in-adolescent-athletes
#8
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Venu Parachuri, Amrith Shettigar
Sport-related concussions in young athletes are common, generally under reported and often go unrecognized. Concussion in sport may result either from a direct impact to the head or from indirect forces transmitted to the brain from impact elsewhere on the body. Concussions may also result from sudden acceleration, deceleration or rotational forces to the brain. The key features of concussion include confusion, impaired memory and reduced speed of information processing. Recovery may occur from a few days to several weeks or months...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#9
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793161/visuospatial-and-verbal-short-term-memory-correlates-of-vocabulary-ability-in-preschool-children
#10
Stephanie F Stokes, Thomas Klee, Myriam Kornisch, Lisa Furlong
Background: Recent studies indicate that school-age children's patterns of performance on measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) differ across types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because these disorders are often characterized by early language delay, administering STM and WM tests to toddlers could improve prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Toddler-appropriate verbal, but not visuospatial, STM and WM tasks are available. A toddler-appropriate visuospatial STM test is introduced...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790020/prenatal-choline-supplementation-attenuates-mk-801-induced-deficits-in-memory-motor-function-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-adult-male-rats
#11
Chelsea A Nickerson, Alexandra L Brown, Waylin Yu, Yoona Chun, Melissa J Glenn
Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783633/towards-optimal-manifold-hashing-via-discrete-locally-linear-embedding
#12
Rongrong Ji, Hong Liu, Liujuan Cao, Di Liu, Yongjian Wu, Feiyue Huang
Binary code learning, a.k.a. hashing, has received increasing attention in large-scale visual search. By transforming high-dimensional features to binary codes, the original Euclidean distance is approximated via Hamming distance. More recently, it is advocated that it is the manifold distance, rather than the Euclidean distance, that should be preserved in the Hamming space. However, it retains as an open problem to directly preserve the manifold structure by hashing. In particular, it needs first to build the local linear embedding in the original feature space, and then quantize such embedding to binary codes...
August 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782371/patterns-of-fixation-during-face-recognition-differences-in-autism-across-age
#13
Jennifer Fedor, Andrew Lynn, William Foran, Jared DiCicco-Bloom, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Difficulties with face recognition increase from adolescence to adulthood in autism, reflecting a lack of typical late development. We examined whether this reflects differences in the development of patterns of fixation to eyes and mouths during face recognition. Children, adolescents, and adults (aged 7-30) with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test while gaze was recorded. Average duration and number of fixations were calculated for eyes and mouth regions of interest, defined individually for each face image in the task...
August 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#14
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768057/memory-integration-in-humans-with-hippocampal-lesions
#15
Anna Pajkert, Carsten Finke, Yee-Lee Shing, Martina Hoffmann, Werner Sommer, Hauke R Heekeren, Christoph J Ploner
Adaptive behavior frequently depends on inference from past experience. Recent studies suggest that the underlying process of integrating related memories may depend on interaction between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here, we investigated how hippocampal damage affects memory integration. Subjects with mediotemporal lesions and healthy controls learned a set of overlapping AB- and BC-associations (object-face- and face-object pairs) and were then tested for memory of these associations ('direct' trials) and of inferential AC-associations ('indirect' trials)...
August 2, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766399/monitoring-of-learning-for-emotional-faces-how-do-fine-grained-categories-of-emotion-influence-participants-judgments-of-learning-and-beliefs-about-memory
#16
Amber E Witherby, Sarah K Tauber
Researchers have evaluated how broad categories of emotion (i.e. positive and negative) influence judgments of learning (JOLs) relative to neutral items. Specifically, JOLs are typically higher for emotional relative to neutral items. The novel goal of the present research was to evaluate JOLs for fine-grained categories of emotion. Participants studied faces with afraid, angry, sad, or neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and with afraid, angry, or sad expressions (Experiment 2). Participants identified the expressed emotion, made a JOL for each, and completed a recognition test...
August 2, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763377/unfamiliar-faces-in-recognition-memory-spaced-learning-enhances-subsequent-recognition-memory-by-reducing-repetition-priming
#17
Yanpei Wang, Qinfang Xu, Shuirong Liao, Demei Jia
Although the spacing effect is one of most robust effects in learning, its cognitive and neural mechanisms are still under investigation. Whether the spacing effect is achieved by reducing neural repetition priming or depends on learning experience is still unclear. In this event-related potential study, participants were asked to memorize 140 novel faces, half under the massed learning condition and the other half under the spaced learning condition. The afterwards recognition tests indicated that participants recognized more items under the spaced learning condition than under the massed learning condition...
July 31, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761553/scale-freeness-of-dominant-and-piecemeal-perceptions-during-binocular-rivalry
#18
Fatemeh Bakouie, Morteza Pishnamazi, Roxana Zeraati, Shahriar Gharibzadeh
When two eyes are simultaneously stimulated by two inconsistent images, the observer's perception switches between the two images every few seconds such that only one image is perceived at a time. This phenomenon is named binocular rivalry (BR). However, sometimes the perceived image is a piecemeal mixed of two stimuli known as piecemeal perceptions. In this study, a BR task was designed in which orthogonal gratings are presented to the two eyes. The subjects were trained to report 3 states: dominant perceptions (two state matching to perceived grating orientation) and the piecemeal perceptions (third state)...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758145/cross-validation-of-optimized-composites-for-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Michael C Donohue, Chung-Kai Sun, Rema Raman, Philip S Insel, Paul S Aisen
INTRODUCTION: We discuss optimization and validation of composite endpoints for pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's clinical trials. Optimized composites offer hope of substantial gains in statistical power or reduction in sample size. But there is tradeoff between optimization and face validity such that optimization should only be considered if there is a convincing rationale. As with statistically derived regions of interest in neuroimaging, validation on independent datasets is essential...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752377/is-he-important-to-me-source-memory-advantage-for-personally-relevant-cheaters
#20
Meike Kroneisen
A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology claims that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Previous studies found a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters rather than faces of cooperators. The present study examines memory for social-exchange relevant information. More precisely, faces were shown together with behavior descriptions of cheating, trustworthy and neutral behavior either high or low in relevance for a student population...
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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