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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222491/exploring-biased-attention-towards-body-related-stimuli-and-its-relationship-with-body-awareness
#1
Gerardo Salvato, Gabriele De Maio, Gabriella Bottini
Stimuli of great social relevance exogenously capture attention. Here we explored the impact of body-related stimuli on endogenous attention. Additionally, we investigate the influence of internal states on biased attention towards this class of stimuli. Participants were presented with a body, face, or chair cue to hold in memory (Memory task) or to merely attend (Priming task) and, subsequently, they were asked to find a circle in an unrelated visual search task. In the valid condition, the circle was flanked by the cue...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210475/a-rational-approach-to-metal-loading-of-organic-multi-site-polymers-illusion-or-reality
#2
Claude Piguet, Lucille Babel, Karine Baudet, Thi Nu Y Hoang, Homayoun Nozary
Since its identification as an independent topic after the first world war, the chemistry of (bio)polymers and macromolecules rapidly benefited from intense synthetic activities driven by contributors focussing on formulation and structural aspects. Satisfying rationalization and predictions concerning polymer organization, stability and reactivity were however delayed until the late fifties, when physical chemists set the basis of an adapted thermodynamic modelling. The recent emergence of metal-containing (bio)organic polymers (i...
December 6, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204426/burden-among-family-caregivers-of-dementia-in-the-oldest-old-an-exploratory-study
#3
Khin Khin Win, Mei Sian Chong, Noorhazlina Ali, Mark Chan, Wee Shiong Lim
Background: With >85 years, the fastest growing age segment in developed countries, dementia in the oldest-old is projected to increase exponentially. Being older, caregivers of dementia in oldest-old (CDOO) may experience unique challenges compared with younger-age groups. Thus, we aim to explore demographic characteristics and burden pattern among CDOO. Methods: We studied 458 family caregiver-patient dyads attending an outpatient memory clinic. We classified patients into three age-groups: <75, 75-84, and ≥85 years...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199383/combined-corticosterone-treatment-and-chronic-restraint-stress-lead-to-depression-associated-with-early-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#4
Gwladys Temkou Ngoupaye, Francis Bray Yassi, Doriane Amanda Nguepi Bahane, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Many models, such as chronic mild stress, chronic stress or chronic corticosterone injections are used to induce depression associated with cognitive deficits. However, the induction period in these different models is still long and face constraints when it is short such as in the chronic mild stress done in a minimum period of 21 days. This study aimed to characterize a model of depression with early onset cognitive deficit. 14 days combined chronic injection of corticosterone followed by 2 h restraint stress using a restrainer was used to induce depression with early cognitive deficit onset...
December 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198599/who-is-the-boss-individual-recognition-memory-and-social-hierarchy-formation-in-crayfish
#5
Nayeli Jiménez-Morales, Karina Mendoza-Ángeles, Mercedes Porras-Villalobos, Elizabeth Ibarra-Coronado, Gabriel Roldán-Roldán, Jesús Hernández-Falcón
Under laboratory conditions, crayfish establish hierarchical orders through agonistic encounters whose outcome defines the dominant one and one, or more, submissive animals. These agonistic encounters are ritualistic, based on threats, pushes, attacks, grabs, and avoidance behaviors that include retreats and escape responses. Agonistic behavior in a triad of unfamiliar, size-matched animals is intense on the first day of social interaction and the intensity fades on daily repetitions. The dominant animal keeps its status for long periods, and the submissive ones seem to remember 'who the boss is'...
November 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196835/eye-contact-effects-on-social-preference-and-face-recognition-in-normal-ageing-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
D Lopis, M Baltazar, N Geronikola, V Beaucousin, L Conty
Perceiving a direct gaze (i.e. another individual's gaze directed to the observer leading to eye contact) influences positively a wide range of cognitive processes. In particular, direct gaze perception is known to stimulate memory for other's faces and to increase their likeability. Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in social withdrawal and cognitive decline. However, patients show preserved eye contact behaviours until the middle stage of the disease. The eye contact effects could be preserved in AD and be used to compensate for cognitive and social deficits...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181584/testing-a-potential-alternative-to-traditional-identification-procedures-reaction-time-based-concealed-information-test-does-not-work-for-lineups-with-cooperative-witnesses
#7
Melanie Sauerland, Andrea C F Wolfs, Samantha Crans, Bruno Verschuere
Direct eyewitness identification is widely used, but prone to error. We tested the validity of indirect eyewitness identification decisions using the reaction time-based concealed information test (CIT) for assessing cooperative eyewitnesses' face memory as an alternative to traditional lineup procedures. In a series of five experiments, a total of 401 mock eyewitnesses watched one of 11 different stimulus events that depicted a breach of law. Eyewitness identifications in the CIT were derived from longer reaction times as compared to well-matched foil faces not encountered before...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180995/b-cell-intrinsic-mechanisms-constraining-ige-memory
#8
REVIEW
Brice Laffleur, Orianne Debeaupuis, Zeinab Dalloul, Michel Cogné
Memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells are key elements of adaptive humoral immunity. Regardless of the immunoglobulin class produced, these cells can ensure long-lasting protection but also long-lasting immunopathology, thus requiring tight regulation of their generation and survival. Among all antibody classes, this is especially true for IgE, which stands as the most potent, and can trigger dramatic inflammatory reactions even when present in minute amounts. IgE responses and memory crucially protect against parasites and toxic components of venoms, conferring selective advantages and explaining their conservation in all mammalian species despite a parallel broad spectrum of IgE-mediated immunopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177110/advances-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders
#9
Eric S Goetzman
Purpose of review: This review focuses on advances made in the past three years with regards to understanding the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway, the pathophysiological ramifications of genetic lesions in FAO enzymes, and emerging therapies for FAO disorders. Recent findings: FAO has now been recognized to play a key energetic role in pulmonary surfactant synthesis, T-cell differentiation and memory, and the response of the proximal tubule to kidney injury...
September 2017: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174994/learning-bundled-care-opportunities-from-electronic-medical-records
#10
You Chen, Abel N Kho, David Liebovitz, Catherine Ivory, Sarah Osmundson, Jiang Bian, Bradley A Malin
OBJECTIVE: The traditional fee-for-service approach to healthcare can lead to the management of a patient's conditions in a siloed manner, inducing various negative consequences. It has been recognized that a bundled approach to healthcare - one that manages a collection of health conditions together - may enable greater efficacy and cost savings. However, it is not always evident which sets of conditions should be managed in a bundled manner. In this study, we investigate if a data-driven approach can automatically learn potential bundles...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170624/estimating-memory-deterioration-rates-following-neurodegeneration-and-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-a-hopfield-network-model
#11
Melanie Weber, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are among the main causes of cognitive dysfunction in humans. At a neuronal network level, they both extensively exhibit focal axonal swellings (FAS), which in turn, compromise the information encoded in spike trains and lead to potentially severe functional deficits. There are currently no satisfactory quantitative predictors of decline in memory-encoding neuronal networks based on the impact and statistics of FAS. Some of the challenges of this translational approach include our inability to access small scale injuries with non-invasive methods, the overall complexity of neuronal pathologies, and our limited knowledge of how networks process biological signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169264/adaptive-memory-remembering-potential-mates
#12
Josefa N S Pandeirada, Natália Lisandra Fernandes, Marco Vasconcelos, James S Nairne
According to the adaptive memory perspective, memory should function more efficiently in fitness-relevant domains. The current work explored whether there is a mnemonic tuning in a fundamental domain for human evolution: reproduction. In two experiments, female participants assessed how desirable potential male candidates (represented by a face and a short descriptor) would be in the context of a long-term mating relationship or in the context of a long-term work relationship. Then, after a short distractor task, participants performed a recognition task for the faces and a source memory task...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163235/electrophysiological-anomalies-in-face-name-memory-encoding-in-young-binge-drinkers
#13
Rocío Folgueira-Ares, Fernando Cadaveira, Socorro Rodríguez Holguín, Eduardo López-Caneda, Alberto Crego, Paula Pazo-Álvarez
A growing body of evidence indicates that the intake of large amounts of alcohol during one session may have structural and functional effects on the still-maturing brains of young people. These effects are particularly pronounced in prefrontal and hippocampal regions, which appear to be especially sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. However, to date, few studies have used the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to analyze the relationship between binge drinking (BD) and associative memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160331/primum-non-nocere-or-primum-facere-meliorem-hacking-the-brain-in-the-21st-century
#14
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates cortical excitability. It is devoid of serious adverse events and exerts variable effects on cognition, with several research findings suggesting that it can improve memory, verbal and mathematical skills. Because tDCS devices are low-cost, portable and relatively easy to assemble, they have become available outside of the medical setting and used for non-medical ("cosmetic") purposes by laypersons. In this sense, tDCS has become a popular technique aiming to improve cognition and the achievement of a better performance not only at work, but also in other fields such as sports, leisure activities (video games) and even the military...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158201/the-effect-of-prior-knowledge-on-post-encoding-brain-connectivity-and-its-relation-to-subsequent-memory
#15
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
It is known that prior knowledge can facilitate memory acquisition. It is unclear, however, whether prior knowledge can affect post-encoding brain activity to facilitate memory consolidation. In this fMRI study, we asked participants to associate novel houses with famous/nonfamous faces and investigated how associative-encoding tasks with/without prior knowledge differentially affected post-encoding brain connectivity during rest. Besides memory advantages in the famous condition, we found that post-encoding hippocampal connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) and ventral-medial-prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was stronger following encoding of associations with famous than non-famous faces...
November 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#16
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149869/characterisation-of-sucking-dynamics-of-breastfeeding-preterm-infants-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Donna T Geddes, Kok Chooi, Kathryn Nancarrow, Anna R Hepworth, Hazel Gardner, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Full breastfeeding is the ultimate aim for preterm infants to ensure they receive the full benefits of human milk however, preterm infants face a number of challenges associated with their immaturity and associated morbidities. In order to facilitate oral feeding, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the sucking dynamics of the breastfed infant. The aim of this study was to measure and describe the sucking dynamics of the preterm breastfeeding infant. METHODS: A prospective cross sectional observational study was carried out at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#18
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#19
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143411/spontaneous-neural-activity-differences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-quantitative-resting-state-meta-analysis-and-fmri-validation
#20
Seth G Disner, Craig A Marquardt, Bryon A Mueller, Philip C Burton, Scott R Sponheim
Identifying the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a critical step toward reducing its debilitating impact. Spontaneous neural activity, measured at rest using various neuroimaging techniques (e.g., regional homogeneity [ReHo], amplitude of low frequency fluctuations [ALFF]), can provide insight about baseline neurobiological factors influencing sensory, cognitive, or behavioral processes associated with PTSD. The present study used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct the largest-to-date quantitative meta-analysis of spontaneous neural activity in PTSD, including 457 PTSD cases, 292 trauma-exposed controls (TECs), and 293 non-traumatized controls (NTCs) across 22 published studies...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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