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Kernel density

Javier Gandasegui, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Antonio Muro, Constança Simões Barbosa, Fabio Lopes de Melo, Rodrigo Loyo, Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health relevance, mainly in poor areas where Schistosoma mansoni is the only human species encountered and Biomphalaria straminea is one of the intermediate host snails. A nested-PCR based on a specific mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region has been successfully developed and applied as a reference method in Brazil for S. mansoni detection, mainly in host snails for epidemiological studies. The amplification efficiency of LAMP is known to be higher than PCR...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Niloufar Javanrouh, Maryam S Daneshpour, Ali Reza Soltanian, Leili Tapak
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a serious health problem that leads to low quality of life and early mortality. To the purpose of prevention and gene therapy for such a worldwide disease, genome wide association study is a powerful tool for finding SNPs associated with increased risk of obesity. To conduct an association analysis, kernel machine regression is a generalized regression method, has an advantage of considering the epistasis effects as well as the correlation between individuals due to unknown factors...
March 7, 2018: Gene
Chuan Wei Duan, Lin Xu
BACKGROUND: Most of the androgen replacement therapies were based on serum testosterone and without measurements of total androgen activities. Whether those with low testosterone also have low levels of androgen activity is largely unknown. We hence examined the association between testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide (AG), a reliable measure of androgen activity, in a nationally representative sample of US men. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was based on 1493 men from the Third National Health and Nutrition examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted from 1988 to 1991...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Alessandro Biancardi, Marco Caricato
We present a benchmarking study for the evaluation of electronic couplings in donor-bridge-acceptor systems with the Fock matrix reconstruction-bridge (FMR-B) method. We compile a data set for the benchmark that contains 29 molecules for which reliable experimental coupling values are available: DBA29. This data set is general and includes different types of donor, acceptor, and bridge units as well as different bridge lengths, and it spans a range of couplings from 0.1 to 0.8 eV. We use DBA29 to test FMR-B with eleven density functionals belonging to different classes (pure, global hybrid, and range-separated) and the Hartree-Fock (HF) method...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Fuji Jian, Digvir S Jayas, Paul G Fields, Noel D G White, Hao Zhang, Peian Tang
Population dynamics of rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens; Coleoptera: Cucujidae), was studied using different sizes of grain bulks (patches) at various temperatures. The temperatures were 21, 25, 30, 35°C, T-decrease (30°C in the first 4 wk and then decreased 1°C /wk), and T-increase (21°C in the first 2 wk and then increased 1°C /wk). Number of adults and offspring and infested wheat kernels were counted every 4 wk up to 24 wk (31 wk for the T-decrease). The grain bulk patches used were: small (50 ml inner volume, 0...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Adam Wang, Alexander Maslowski, Philippe Messmer, Mathias Lehmann, Adam Strzelecki, Elaine Yu, Pascal Paysan, Marcus Brehm, Peter Munro, Josh Star-Lack, Dieter Seghers
PURPOSE: To correct for scatter in kV cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data on a clinical system using a new tool, Acuros® CTS, that estimates scatter images rapidly and accurately by deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation. METHODS: Phantom and patient CBCT scans were acquired on TrueBeam® radiotherapy machines. A first-pass reconstruction was used to create water and bone density maps of the imaged object, which was updated to include a more accurate representation of the patient couch...
March 6, 2018: Medical Physics
Florieke Eggermont, Loes Derikx, Jeffrey Free, Ruud van Leeuwen, Yvette van der Linden, Nico Verdonschot, Esther Tanck
In a multi-center patient study, using different CT scanners, CT-based finite element (FE) models are utilized to calculate failure loads of femora with metastases. Previous studies showed that using different CT scanners can result in different outcomes. This study aims to quantify the effects of 1) different CT scanners, 2) different CT protocols with variations in slice thickness, field of view (FOV) and reconstruction kernel, and 3) air between calibration phantom and patient, on Hounsfield Units (HU), bone mineral density (BMD) and FE failure load...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Arianna Binello, Marta Giorgis, Clara Cena, Giancarlo Cravotto, Laura Rotolo, Paolo Oliveri, Cristina Malegori, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Stefania Buso, Monica Casale
BACKGROUD: For the processing industry, it is crucial to know what effect the roasting process and conditions have on hazelnut quality. The present study investigates, for the first time, on the effects of hot-air and infrared (IR) roasting at different time-temperature combinations on Tonda Gentile Trilobata hazelnut: whole kernels and derived processing products (paste and oil). RESULTS: Nutritional and physical characteristics of hazelnuts and processing products were determined to study the influence of the different roasting conditions as a function of the intended use...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marco Franco-Pérez, Carlos A Polanco-Ramírez, José L Gázquez, Paul W Ayers
This reply complements the comment of Guégan et al. about our recent work on the revision of the local hardness and the hardness kernel concepts. Guegan et al. analyze our work using a Taylor series expansion of the energy as a functional of the electron density, to show that our procedure opens a new way to define local descriptors. In this contribution we show that the strategy we followed for the local hardness and the hardness kernel is even more general, and that it can be used to derive from a global response function its corresponding local and non-local counterparts by: (1) requiring that the integral over one of the two variables that characterizes the non-local function leads to the local function, and that the integral over the local function leads to the global response index, and (2) assuming that the global and local functions are related through the electronic density, by making use of the chain rule for functional derivatives...
March 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Samantha R Nekolny, Matthew Denny, George Biedenbach, Elisabeth M Howells, Marilyn Mazzoil, Wendy N Durden, Lydia Moreland, J David Lambert, Quincy A Gibson
Knowledge of an animal's home range is a crucial component in making informed management decisions. However, many home range studies are limited by study area size, and therefore may underestimate the size of the home range. In many cases, individuals have been shown to travel outside of the study area and utilize a larger area than estimated by the study design. In this study, data collected by multiple research groups studying bottlenose dolphins on the east coast of Florida were combined to determine how home range estimates increased with increasing study area size...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Sabina Kolbl Repinc, Robert Šket, Domen Zavec, Katarina Vogel Mikuš, Fernando G Fermoso, Blaž Stres
A start-up of 4 MW agricultural biogas plant in Vučja vas, Slovenia, was monitored from 2011 to 2014. The start-up was carried out in 3 weeks with the intake of biomass from three operating full-scale 1-2 MW donor agricultural biogas plants. The samples were taken from donor digesters and from two serial digesters during the start-up over the course of 2.5 years. Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities progressively diverged from the composition of donor digesters during the start-up phase. The rate of change of Bacterial community decreased exponentially over the first 2...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
C M Smith, R Lessells, A D Grant, K Herbst, F Tanser
SETTING: Incidencerates of tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa are among the highest in the world, and drug resistance is a major concern. Understanding geographic variations in disease may guide targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the spatial distribution of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and to test for clustering. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional analysis of DR-TB patients managed at a rural district hospital from 2011 to 2015...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Fahmi Khalifa, Mohammed Ghazal, Nicola Ghazi, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
PURPOSE: This paper introduces a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detecting early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. METHODS: The proposed DR-CAD system is based on the analysis of new local features that describe both the appearance and retinal structure in OCTA images. It starts with a new segmentation approach that has the ability to extract the blood vessels from superficial and deep retinal OCTA maps...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Chao Liu, Tao Li, Hadi Abroshan, Zhimin Li, Chen Zhang, Hyung J Kim, Gao Li, Rongchao Jin
We report the synthesis and crystal structure of a nanocluster composed of 23 silver atoms capped by 8 phosphine and 18 phenylethanethiolate ligands. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the kernel of the Ag nanocluster adopts a helical face-centered cubic structure with C2 symmetry. The thiolate ligands show two binding patterns with the surface Ag atoms: tri- and tetra-podal types. The tetra-coordination mode of thiolate has not been found in previous Ag nanoclusters. No counter ion (e.g., Na+ and NO3 - ) is found in the single-crystal and the absence of such ions is also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, indicating electrical neutrality of the nanocluster...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Luane Dantas Rodrigues, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis is an emerging urban focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), where few investigations have addressed canine reservoirs. This study assessed the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the urban area of Rondonópolis. A CVL serosurvey was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017 using an immunochromatographic rapid test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Domestic dogs were sampled from 25 heterogeneous regions previously defined by the Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal algorithm, which considered the socioeconomic and environmental features from the last demographic census...
February 20, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Romi Mankin, Sander Paekivi
The behavior of a stochastic resonate-and-fire neuron model based on a reduction of a fractional noise-driven generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with a power-law memory kernel is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random activity of synaptic inputs, which arise from other neurons forming local and distant networks, is modeled as an additive fractional Gaussian noise in the GLE. Using a first-passage-time formulation, in certain system parameter domains exact expressions for the output interspike interval (ISI) density and for the survival probability (the probability that a spike is not generated) are derived and their dependence on input parameters, especially on the memory exponent, is analyzed...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Yuntao Ma, Youjia Chen, Jinyu Zhu, Lei Meng, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Gerrit Hoogenboom
Background and Aims: Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). Methods: The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
Xiuqin Chen, Limei Huang, Dajun Dai, Meiying Zhu, Kezhi Jin
To identify high-risk locations (hotspots) of road traffic crashes (RTC) in a redeveloping area of Shanghai, for formulating relevant countermeasures in similar areas. After geocoding the crash locations on electronic map, assessment of spatial clustering of accidents and hotspots spatial densities was conducted following Moran's I method, the kernel density estimation, the Ripley's K-function and the network-based kernel density estimation (NKDE). A total of 21,679 RTC incidents resulting in 24,147 victims were recorded from 2010 to 2012...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Yan-Xiao Li, Ping Yi, Jun Liu, Qiao-Juan Yan, Zheng-Qiang Jiang
An engineered β-mannanase (mRmMan5A) from Rhizomucor miehei was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Through high cell density fermentation, the expression level of mRmMan5A reached 79,680 U mL-1. The mRmMan5A showed maximum activity at pH 4.5 and 65 °C, and exhibited high specific activities towards mannans. To produce manno-oligosaccharides, palm kernel cake (PKC) was pretreated by steam explosion at 200 °C for 7.5 min, and then hydrolyzed by mRmMan5A. As a result, the total manno-oligosaccharide yield reached 34...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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