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Kernel density

Heather A Carlos, Joy Gabrielli, James D Sargent
BACKGROUND: Studies of retail alcohol outlets are restricted to regions due to lack of U.S. national data. Commercial business lists (BL) offer a possible solution, but no data exists to determine if BLs could serve as an adequate proxy for license data. This paper compares geospatial measures of alcohol outlets derived from a commercial BL with license data for a large US state. METHODS: We validated BL data as a measure of off-premise alcohol outlet density and proximity compared to license data for 5528 randomly selected California residential addresses...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
Celina Roma Sánchez de Toledo, Andréa Sobral de Almeida, Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Luciano Medeiros Toledo, Jefferson Pereira Caldas
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the determinants for the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis linked to the conditions of vulnerability. METHODS: This is an ecological study, whose spatial analysis unit was the Territorial Analysis Unit in Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. We have carried out an analysis of the sociodemographic and urban infrastructure situation of the municipality. Normalized primary indicators were calculated and used to construct the indicators of vulnerability of the social structure, household structure, and urban infrastructure...
May 15, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
Yefim I Ronin, David I Mester, Dina G Minkov, Eduard Akhunov, Abracham B Korol
The study is focused on addressing the problem of building genetic maps in the presence of ~10(3)-10(4) of markers per chromosome. We consider a spectrum of situations with intrachromosomal heterogeneity of recombination rate, different level of genotyping errors, and missing data. In the ideal scenario of the absence of errors and missing data, the majority of markers should appear as groups of co-segregating markers ("twins") representing no challenge for map construction. The central aspect of the proposed approach is to take into account the structure of the marker space, where each twin group (TG) and singleton markers are represented as points of this space...
May 16, 2017: Genetics
Gui Xi Zhang, Joe King Man Fan, Fion Siu Yin Chan, Gilberto Ka Kit Leung, Chung Mao Lo, Yi Min Yu, Hong Zhang, Susan I Brundage, Jan O Jansen
BACKGROUND: The city of Shenzhen, China, is planning to establish a trauma system. At present, there are few data on the geographical distribution of incidents, which is key to deciding on the location of trauma centres. The aim of this study was to perform a geographical analysis in order to inform the development of a trauma system in Shenzhen. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of trauma incidents attended by Shenzhen Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in 2014. Data were obtained from Shenzhen EMS...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Yan Fang, Yanlei Du, Jun Wang, Aijiao Wu, Sheng Qiao, Bingcheng Xu, Suiqi Zhang, Kadambot H M Siddique, Yinglong Chen
To determine root growth and grain yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under moderate drought stress, a nursery experiment and a field trial were conducted with or without water stress using three representative cultivars released in different years: CW134 (old landrace), CH58 (modern cultivar) and CH1 (new release). In the nursery experiment, plants were grown in soil-filled rhizoboxes under moderate drought (MD, 55% of field capacity) or well-watered (WW, 85% of field capacity) conditions. In the field trial, plots were either rainfed (moderate drought stress) or irrigated with 30 mm of water at each of stem elongation, booting and anthesis stages (irrigated)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dae Y Kang, Pamela N DeYoung, Atul Malhotra, Robert L Owens, Todd P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: Although the importance of sleep is increasingly recognized, the lack of robust and efficient algorithms hinders scalable sleep assessment in healthy persons and those with sleep disorders. Polysomnography (PSG) and visual/manual scoring remain the gold standard in sleep evaluation, but more efficient/automated systems are needed. Most previous works have demonstrated algorithms in high agreement with the gold standard in healthy/normal (HN) individuals - not those with sleep disorders...
May 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Piotr Masojć, P Milczarski, P Kruszona
Genetic architectures of plant height, stem thickness, spike length, awn length, heading date, thousand-kernel weight, kernel length, leaf area and chlorophyll content were aligned on the DArT-based high-density map of the 541 × Ot1-3 RILs population of rye using the genes interaction assorting by divergent selection (GIABDS) method. Complex sets of QTL for particular traits contained 1-5 loci of the epistatic D class and 10-28 loci of the hypostatic, mostly R and E classes controlling traits variation through D-E or D-R types of two-loci interactions...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
Daniel Moyer, Boris A Gutman, Joshua Faskowitz, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson
We present a continuous model for structural brain connectivity based on the Poisson point process. The model treats each streamline curve in a tractography as an observed event in connectome space, here the product space of the gray matter/white matter interfaces. We approximate the model parameter via kernel density estimation. To deal with the heavy computational burden, we develop a fast parameter estimation method by pre-computing associated Legendre products of the data, leveraging properties of the spherical heat kernel...
April 28, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Franco Egidi, Shichao Sun, Joshua J Goings, Giovanni Scalmani, Michael J Frisch, Xiaosong Li
We present a linear response formalism for the description of the electronic excitations of a noncollinear reference defined via Kohn-Sham spin density functional methods. A set of auxiliary variables, defined using the density and noncollinear magnetization density vector, allows the generalization of spin density functional kernels commonly used in collinear DFT to noncollinear cases, including local density, GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals. Working equations and derivations of functional second derivatives with respect to the noncollinear density, required in the linear response noncollinear TDDFT formalism, are presented in this work...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Mary Claire Worrell, Michael Kramer, Aliya Yamin, Susan M Ray, Neela D Goswami
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality in US cities, particularly in poor, transient populations. During a TB outbreak in Fulton County, Atlanta, GA, we aimed to determine whether local maps created from multiple locations of personal activity per case would differ significantly from traditional maps created from single residential address. METHODS: Data were abstracted for patients with TB disease diagnosed in 2008-2014 and receiving care at the Fulton County Health Department...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Bingbing Suo, Kaiyuan Shen, Zhendong Li, Wenjian Liu
Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been very successful in accessing low-lying excited states of closed-shell systems. However, it is much less so for excited states of open-shell systems: unrestricted Kohn-Sham based TD-DFT (U-TD-DFT) often produces physically meaningless excited states due to heavy spin contaminations, whereas restricted Kohn-Sham based TD-DFT often misses those states of lower energies. A much better variant is the explicitly spin-adapted TD-DFT (X-TD-DFT) [J. Chem. Phys...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Violaine Dulau, Patrick Pinet, Ygor Geyer, Jacques Fayan, Philippe Mongin, Guillaume Cottarel, Alexandre Zerbini, Salvatore Cerchio
BACKGROUND: Humpback whales are known to undertake long-distance migration between feeding and breeding sites, but their movement behavior within their breeding range is still poorly known. Satellite telemetry was used to investigate movement of humpback whales during the breeding season and provide further understanding of the breeding ecology and sub-population connectivity within the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). Implantable Argos satellite tags were deployed on 15 whales (7 males and 6 females) during the peak of the breeding season in Reunion Island...
2017: Movement Ecology
Holly Packard, Alison Kernell Burke, Roderick V Jensen, Ann M Stevens
Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a bacterial phytopathogen that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn. It uses quorum sensing to regulate expression of some genes involved in virulence in a cell density-dependent manner as the bacterial population grows from small numbers at the initial infection site in the leaf apoplast to high cell numbers in the xylem where it forms a biofilm. There are also other genes important for pathogenesis not under quorum-sensing control such as a Type III secretion system...
2017: PeerJ
Carlos A Polanco-Ramírez, Marco Franco-Pérez, Javier Carmona-Espíndola, José L Gázquez, Paul W Ayers
An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lech Raczyński, Wojciech Wiślicki, Wojciech Krzemień, Paweł Kowalski, Dominika Alfs, Tomasz Bednarski, Piotr Białas, Catalina Curceanu, Eryk Czerwiński, Kamil Dulski, Aleksander Gajos, Bartosz Głowacz, Marek Gorgol, Beatrix Hiesmayr, Bożena Jasińska, Daria Kamińska, Grzegorz Korcyl, Tomasz Kozik, Nikodem Krawczyk, Ewelina Kubicz, Muhsin Mohammed, Monika Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Marek Pałka, Zbigniew Rudy, Oleksandr Rundel, Neha Sharma, Michał Silarski, Jerzy Smyrski, Adam Strzelecki, Anna Wieczorek, Bożena Zgardzińska, Marcin Zielinski, Pawel Moskal
In this paper we estimate the time resolution of the J-PET scanner built from plastic scintillators. We incorporate the method of signal processing using the Tikhonov regularization framework and the Kernel Density Estimation method. We obtain simple, closed-form analytical formulas for time resolutions. The proposed method is validated using signals registered by means of the single detection unit of the J-PET tomograph built out from 30 cm long plastic scintillator strip. It is shown that the experimental and theoretical results, obtained for the J-PET scanner equipped with vacuum tube photomultipliers, are consistent...
April 28, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mo'tassem Al-Arydah
Indoor radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) estimates the proportion of lung cancer cases associated with indoor radon exposure. Different relative risk (RR) models have been used in the literature to calculate PAR. The aim of this study is to assess how sensitive PAR is to the relative risk model and radon probability distribution functions choices. METHODS: Using Canadian observed first floor radon data collected by Health Canada during the period October 2010 to March 2011, seven common PAR radon models used for North American miners and dwelling scenarios were applied...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Michel Belyk, Steven Brown, Jessica Lim, Sonja A Kotz
Humans communicate through a combination of linguistic and emotional channels, including propositional speech, writing, sign language, music, but also prosodic, facial, and gestural expression. These channels can be interpreted separately or they can be integrated to multimodally convey complex meanings. Neural models of the perception of semantics and emotion include nodes for both functions in the inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis (IFGorb). However, it is not known whether this convergence involves a common functional zone or instead specialized subregions that process semantics and emotion separately...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
Hui Khee Looe, Bjoern Delfs, Daniela Poppinga, Dietrich Harder, Bjoern Poppe
The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector's lateral dose response function - the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile - is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force...
April 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
W Zhou, J Montoya, R Gutjahr, A Ferrero, A Halaweish, S Kappler, C McCollough, S Leng
A new ultra high-resolution (UHR) mode has been implemented on a whole body photon counting-detector (PCD) CT system. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm by 0.25 mm at the iso-center, while the conventional (macro) mode is limited to 0.5 mm by 0.5 mm. A set of synthetic lung nodules (two shapes, five sizes, and two radio-densities) was scanned using both the UHR and macro modes and reconstructed with 2 reconstruction kernels (4 sets of images in total). Linear regression analysis was performed to compare measured nodule volumes from CT images to reference volumes...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
Yang Yang, Adriel Dominguez, Du Zhang, Vitalij Lutsker, Thomas A Niehaus, Thomas Frauenheim, Weitao Yang
The particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) is a promising method for studying charge transfer(CT) excitations. Through a detailed analysis on two-electron deficient systems, we show that the pp-RPA is always able to recover the long-distance asymptotic -1/R trend for CT excitations as a result of the concerted effect between orbital energies and the pp-RPA kernel. We also provide quantitative results for systems with relatively short donor-acceptor distances. With conventional hybrid or range-separated functionals, the pp-RPA performs much better than time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), although it still gives underestimated results which are not as good as TDDFT with system-dependent tuned functionals...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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