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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526267/neurological-heterotopic-ossification-current-understanding-and-future-directions
#1
Rhys D Brady, Sandy R Shultz, Stuart J McDonald, Terence J O'Brien
Neurological heterotopic ossification (NHO) involves the formation of bone in soft tissue following a neurological condition, of which the most common are brain and spinal cord injuries. NHO often forms around the hip, knee and shoulder joints, causing severe pain and joint deformation which is associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. The cellular and molecular events that initiate NHO have been the focus of an increasing number of human and animal studies over the past decade, with this work largely driven by the need to unearth potential therapeutic interventions to prevent the formation of NHO...
May 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524788/state-of-global-pediatric-neurosurgery-outreach-survey-by-the-international-education-subcommittee
#2
Matthew C Davis, Brandon G Rocque, Ash Singhal, Thomas Ridder, Jogi V Pattisapu, James M Johnston
OBJECTIVE Neurosurgical services are increasingly recognized as essential components of surgical care worldwide. The degree of interest among neurosurgeons regarding international work, and the barriers to involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, are largely unexplored. The authors distributed a survey to members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery to assess the state of global outreach among its members and to identify barriers to involvement...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522364/inhibition-of-mir-181a-protects-female-mice-from-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-targeting-astrocyte-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE
#3
Creed M Stary, Lijun Xu, Le Li, Xiaoyun Sun, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Xiaoxing Xiong, Jing Zhao, Rona G Giffard
Whether the effect of miR-181a is sexually dimorphic in stroke is unknown. Prior work showed protection of male mice with miR-181a inhibition. Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is an identified target of miR181 in endometrium. Therefore we investigated the separate and joint effects of miR-181a inhibition and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement after ovariectomy. Adult female mice were ovariectomized and implanted with an E2- or vehicle-containing capsule for 14d prior to 1h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Each group received either miR-181a antagomir or mismatch control by intracerebroventricular injection 24h before MCAO...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522245/pin-site-complications-associated-with-computer-assisted-navigation-in-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#4
Eli Kamara, Zachary P Berliner, Matthew S Hepinstall, H John Cooper
BACKGROUND: There has been a great increase in the use of navigation technology in joint arthroplasty. In most types of navigation-assisted surgery, several temporary navigation pins are placed in the patient. Goals of this study are (1) to identify complications and (2) risk factors associated with placement of these pins. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all navigation-assisted hip and knee arthroplasty performed a single institution over a 3-year period...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521343/tarlov-cyst-causing-sacral-insufficiency-fracture
#5
Ross C Puffer, Marcus J Gates, William Copeland, William E Krauss, Jeremy Fogelson
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521026/tracking-career-paths-of-women-in-neurosurgery
#6
Jaclyn J Renfrow, Analiz Rodriguez, Taylor A Wilson, Isabelle M Germano, Aviva Abosch, Stacey Quintero Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Women represent a growing cohort of US neurosurgeons. OBJECTIVE: To describe postresidency fellowship, practice environment, and updated academic rank among female neurosurgeons. METHODS: Databases from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) and the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) from 1964 to 2013 were reviewed for female neurosurgery residency graduates. Data on postresidency fellowships, practice environment (private vs academic), academic rank, board certification, and AANS/CNS (Congress of Neurological Surgeons) Joint Section on Women in Neurosurgery (WINS) membership were collected in 2016...
May 16, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514926/trunk-muscle-activity-patterns-and-motion-patterns-of-patients-with-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury-at-t8-and-t10-walking-with-different-un-powered-exoskeletons
#7
Xinyu Guan, Shengzheng Kuai, Linhong Ji, Rencheng Wang, Run Ji
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how neurological injured levels of spinal cord affect the performance of patients walking with different un-powered exoskeletons. STUDY DESIGN: Case series observational study. SETTING: Gait and Motion Analysis Laboratory at the National Research Center Rehabilitation Technical Aids. METHODS: Electromyography and motion data from two subjects with complete spinal cord injury at T10 and T8 walking with un-powered exoskeletons were collected simultaneously...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514779/low-back-pain-in-pregnancy-investigations-management-and-role-of-neuraxial-analgesia-and-anaesthesia-a-systematic-review
#8
Herman Sehmbi, Rohan D'Souza, Anuj Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is commonly experienced during pregnancy and is often poorly managed. There is much ambiguity in diagnostic work-up, appropriate management and decision-making regarding the use of neuraxial analgesia and anaesthesia during labour and delivery in these patients. This systematic review summarises the evidence regarding investigations, management strategies and considerations around performing neuraxial blocks for pregnant women with LBP. METHODS: We searched 3 databases and reviewed literature concerning LBP in pregnancy with regards to diagnostic modalities, management strategies and use of neuraxial techniques for facilitating labour and delivery...
May 18, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506171/a-protocol-for-evaluation-and-rehabilitation-of-distal-radius-fractures-using-sensorimotor-input-a-case-series
#9
Ronit Wollstein, Dafna Michael, Hani Harel
BACKGROUND: Proprioception and sensorimotor input are used to treat neurological and joint injuries. Following distal radius fractures (DRF) there is a temporary loss of proprioception that should be addressed. We created a protocol for evaluation, and a treatment plan following wrist surgery that is based on proprioceptive and sensorimotor input. We describe a series of patients undergoing surgery for DRF that were evaluated and treated with these protocols. METHODS: Both evaluation and treatment protocols included comprehensive sensorimotor procedures performed with eyes open and closed...
June 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503271/pulled-nursemaid-s-elbow
#10
M F Mohd Miswan, M S Othman, F Muhamad Effendi, M I Ibrahim, K N Rozali
Nursemaid's elbow is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction on the extended arm while the forearm is pronated, allowing for slippage of the radial head. A 2-year-old boy presented with pain, swelling and reduced range of movement of the right elbow for 4 days. The mother noted that the child was moving the right upper limb less often and there was tenderness over the right elbow. X-ray of the right elbow showed subluxation of the elbow joint with no obvious fracture. A trial of conservative management was decided upon and the patient was placed on a right elbow backslab with the right forearm in a supine position...
2017: Malaysian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492440/diskitis-osteomyelitis-spinal-epidural-abscess-meningitis-and-endocarditis-following-sacroiliac-joint-injection-for-the-treatment-of-low-back-pain-in-a-patient-on-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus
#11
Geeta Nagpal, John P Flaherty, Honorio T Benzon
OBJECTIVE: Sacroiliac joint injections are frequently performed procedures in the management of acute and chronic low-back pain, including patients with various immunocompromised states. Infectious complications following these procedures along with other spinal injections are rarely reported, but the true incidence is unknown. The purpose of this report is to highlight the devastating neurologic sequela that can occur, and to discuss potential future management strategies. CASE REPORT: We present a patient who developed diskitis, osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis, and endocarditis from Staphylococcus aureus, all of which developed shortly after a sacroiliac joint injection...
May 10, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473948/purely-ligamentous-flexion-distraction-injury-in-a-five-year-old-child-treated-with-surgical-management
#12
Ryan M Schiedo, William Lavelle, Nathaniel R Ordway, Tarush Rustagi, Mike H Sun
Chance fractures by definition are a type of flexion-distraction injury with concomitant vertebral body fracture. Although uncommon in the pediatric population, they are associated with motor vehicle accidents and typically involve the thoraco-lumbar spine. Injury occurs when the spine rotates about a fixed axis, such as a lap belt. Our case reports the management of a five-year-old girl involved in a head-on collision who suffered a purely ligamentous flexion-distraction injury (Chance-type injury, without bone involvement) at the L2-L3 vertebral level...
April 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472514/evaluating-atlantoaxial-dislocation-based-on-cartesian-coordinates-proposing-a-new-definition-and-its-impact-on-assessment-of-congenital-torticollis
#13
Jayesh Sardhara, Sanjay Behari, Pavaman Sindgikar, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Kuntal Kanti Das, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Rabi N Sahu, Awadhesh K Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: Conventional 2-dimensional (2-D) definition of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is inadequate for coexisting 3-D displacements. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively classify AAD and its related abnormalities along 3 Cartesian coordinates and assess their association with torticollis. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four patients with congenital AAD were prospectively classified according to their C1-2 displacement along 3 Cartesian coordinates utilizing 3-D multiplanar CT...
May 3, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458548/metabolic-screening-and-its-impact-in-children-with-nonsyndromic-intellectual-disability
#14
Yasser F Ali, Salah El-Morshedy, Riad M Elsayed, Amr M El-Sherbini, Saber Am El-Sayed, Nasser Ismail A Abdelrahman, Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the value of routine metabolic screening tests in children with an intellectual disability (ID) and its impact on improving their outcome and quality of life through appropriate intervention and treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pediatric Neurology Clinic, Al Khafji Joint Operations Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 150 children with nonsyndromic ID (66% males) in the age range of 5-17 years were compared with 50 apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458147/analysis-of-gait-symmetry-during-over-ground-walking-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Jeffrey D Eggleston, John R Harry, Robbin A Hickman, Janet S Dufek
Gait symmetry is utilized as an indicator of neurologic function. Healthy gait often exhibits minimal asymmetries, while pathological gait exhibits exaggerated asymmetries. The purpose of this study was to examine symmetry of mechanical gait parameters during over-ground walking in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained from 10 children (aged 5-12 years) with ASD. The Model Statistic procedure (α=0.05) was used to compare gait related parameters between limbs...
April 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457098/crystal-induced-arthropathy-in-elderly-patients-hospitalized-for-acute-conditions
#16
Andrew Villion, Zeev Arinzon, Jacob Feldman, Oded Kimchi, Yitshal Berner
BACKGROUND: Arthritis and arthralgia are painful symptoms experienced by many elderly patients during hospitalization. Crystal-induced arthritis (CIA) is one of the most common causes of arthritis worldwide and represents the most common cause of acute arthritis in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of both acute new onset or acute exacerbation of CIA among elderly patients hospitalized due to an acute medical illness. METHODS: This study comprised 85 patients...
March 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452955/peripheral-nerve-fibers-and-their-neurotransmitters-in-osteoarthritis-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Susanne Grässel, Dominique Muschter
The importance of the nociceptive nervous system for maintaining tissue homeostasis has been known for some time, and it has also been suggested that organogenesis and tissue repair are under neuronal control. Changes in peripheral joint innervation are supposed to be partly responsible for degenerative alterations in joint tissues which contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Various resident cell types of the musculoskeletal system express receptors for sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters, allowing response to peripheral neuronal stimuli...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441281/incarcerated-medial-epicondyle-fractures-with-elbow-dislocation-risk-factors-associated-with-morbidity
#18
Carley Vuillermin, Kyna S Donohue, Patricia Miller, Andrea S Bauer, Dennis E Kramer, Yi-Meng Yen
BACKGROUND: Incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures in association with elbow trauma are rare and an absolute indication for intervention. Because of the infrequent nature, outcomes following this injury are not well documented. We studied a large cohort of these injuries to determine factors associated with functional outcomes. It was hypothesized that a greater duration between initial presentation and time of surgery would lead to poorer outcomes. METHODS: A total of 32 patients aged 18 and under who underwent surgical treatment for an incarcerated medical epicondyle fracture at a level-1 pediatric trauma center from 2003 to 2015 were identified...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437749/epilepsy-awareness-and-emergency-rescue-training-ignorance-is-bliss
#19
Rohit Shankar, Caryn Jory, Brendan McLean, Phil Tittensor, Matthew Walker
Status epilepticus (SE) has a high mortality rate and is associated with complications such as neurological deficit and cognitive decline. Buccal midazolam is the recommended emergency rescue medication in the UK to reduce the duration of a seizure and SE. It should be administered by an appropriately trained person. There are agreed guidelines on training standards for its administration in the UK produced by the Joint Epilepsy Council of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Training should provide an overview of epilepsy to facilitate safe, person-centered care and appropriate administration of rescue medication to people with epilepsy (PWE)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435744/diagnosis-of-spinal-epidural-abscess-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Chidinma Chima-Melton, Michelle Pearl, Marni Scheiner
INTRODUCTION: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare but serious cause of back pain in the critical care setting. It occurs most commonly in adults in their fifth and sixth decades of life. Risk factors include diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, AIDS or other immunocompromised states, cancer, intravenous drug use, trauma and spinal surgery. The clinical presentation can be non-specific but the classical triad includes back pain, fever and neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
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