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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777753/characterization-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-structure-in-app-ps1-mouse-brains
#1
Kee-Chan Ahn, Cameron R Learman, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti, Won-Cheoul Jang, Hyeon-Cheol Cha, Mee-Sook Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by senile plaques, tauopathy and neuronal cell death in specific area of the brain. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular dysfunction may be an integral part of AD pathogenesis, contributing to the onset and development of AD pathologies such as neuronal death, inflammatory response, and breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB). In addition, vascular complications caused by age-related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure have high incidence in development of dementia and AD...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777691/improving-electrical-properties-of-ipsc-cardiomyocytes-by-enhancing-cx43-expression
#2
Valentin Sottas, Carl-Mattheis Wahl, Mihnea C Trache, Michael Bartolf-Kopp, Sidney Cambridge, Markus Hecker, Nina D Ullrich
The therapeutic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) is limited by immature functional features including low impulse propagation and reduced cell excitability. Key players regulating electrical activity are voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav 1.5) and gap junctions built from connexin-43 (Cx43). Here we tested the hypothesis that enhanced Cx43 expression increases intercellular coupling and influences excitability by modulating Nav 1.5. Using transgenic approaches, Cx43 and Nav 1...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776635/molecular-diagnostics-in-esophageal-and-gastric-neoplasms-2018-update
#3
REVIEW
Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth, Amarpreet Bhalla
Esophageal cancer (EC) is rapidly increasing in incidence in the United States. Genetic changes associated with the development of EC involve the p16, p53, and APC genes. Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) overexpression is seen in gastroesophageal junction carcinoma and a subset gastric carcinoma (GC). Interestingly, up to 50% cases of GC are related to Helicobacter pylori infection and up to 16% are related to EBV infection. Microsatellite instability is observed in up to 39% of GC and cell free nucleic acid analysis provides additional opportunities for diagnosis and prognosis of disease...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775430/gene-expression-profile-analysis-of-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-reveals-upregulation-of-cadherin-genes-in-myocardial-infarction-patients
#4
Anselm A Derda, Chin Cheng Woo, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mark Richards, Chuen Neng Lee, Theo Kofidis, Vladimir A Kuznetsov, Vitaly A Sorokin
Myocardial infarction (MI) induced by acute coronary arterial occlusion is usually secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Dysregulated response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerotic plaques may promote plaque rupture. Cadherins (CDHs) form adherens junctions and are known stabilizers of atherosclerotic plaques. To date, the expression patterns of cadherin have not been well investigated in MI aortic VSMCs. We aimed to investigate the expression of cadherin genes in the aortic wall of patients with and without MI...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775418/prolonged-activation-of-camp-signaling-leads-to-endothelial-barrier-disruption-via-transcriptional-repression-of-rras
#5
Carole Y Perrot, Junko Sawada, Masanobu Komatsu
The increase in cAMP levels in endothelial cells triggers cellular signaling to alter vascular permeability. It is generally considered that cAMP signaling stabilizes the endothelial barrier function and reduces permeability. However, previous studies have only examined the permeability shortly after cAMP elevation and thus have only investigated acute responses. Because cAMP is a key regulator of gene expression, elevated cAMP may have a delayed but profound impact on the endothelial permeability by altering the expression of the genes that are vital for the vessel wall stability...
May 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775175/hiv-induced-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activation-through-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signalling-promotes-hsv-1-cell-to-cell-spread-in-oral-epithelial-cells
#6
Irna Sufiawati, Sharof M Tugizov
We have shown that cell-free HIV-1 and viral proteins tat and gp120 activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in tonsil epithelial cells, disrupting their tight and adherens junctions. This causes liberation of the HSV-1 receptor nectin-1 from assembled adherens junctions, leading to promotion of HSV-1 infection and spread. In the present study, we show that HIV-associated activation of MAPK leads to upregulation of transcription factor NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). This induces the disruption of tight and adherens junctions, increasing HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread...
May 18, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#7
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774524/%C3%AE-e-catenin-is-a-candidate-tumor-suppressor-for-the-development-of-e-cadherin-expressing-lobular-type-breast-cancer
#8
Jolien S de Groot, Max A K Rätze, Miranda van Amersfoort, Tanja Eisemann, Eva J Vlug, Mijanou T Niklaas, Suet-Feung Chin, Carlos Caldas, Paul J van Diest, Jos Jonkers, Johan de Rooij, Patrick W B Derksen
Mutational inactivation of E-cadherin (CDH1) is the main driver of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC), although approximately 10-15% of all ILCs retain membrane-localized E-cadherin, despite the presence of an apparent non-cohesive and invasive lobular growth pattern. Given that ILC is dependent on constitutive actomyosin contraction for tumor development and progression, we used a combination of cell systems and in vivo experiments to investigate the consequences of α-catenin (CTNNA1) loss in the regulation of anchorage independence of non-invasive breast carcinoma...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774242/balancing-charge-carrier-transport-in-a-quantum-dot-p-n-junction-toward-hysteresis-free-high-performance-solar-cells
#9
Yuljae Cho, Bo Hou, Jongchul Lim, Sanghyo Lee, Sangyeon Pak, John Hong, Paul Giraud, A-Rang Jang, Young-Woo Lee, Juwon Lee, Jae Eun Jang, Henry J Snaith, Stephen M Morris, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha, Jong Min Kim
In a quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) that has an inverted structure, the QD layers form two different junctions between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the other semiconducting QD layer. Recent work on an inverted-structure QDSC has revealed that the junction between the QD layers is the dominant junction, rather than the junction between the ETL and the QD layers, which is in contrast to the conventional wisdom. However, to date, there have been a lack of systematic studies on the role and importance of the QD heterojunction structure on the behavior of the solar cell and the resulting device performance...
April 13, 2018: ACS Energy Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774201/investigation-of-experimental-factors-that-underlie-brca1-2-mrna-isoform-expression-variation-recommendations-for-utilizing-targeted-rna-sequencing-to-evaluate-potential-spliceogenic-variants
#10
Vanessa L Lattimore, John F Pearson, Margaret J Currie, Amanda B Spurdle, Bridget A Robinson, Logan C Walker
PCR-based RNA splicing assays are commonly used in diagnostic and research settings to assess the potential effects of variants of uncertain clinical significance in BRCA1 and BRCA2 . The Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium completed a multicentre investigation to evaluate differences in assay design and the integrity of published data, raising a number of methodological questions associated with cell culture conditions and PCR-based protocols. We utilized targeted RNA-seq to re-assess BRCA1 and BRCA2 mRNA isoform expression patterns in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) previously used in the multicentre ENIGMA study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#11
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773756/mir126-5p-down-regulation-facilitates-axon-degeneration-and-nmj-disruption-via-a-non-cell-autonomous-mechanism-in-als
#12
Roy Maimon, Ariel Ionescu, Avichai Bonnie, Sahar Sweetat, Shane Wald-Altman, Shani Inbar, Tal Gradus, Davide Trotti, Miguel Weil, Oded Behar, Eran Perlson
Axon degeneration and disruption of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are key events in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) pathology. Although the disease's etiology is not fully understood, it is thought to involve a non-cell-autonomous mechanism and alterations in RNA metabolism. Here, we identified reduced levels of miR-126-5p in pre-symptomatic ALS male mice models, and an increase in its targets: axon destabilizing type-3 Semaphorins and their co-receptor Neuropilins. Utilizing compartmentalized in vitro co-cultures, we demonstrated that myocytes expressing diverse ALS-causing mutations promote axon degeneration and NMJ dysfunction, which were inhibited by applying Neuropilin1 (NRP1) blocking antibody...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773645/the-hippo-pathway-effector-wwtr1-regulates-cardiac-wall-maturation-in-zebrafish
#13
Jason K H Lai, Michelle M Collins, Veronica Uribe, Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Stefan Günther, Hans-Martin Maischein, Didier Y R Stainier
Cardiac trabeculation is a highly regulated process that starts with the delamination of compact layer cardiomyocytes. The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated in cardiac development but many questions remain. We have investigated the role of Wwtr1, a nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway, in zebrafish and find that its loss leads to reduced cardiac trabeculation. However, in mosaic animals, wwtr1-/- cardiomyocytes contribute more frequently than wwtr1+/- cardiomyocytes to the trabecular layer of wild-type hearts...
May 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773368/mutlifunctional-nanoparticles-prepared-from-arginine-modified-chitosan-and-thiolated-fucoidan-for-oral-delivery-of-hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-drugs
#14
Chien-Ho Chen, Yung-Song Lin, Shao-Jung Wu, Fwu-Long Mi
Self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) from arginine-modified chitosan (CS-N-Arg) and thiolated fucoidan (THL-fucoidan) were synthesized to enhance the transport of dextran and curcumin across intestinal epithelial cell layer. CS-N-Arg/THL-fucoidan NPs exhibited a pH-sensitive assembly-disassembly and drug release property. Evaluations of the NPs in enhancing the transport of a hydrophilic macromolecule (FITC-dextran) and a hydrophobic drug (curcumin) were investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The cationic CS-N-Arg in the NPs induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions as indicated by the decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773101/-microvesicles-derived-from-lps-induced-microglia-aggravate-the-injury-of-tight-junction-in-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-under-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#15
Yanni Lyu, Longsheng Fu, Yanming Li, Jinhua Wen, Xiaohua Wei, Yisong Qian
Objective To study the effect of the administration of the circulating microvesicles (MV) obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia supernatant into rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) on the injury of tight junction in RBECs under the condition of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) as well as the underlying mechanism. Methods The circulating MV was isolated from the supernatant of microglia stimulated with LPS 1 mg/L for 24 hours and subjected to morphological identification. The expression of miR-27a in MV was detected by real-time PCR...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772366/giant-cell-ependymoma-of-cervical-medullary-junction-a-case-report-of-a-long-term-survivor-and-review-of-literature
#16
REVIEW
Martina Cappelletti, Andrea G Ruggeri, Giorgia Iacopino, Roberto Delfini
Ependymoma accounts for 3-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors. The giant cell ependymoma is a rare and distinct variant, of which only twenty-two cases have been described in literature. Starting from 2007, the WHO acknowledged this rare subtype. The cytological features of GCE are the presence of pleomorphic giant cells with several cellular atypias, which at intra-operative frozen diagnosis may appear to be high-grade glial lesions. Despite its apparently malignant histology, GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772361/comparative-histological-and-molecular-analysis-of-two-recurrent-lesions-showing-different-mr-imaging-responses-after-bevacizumab-treatment-report-of-a-case-of-anaplastic-astrocytoma
#17
Yoshihiro Otani, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Atsuhito Uneda, Kazuhiko Kurozumi, Joji Ishida, Isao Date
BACKGROUND: We report the case of a patient with anaplastic astrocytoma whose two recurrent lesions showed different imaging responses from one another after bevacizumab treatment. Histological and genetic features of this patient are also described. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 31-year-old patient with left temporal anaplastic astrocytoma received surgery, local radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Recurrent lesions appeared in the cerebellar vermis and left cerebellar hemisphere, and the patient was started on biweekly bevacizumab...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771630/septins-regulate-junctional-integrity-of-endothelial-monolayers
#18
Joanna Kim, John A Cooper
Junctional integrity of endothelial monolayers is crucial to control movement of molecules and cells across the endothelium. Examining the structure and dynamics of cell junctions in endothelial monolayers, we discovered a role for septins. Contacts between adjacent endothelial cells were dynamic, with protrusions extending above or below neighboring cells. VE-cadherin was present at cell junctions, with a membrane-associated layer of F-actin. Septins localized at cell-junction membranes, in patterns distinct from VE-cadherin and F-actin...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771311/pathobiology-of-cardiac-dyssynchrony-and-resynchronization-therapy
#19
Uyên Châu Nguyên, Nienke J Verzaal, Frans A van Nieuwenhoven, Kevin Vernooy, Frits W Prinzen
Synchronous ventricular electrical activation is a prerequisite for adequate left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Conduction abnormalities such as left bundle branch block, and ventricular pacing lead to a dyssynchronous electrical activation sequence, which may have deleterious consequences. The present review attempts to connect the various processes involved in the development of 'dyssynchronopathy', and its correction by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Abnormal electrical impulse conduction leads to abnormal contraction, characterized by regional differences in timing as well as shortening patterns and amount of external work performed...
May 15, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771197/emerging-insights-into-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
K A Alamoud, M A Kukuruzinska
Head and neck cancer presents primarily as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a debilitating malignancy fraught with high morbidity, poor survival rates, and limited treatment options. Mounting evidence indicates that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in the pathobiology of HNSCC. Wnt/β-catenin signaling affects multiple cellular processes that endow cancer cells with the ability to maintain and expand immature stem-like phenotypes, proliferate, extend survival, and acquire aggressive characteristics by adopting mesenchymal traits...
June 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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