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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938596/vitamin-d3-induces-vitamin-d-receptor-and-hdac11-binding-to-relieve-the-promoter-of-the-tight-junction-proteins
#1
Feng-Hua Liu, Shan-Shan Li, Xiao-Xi Li, Shuai Wang, Mao-Gang Li, Li Guan, Tian-Gang Luan, Zhi-Gang Liu, Zhan-Ju Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and vitamin D (VitD)-deficiency play a critical role in a large number of diseases. The histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with a large number of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that the interaction between VitD and HDAC is associated with the regulation of epithelial barrier functions. In this study, human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84 cells, was cultured into monolayers to be used as a model to test the epithelial barrier functions. We observed that in a VitD-deficient environment, the T84 monolayer barrier function was compromised...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938568/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#2
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938400/il-1%C3%AE-inhibits-connexin-43-and-disrupts-decidualization-of-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-through-erk1-2-and-p38-map-kinase
#3
Jie Yu, Sarah L Berga, Wei Zou, D Grace Yook, Joshua C Pan, Aurora Arroyo Andrade, Lijuan Zhao, Neil Sidell, Indrani C Bagchi, Milan K Bagchi, Robert N Taylor
Inflammation can interfere with endometrial receptivity. We examined how IL-1β affects expression of the uterine gap junction protein, Cx43, which is known to be critical for embryonic implantation. We used an in vitro model of human endometrial stromal cells (ESC), Western blotting and a combination of validated, selective kinase inhibitors to evaluate five canonical IL-1β signaling pathways. Cx43 and two other markers of ESC differentiation (prolactin and VEGF) were inhibited predominantly via IL-1β-activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase cascades...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937589/viral-cellular-dna-junctions-as-molecular-markers-for-assessing-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-cervical-cancer-and-for-the-detection-of-circulating-tumor-dna
#4
Katrin Carow, Mandy Gölitz, Maria Wolf, Norman Häfner, Lars Jansen, Heike Hoyer, Elisabeth Schwarz, Ingo B Runnebaum, Matthias Dürst
The development of cervical cancer is frequently accompanied by the integration of human papillomaviruses (HPV) DNA into the host genome. Viral-cellular junction sequences, which arise in consequence, are highly tumor specific. By using these fragments as markers for tumor cell origin, we examined cervical cancer clonality in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity. Moreover, we assessed the potential of these fragments as molecular tumor markers and analyzed their suitability for the detection of circulating tumor DNA in sera of cervical cancer patients...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935573/acrolein-disrupts-tight-junction-proteins-and-causes-er-stress-mediated-epithelial-cell-death-leading-to-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-and-permeability
#5
Wei-Yang Chen, Min Wang, Jingwen Zhang, Shirish S Barve, Craig J McClain, Swati Joshi-Barve
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental and dietary factors can affect intestinal epithelial integrity leading to gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a pathogenic process associated with many chronic disorders. Acrolein is an environmental and dietary pollutant and a lipid-derived endogenous metabolite. The impact of acrolein on the intestine has not been investigated before and is evaluated in this study, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that oral acrolein exposure in mice caused damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier, resulting in increased permeability and subsequently translocation of bacterial endotoxin-LPS into the blood...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934592/getting-nervous-an-evolutionary-overhaul-for-communication
#6
Frederique Varoqueaux, Dirk Fasshauer
The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Reconstructing the origins of neuronal communication out of a more simple process remains a central challenge in biology...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934196/spatiotemporal-network-coding-of-physiological-mossy-fiber-inputs-by-the-cerebellar-granular-layer
#7
Shyam Kumar Sudhakar, Sungho Hong, Ivan Raikov, Rodrigo Publio, Claus Lang, Thomas Close, Daqing Guo, Mario Negrello, Erik De Schutter
The granular layer, which mainly consists of granule and Golgi cells, is the first stage of the cerebellar cortex and processes spatiotemporal information transmitted by mossy fiber inputs with a wide variety of firing patterns. To study its dynamics at multiple time scales in response to inputs approximating real spatiotemporal patterns, we constructed a large-scale 3D network model of the granular layer. Patterned mossy fiber activity induces rhythmic Golgi cell activity that is synchronized by shared parallel fiber input and by gap junctions...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933915/airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-copd-role-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#8
Mahyar Aghapour, Pourya Raee, Seyed Javad Moghaddam, Pieter S Hiemstra, Irene H Heijink
The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933642/epitope-characterization-of-anti-jam-a-antibodies-using-orthogonal-mass-spectrometry-and-surface-plasmon-resonance-approaches
#9
Guillaume Terral, Thierry Champion, François Debaene, Olivier Colas, Maxime Bourguet, Elsa Wagner-Rousset, Nathalie Corvaia, Alain Beck, Sarah Cianferani
Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adherens and tight junction protein expressed by endothelial and epithelial cells and associated with cancer progression. We present here the extensive characterization of immune complexes involving JAM-A antigen and three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including hz6F4-2, a humanized version of anti-tumoral 6F4 mAb identified by a functional and proteomic approach in our laboratory. A specific workflow that combines orthogonal approaches has been designed to determine binding stoichiometries along with JAM-A epitope mapping determination at high resolution for these three mAbs...
September 21, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933591/suppression-of-chrn-endocytosis-by-carbonic-anhydrase-car3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#10
Ailian Du, Shiqian Huang, Xiaonan Zhao, Kuan Feng, Shuangyan Zhang, Jiefang Huang, Xiang Miao, Fulvio Baggi, Rennolds S Ostrom, Yanyun Zhang, Xiangjun Chen, Congfeng Xu
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction manifested as fatigable muscle weakness, which is typically caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic CHRN/AChR (cholinergic receptor nicotinic) in the endplate of skeletal muscle. Our previous studies have identified CA3 (carbonic anhydrase 3) as a specific protein insufficient in skeletal muscle from myasthenia gravis patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of how CA3 insufficiency might contribute to myasthenia gravis...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933509/-targeting-the-skin-erythema-multiforme-in-dogs-and-cats
#11
Ralf Mueller, Teresa M S A Boehm, Christoph J Klinger, Laura Udraite, Ralf S Mueller
This review article will describe the complex nature of erythema multiforme in dogs and cats. The disease pattern will be illustrated in terms of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostics and therapy. Erythema multiforme is a rare, immune-mediated skin disorder with an acute specific reaction pattern of skin and mucous membranes against different underlying causes. Reported triggering factors include drugs, food ingredients and neoplasias, but viral or bacterial infections and vaccine reactions were also identified...
September 20, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933185/identification-and-distribution-of-the-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-abomasum-of-goats
#12
Lingling Wang, Yu Liang, Qiusheng Chen, Nisar Ahmed, Feng Wang, Bing Hu, Ping Yang
The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are regarded as pacemakers and are involved in neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals. However, limited information is available about the existence of ICCs within the GIT of ruminants. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructural characteristics and distribution of ICCs in goat abomasum using transmission electron microscopy and c-kit immunohistochemistry. Two different kinds of c-kit immunoreactive cells were observed in the abomasum. The first was identified as ICCs, which appeared to be multipolar or bipolar in shape, with some processes...
January 1, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932667/scalable-production-of-mechanically-robust-antireflection-film-for-omnidirectional-enhanced-flexible-thin-film-solar-cells
#13
Min Wang, Pengsha Ma, Min Yin, Linfeng Lu, Yinyue Lin, Xiaoyuan Chen, Wei Jia, Xinmin Cao, Paichun Chang, Dongdong Li
Antireflection (AR) at the interface between the air and incident window material is paramount to boost the performance of photovoltaic devices. 3D nanostructures have attracted tremendous interest to reduce reflection, while the structure is vulnerable to the harsh outdoor environment. Thus the AR film with improved mechanical property is desirable in an industrial application. Herein, a scalable production of flexible AR films is proposed with microsized structures by roll-to-roll imprinting process, which possesses hydrophobic property and much improved robustness...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932213/petri-net-based-model-of-helicobacter-pylori-mediated-disruption-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-stomach-lining-during-gastric-carcinoma
#14
Anam Naz, Ayesha Obaid, Faryal M Awan, Aqsa Ikram, Jamil Ahmad, Amjad Ali
Tight junctions help prevent the passage of digestive enzymes and microorganisms through the space between adjacent epithelial cells lining. However, Helicobacter pylori encoded virulence factors negatively regulate these tight junctions and contribute to dysfunction of gastric mucosa. Here, we have predicted the regulation of important tight junction proteins, such as Zonula occludens-1, Claudin-2 and Connexin32 in the presence of pathogenic proteins. Molecular events such as post translational modifications and crosstalk between phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, palmitoylation and methylation are explored which may compromise the integrity of these tight junction proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931831/hyperhomocysteinemia-alters-retinal-endothelial-cells-barrier-function-and-angiogenic-potential-via-activation-of-oxidative-stress
#15
Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Ahmed S Ibrahim, Heba Saleh, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Sadanand Fulzele, Khaled Elmasry, Sylvia B Smith, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with several human visual disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is linked to vision loss in DR and AMD. Our previous work revealed that HHcy altered BRB in retinal endothelial cells in vivo. Here we hypothesize that homocysteine (Hcy) alters retinal endothelial cell barrier function and angiogenic potential via activation of oxidative stress. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) treated with and without different concentrations of Hcy showed a reduction of tight junction protein expression, increased FITC dextran leakage, decreased transcellular electrical resistance and increased angiogenic potential...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931753/ask1-dependent-endothelial-cell-activation-is-critical-in-ovarian-cancer-growth-and-metastasis
#16
Mingzhu Yin, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Jiqin Zhang, Caixia Lin, Hongmei Li, Xia Li, Yonghao Li, Haifeng Zhang, David G Breckenridge, Weidong Ji, Wang Min
We have recently reported that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer by facilitating TAM-ovarian cancer cell spheroid formation. ASK1 is known to be important for macrophage activation and inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis. In the present study, we show that ASK1 deficiency attenuates TAM-spheroid formation and ovarian cancer progression in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. Interestingly, ASK1 in stroma, but not in TAMs, is critical for peritoneal tumor growth of ovarian cancer...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931626/pacequant-a-tool-for-high-throughput-quantification-of-pavement-cell-shape-characteristics
#17
Birgit Möller, Yvonne Poeschl, Romina Plötner, Katharina Bürstenbinder
Pavement cells (PCs) are the most frequently occurring cell type in the leaf epidermis and play important roles in leaf growth and function. In many plant species, PCs form highly complex jigsaw puzzle shaped cells with interlocking lobes. Understanding of their development is of high interest for plant science research because of their importance for leaf growth and hence for plant fitness and crop yield. Studies of PC development, however, are limited because robust methods are lacking that enable automatic segmentation and quantification of PC shape parameters suitable to reflect their cellular complexity...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931622/connexins-in-cardiovascular-and-neurovascular-health-and-disease-pharmacological-implications
#18
REVIEW
Luc Leybaert, Paul D Lampe, Stefan Dhein, Brenda R Kwak, Peter Ferdinandy, Eric C Beyer, Dale W Laird, Christian C Naus, Colin R Green, Rainer Schulz
Connexins are ubiquitous channel forming proteins that assemble as plasma membrane hemichannels and as intercellular gap junction channels that directly connect cells. In the heart, gap junction channels electrically connect myocytes and specialized conductive tissues to coordinate the atrial and ventricular contraction/relaxation cycles and pump function. In blood vessels, these channels facilitate long-distance endothelial cell communication, synchronize smooth muscle cell contraction, and support endothelial-smooth muscle cell communication...
October 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931565/junctional-adhesion-molecules-jams-cell-adhesion-receptors-with-pleiotropic-functions-in-cell-physiology-and-development
#19
REVIEW
Klaus Ebnet
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAM)-A, -B and -C are cell-cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily which are expressed by a variety of tissues, both during development and in the adult organism. Through their extracellular domains, they interact with other adhesion receptors on opposing cells. Through their cytoplasmic domains, they interact with PDZ domain-containing scaffolding and signaling proteins. In combination, these two properties regulate the assembly of signaling complexes at specific sites of cell-cell adhesion...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#20
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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