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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742884/reduced-expression-of-e-cadherin-and-increased-sialylation-level-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#1
Małgorzata Borzym-Kluczyk, Iwona Radziejewska, Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko, Barbara Darewicz
Cancer cells are characterized by an aberrant increase in protein N-glycosylation and by disruption of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions. However, the relationship between alterations in N-glycosylation process and loss of E-cadherin adhesion in cancer remains unclear. The mechanisms of altered expression of adhesive glycoproteins in cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the expression of E-cadherin and sialyl Lewis(a)/(x), NeuAcα2-3Gal, NeuAcα2-6Gal/GalNAc structures in the normal renal tissue and intermediate and cancerous tissues from patients with clear cell RCC...
July 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742858/reduction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-interactions-in-beta-cells-from-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Charles Thivolet, Guillaume Vial, Romeo Cassel, Jennifer Rieusset, Anne-Marie Madec
Type 2 diabetes develops when beta cells are not able to fulfill insulin needs. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junction in coordinating the functions of these two organelles throughout the natural history of type 2 diabetes is determinant and may explain the alterations of insulin biosynthesis. Our goal was to study endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial interactions in human beta cells from organ donors with type 2 diabetes. Pancreas samples were obtained via the network for pancreatic organ donors with diabetes (nPOD) based on disease status with 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 9 non-diabetic controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742087/type-1-skewed-neuroinflammation-and-vascular-damage-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection-in-mice
#3
Lynn Soong, HeThomas R Shelite, Yan Xing, Harica Kodakandla, Yuejin Liang, Brandon J Trent, Paulina Horton, Kathryn C Smith, Zhenyang Zhao, Jiaren Sun, Donald H Bouyer, Jiyang Cai
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a life-threatening disease, due to infection with O. tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that preferentially replicates in endothelial cells and professional phagocytes. Meningoencephalitis has been reported in scrub typhus patients and experimentally-infected animals; however, the neurological manifestation and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we focused on Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain (OtK), and examined host responses in the brain during lethal versus self-healing scrub typhus disease in our newly established murine models...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742021/resolving-the-prevalence-of-somatic-transposition-in-drosophila
#4
Christoph Daniel Treiber, Scott Waddell
Somatic transposition in mammals and insects could increase cellular diversity and neural mobilization has been implicated in age-dependent decline. To understand the impact of transposition in somatic cells it is essential to reliably measure the frequency and map locations of new insertions. Here we identified thousands of putative somatic transposon insertions in neurons from individual Drosophila melanogaster using whole-genome sequencing. However, the number of de novo insertions did not correlate with transposon expression or fly age...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741688/new-insights-into-naevoid-melanomas-a-clinico-pathological-reassessment
#5
Martin G Cook, Daniela Massi, Willeke A M Blokx, Joost Van den Oord, Senada Koljenović, Vincenzo De Giorgi, Eleanor Kissin, Megan Grant, Amit Mandal, Gabriela Gremel, Caroline Gaudy, Amaya Viros, Nathalie Dhomen, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, Richard Marais, Adele C Green, Martin C Mihm
AIMS: Because the term 'naevoid melanoma' has variable clinical and pathologic interpretations, we aimed to clarify the features of melanomas referred to as naevoid. METHODS AND RESULTS: A review was undertaken of 102 melanomas diagnosed histopathologically as naevoid melanomas and ascertained by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group Subcommittee pathologists from their records. We found these could be classified morphologically into 3 groups...
July 25, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739740/global-analysis-of-mirna-mrna-interaction-network-in-breast-cancer-with-brain-metastasis
#6
Zhixin Li, Zhiqiang Peng, Siyu Gu, Junfang Zheng, Duiping Feng, Qiong Qin, Junqi He
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to a number of cancer types including breast cancer. The rate of brain metastases is 10-30% in patients with advanced breast cancer which is associated with poor prognosis. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of breast cancer with brain metastasis is an area of intense interest. In an initial effort to systematically address the differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in primary breast cancer which may provide clues for early detection of brain metastasis, we analyzed the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data set obtained by microarray from patients with in situ carcinoma and patients with brain metastasis...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739530/curcumin-modulates-endothelial-permeability-and-monocyte-transendothelial-migration-by-affecting-endothelial-cell-dynamics
#7
Laurent-Emmanuel Monfoulet, Sylvie Mercier, Dominique Bayle, Radu Tamaian, Nicolas Barber-Chamoux, Christine Morand, Dragan Milenkovic
Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3hours prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α)...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738383/hydralazine-is-a-suitable-mimetic-agent-of-hypoxia-to-study-the-impact-of-hypoxic-stress-on-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model
#8
Morgane Chatard, Clémentine Puech, Nathalie Perek, Frédéric Roche
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Understanding cellular mechanisms induced by hypoxia is fundamental to reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Nevertheless, the investigation of hypoxia on cellular pathways is complex with true hypoxia because HIF-1α has a short lifetime and rapidly reverts back to a normoxic state. To overcome this difficulty, mimetic agents of the hypoxia pathway have been developed, including the gold standard CoCl2. In this study, we proposed to compare CoCl2 and hydralazine in order to determine a suitable mimetic agent of hypoxia for the study on the BBB...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737511/astrocytes-to-the-rescue-glia-limitans-astrocytic-endfeet-control-cns-inflammation
#9
Francisco J Quintana
The blood brain barrier (BBB) and the glia limitans serve to prevent the migration of cells and other large molecules from the blood into the CNS. Neuroinflammatory diseases are characterized by disruption of the BBB and increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. In this issue of the JCI, Horng and colleagues demonstrate that astrocytes of the glia limitans induce tight junction formation in response to inflammatory cues, thereby tightening the border to limit the number of activated T cells infiltrating the CNS...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736639/promising-therapeutics-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-in-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Lingling Du, Zheng Che, Andrea Wang-Gillam
Many novel therapeutics are being developed for patients with cancers along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These emerging agents are frequently classified by their biological targets such as tumor growth pathways, tumor metabolism, microenvironment, etc. Some agents targeting cancer growth pathways are based on existing clinically validated therapeutic targets, such as regorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while other agents focus on newly identified targets, such as FGFR fusions in cholangiocarcinoma...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736230/pro-inflammatory-chemokines-and-cytokines-dominate-the-blister-fluid-molecular-signature-in-epidermolysis-bullosa-patients-and-affect-leukocyte-and-stem-cell-migration
#11
Vitali Alexeev, Julio Cesar Salas-Alanis, Francis Palisson, Lila Mukhtarzada, Giulio Fortuna, Jouni Uitto, Andy South, Olga Igoucheva
Hereditary epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is associated with skin blistering and the development of chronic non-healing wounds. Although clinical studies have shown that cell-based therapies improve wound healing, recruitment of therapeutic cells to blistering skin and to more advanced skin lesions remains a challenge. Here, we analyzed cytokines and chemokines in blister fluids (BF) of patients affected by dystrophic, junctional and simplex EB. Our analysis revealed high levels of CXCR1, CXCR2, CCR2 and CCR4 ligands, particularly dominant in dystrophic and junctional EB...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735862/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-temperature-regulated-antiviral-response-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#12
Jian Zhang, Li Sun
Megalocytivirus is a severe pathogen to turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a popular aquaculture species in many countries. In this study, we investigated the effect of temperature on the antiviral response of turbot at transcriptome level. We found that when turbot were infected with megalocytivirus RBIV-C1 at low temperatures (14 °C, 16 °C, and 18 °C), viral replication was undetectable or moderate and no fish mortality occurred; in contrast, when turbot were infected with RBIV-C1 at high temperatures (20 °C, 22 °C, and 24 °C), viral replication was robust and 100% host mortality was observed...
July 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#13
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733642/gap-junction-mediated-regulation-of-endothelial-cellular-stiffness
#14
Takayuki Okamoto, Eiji Kawamoto, Yoshimi Takagi, Nobuyuki Akita, Tatsuya Hayashi, Eun Jeong Park, Koji Suzuki, Motomu Shimaoka
Endothelial monolayers have shown the ability to signal each other through gap junctions. Gap junction-mediated cell-cell interactions have been implicated in the modulation of endothelial cell functions during vascular inflammation. Inflammatory mediators alter the mechanical properties of endothelial cells, although the exact role of gap junctions in this process remains unclear. Here, we sought to study the role of gap junctions in the regulation of endothelial stiffness, an important physical feature that is associated with many vascular pathologies...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733455/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-induces-endocytosis-and-lysosomal-sorting-of-connexin43-to-promote-loss-of-gap-junctions
#15
Max Z Totland, Christian H Bergsland, Tone A Fykerud, Lars M Knudsen, Nikoline L Rasmussen, Peter W Eide, Zeremariam Yohannes, Vigdis Sørensen, Andreas Brech, Ragnhild A Lothe, Edward Leithe
Intercellular communication via gap junctions has an important role in controlling cell growth and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Connexin43 is the most abundantly expressed gap junction channel protein in humans and acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple tissue types. Connexin43 is often dysregulated at the post-translational level during cancer development, resulting in loss of gap junctions. However, the molecular basis underlying the aberrant regulation of connexin43 in cancer cells has remained elusive...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733453/a-novel-functional-splice-variant-of-akt3-defined-by-analysis-of-alternative-splice-expression-in-hpv-positive-oropharyngeal-cancers
#16
Theresa Guo, Akihiro Sakai, Bahman Afsari, Michael Considine, Ludmila Danilova, Alexander V Favorov, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Dylan Z Kelley, Emily Flam, Patrick K Ha, Zubair Khan, Sarah J Wheelan, J Silvio Gutkind, Elana J Fertig, Daria A Gaykalova, Joseph Califano
The incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has increased more than 200% in the past 20 years. Recent genetic sequencing efforts have elucidated relevant genes in head and neck cancer, but HPV-related tumors have consistently shown few DNA mutations. In this study, we sought to analyze alternative splicing events (ASE) that could alter gene function independent of mutations. To identify ASE unique to HPV-related tumors, RNA sequencing was performed on 46 HPV-positive OPSCC and 25 normal tissue samples...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733241/live-imaging-using-a-fret-glucose-sensor-reveals-glucose-delivery-to-all-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-brain
#17
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732089/cx47-fine-tunes-the-handling-of-serum-lipids-but-is-dispensable-for-lymphatic-vascular-function
#18
Merlijn J Meens, Issa Kutkut, Viviane Rochemont, Juan Dubrot, Fouad R Kaladji, Amélie Sabine, Oliver Lyons, Stefanie Hendrikx, Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani, Friedemann Kiefer, Alberto Smith, Stéphanie Hugues, Tatiana V Petrova, Brenda R Kwak
Mutations in the gap junction protein connexin47 (Cx47) are associated with lymphedema. However, the role of Cx47 in lymphatic pathophysiology is unknown. We demonstrate that Cx47 is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells by whole-mount immunostaining and qPCR. To determine if Cx47 plays a role in lymphatic vessel function we analysed Cx47-/- mice. Cx47-deficiency did not affect lymphatic contractility (contractile amplitude or frequency) or lymphatic morphology (vessel diameter or number of valves). Interstitial fluid drainage or dendritic cell migration through lymphatic vessels was also not affected by Cx47-deficiency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731322/large-scale-stretchable-semi-embedded-copper-nanowires-transparent-conductive-films-by-electrospinning-template
#19
Xia Yang, Xiaotian Hu, Qingxia Wang, Jian Xiong, Hanjun Yang, Xiangchuan Meng, Licheng Tan, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen
With recent emergence of wearable electronic devices, the flexible and stretchable transparent electrodes are the core components to realize innovative devices. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) network is commonly chosen because of its high conductivity and transparency. However, the junction resistances and low aspect ratios still limit its further stretchable performance. Herein, a large-scale stretchable semi-embedded CuNWs transparent conductive film (TCFs) was fabricated by electrolessly depositing Cu on the electrospun poly (4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) polymer template semi-embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731282/altered-signaling-associated-with-chronic-arsenic-exposure-in-human-skin-keratinocytes
#20
Sartaj Ahmad Mir, Santosh Renuse, Gajanan Sathe, Aafaque Ahmad Khan, Arun H Patil, Vishalakshi Nanjappa, Firdous Ahmad Bhat, T S Keshava Prasad, Ashok K Giri, Aditi Chatterjee, Harsha Gowda
Modulation of signaling pathways upon chronic arsenic exposure remains poorly studied. Here we carried out SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis to dissect the signaling induced upon chronic arsenic exposure in human skin keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. We identified 4,171 unique phosphosites derived from 2,000 proteins. We observed differential phosphorylation of 406 phosphosites (2-fold) corresponding to 305 proteins. Several pathways involved in cytoskeleton maintenance and organization were found to be significantly enriched (p<0...
July 21, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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