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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333491/multifunctional-bioreactor-system-for-human-intestine-tissues
#1
Wenda Zhou, Ying Chen, Terrence Roh, Yinan Lin, Shengjie Ling, Siwei Zhao, James D Lin, Noor Khalil, Dana M Cairns, Eleana Manousiouthakis, Megan Tse, David L Kaplan
The three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of intestinal cells and tissues in dynamic bioreactor systems to represent in vivo intestinal microenvironments is essential for developing regenerative medicine treatments for intestinal diseases. We have previously developed in vitro human intestinal tissue systems using a 3D porous silk scaffold system with intestinal architectures and topographical features for the adhesion, growth, and differentiation of intestinal cells under static culture conditions. In this study, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional bioreactor system that incorporates pre-epithelialized 3D silk scaffolds in a dynamic culture environment for in vitro engineering of human intestine tissues...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331644/ozone-exposure-induces-respiratory-barrier-biphasic-injury-and-inflammation-controlled-by-interleukin-33
#2
Chloé Michaudel, Claire Mackowiak, Isabelle Maillet, Louis Fauconnier, Cezmi Akdis, Milena Sokolowska, Anita Dreher, Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Valérie F Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel, Dieudonnée Togbe
BACKGROUND: IL-33 plays critical role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis, injury and repair. Whether IL-33 regulates neutrophil recruitment and function independently of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in ozone induced lung injury and inflammation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of IL-33/ST2 axis in lung inflammation upon acute ozone exposure in mice. METHODS: ST2 and IL-33 deficient mice, IL-33-citrine reporter and C57BL/6 (WT) mice underwent a single ozone exposure (1 ppm for 1h) in all studies...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331583/importins-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-signaling-mediates-endothelial-cell-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption
#3
Antony Leonard, Arshad Rahman, Fabeha Fazal
Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling via importins is central to the function of eukaryotic cells and an integral part of the processes that lead to many human diseases. In this study, we addressed the role of α and β importins in the mechanism of endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and permeability, important pathogenic features of many inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and atherosclerosis. RNAi-mediated knockdown of importin α4 or α3 each inhibited NF-κB activation, proinflammatory gene (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and IL-6) expression, and thereby endothelial adhesivity towards HL-60 cells, upon thrombin challenge...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331468/symposium-review-the-influences-of-heat-stress-on-bovine-mammary-gland-function
#4
S Tao, R M Orellana, X Weng, T N Marins, G E Dahl, J K Bernard
Heat stress reduces cow milk yield and results in a significant economic loss for the dairy industry. During lactation, heat stress lowers milk production by 25 to 40% with half of the decrease in milk synthesis resulting from the reduced feed intake. In vitro studies indicate that primary bovine mammary epithelial cells display greater rates of programmed cell death when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which may lead to a decrease in the total number of mammary epithelial cells in the mammary gland, partially explaining the lower milk production of lactating cows under heat stress...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330895/effect-of-local-scrotal-heating-on-the-expression-of-tight-junction-associated-molecule-occludin-in-boar-testes
#5
Z Zhang, X Fan, H Xi, R Ji, H Shen, A Shi, J He
The aim of this study was to determine whether local scrotal heating (42°C, for 1 hr) had an effect on the expression of tight junction (TJ)-associated molecule Occludin in boar testes. Adult boars (Landrace, n = 6) were used and randomly divided into two groups (n = 3 each). Three boars were given local scrotal exposure to 42°C for approximately 1 h with a home-made electric blanket of controlled temperature as local scrotal heating group, the other three boars received no heat treatment and were left at standard room temperature as control group...
January 12, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330844/bradykinin-mediates-the-association-of-collecting-duct-cells-to-form-migratory-colonies-through-b2-receptor-activation
#6
Edith Del Valle Guaytima, Yamila Romina Brandán, Nicolás Octavio Favale, Bruno Jaime Santacreu, Norma B Sterin-Speziale, María Gabriela Márquez
It is known that bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor (B2R) is expressed in the collecting duct (CD) cells of the newborn rat kidney, but little is known about its role during early postnatal life. Therefore, we hypothesize that BK could participate in the mechanisms that mediate CD formation during the postnatal renal development. Performing primary cultures, combined with biochemical, immunocytochemical, and time-lapse analysis, we studied the role of BK in CD cell behaviour isolated from renal papilla of neonatal rats...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330580/-lichen-ruber-planus-better-understanding-better-treatment
#7
REVIEW
L Schilling, T Vogt
Lichen ruber, also called lichen ruber planus or lichen planus (LP), is a noncontagious inflammatory skin disease. LP is the main representative and namesake of the group of lichenoid diseases, which are characterized by small papules often accompanied by severe itching. With 65% of cases, LP is primarily a disease of the mucous membranes. In 20% of the cases, the disease is found on the skin and mucous membranes; skin involvement alone is seen in only about 10% of cases. Cutaneous LP has a very favorable 1‑year prognosis of almost 80% healing as opposed to the mucosa and the adnexal organs...
January 12, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#8
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329594/modelling-the-structure-of-a-cerna-theoretical-bipartite-microrna-mrna-interaction-network-regulating-intestinal-epithelial-cellular-pathways-using-r-programming
#9
J M Robinson, W A Henderson
OBJECTIVE: We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329092/effect-of-aspirin-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-absorption-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins
#10
Zhihao Tian, Huanhuan Pang, Qiang Zhang, Shouying Du, Yang Lu, Lin Zhang, Jie Bai, Pengyue Li, Danqi Li, Mengdi Zhao, Xiaonan Chen
BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng saponins, a traditional Chinese medicine extraction, and aspirin are both widely used to treat cerebral infarction in China. Good results in clinical practice have been achieved, when Panax notoginseng saponins was taken together with aspirin. METHODS: To investigate the interaction of the two drugs in vivo, the concentration of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd. in blood were simultaneously measured by UPLC/MS/MS...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328541/gm-csf-ameliorates-micro-vascular-barrier-integrity-via-pericytes-derived-ang-1-in-wound-healing
#11
Min Yan, Yange Hu, Min Yao, Shisan Bao, Yong Fang
BACKGROUND: Skin wound healing involves complex coordinated interactions of cells, tissues and mediators. Maintaining microvascular barrier integrity is one of the key events for endothelial homeostasis during wound healing. Vasodilation is observed after vasoconstriction, which causes blood vessels to become porous, facilitates leukocyte infiltration and aids angiogenesis at the wound-area, post-injury. Eventually, vessel integrity has to be re-established for vascular maturation. Numerous studies have found that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) accelerates wound healing by inducing recruitment of repair cells into the injury area and releases of cytokines...
January 12, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328410/cldn5-affects-lncrnas-acting-as-cerna-dynamics-contributing-to-regulating-blood%C3%A2-brain-barrier-permeability-in-tumor-brain-metastasis
#12
Shun-Chang Ma, Qi Li, Jia-Yi Peng, Jian-Long Zhouwen, Dai-Nan Zhang, Chuan-Bao Zhang, Wen-Guo Jiang, Wang Jia
The blood‑brain barrier (BBB) constitutes an efficient organization of tight junctions that limits the delivery of tumor to the brain. The principal tight junction protein in BBB is claudin‑5 (CLDN5), but its mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in many cancers, some lncRNAs play key roles in regulating BBB permeability and are involved in tumor brain metastasis. In particular, lncRNAs can function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). Herein, we investigated whether ceRNA dysregulation is associated with alterations of the level of CLDN5 in human brain vascular endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells...
January 10, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327203/loss-of-cx43-mediated-functional-gap-junction-communication-in-meningeal-fibroblasts-following-mouse-hepatitis-virus-infection
#13
Abhishek Bose, Rahul Basu, Mahua Maulik, Jayasri Das Sarma
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection causes meningoencephalitis by disrupting the neuro-glial and glial-pial homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that MHV infection alters gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43)-mediated intercellular communication in brain and primary cultured astrocytes. In addition to astrocytes, meningeal fibroblasts also express high levels of Cx43. Fibroblasts in the meninges together with the basal lamina and the astrocyte endfeet forms the glial limitans superficialis as part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326288/drosophila-big-bang-regulates-the-apical-cytocortex-and-wing-growth-through-junctional-tension
#14
Giorgos Tsoumpekos, Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326174/muscle-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-may-mediate-trans-synaptic-signaling-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#15
Xueyong Wang, J Michael McIntosh, Mark M Rich
Block of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been shown to trigger upregulation of the number of synaptic vesicles released (quantal content, QC), a response termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. The mechanism underlying this plasticity is not known. Here, we used selective toxins to demonstrate that block of α1-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction of male and female mice, triggers the upregulation of QC. Reduction of current flow through nAChRs, induced by drugs with antagonist activity, demonstrated that reduction in synaptic current per se does not trigger upregulation of QC...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326135/isolation-of-human-testicular-cells-and-co-culture-with-embryonic-stem-cells
#16
Meenakshi Gaur, Cyril Ramathal, Renee A Reijo Pera, Paul J Turek, Constance M John
Our overall goal is to create a three-dimensional human cell-based testicular model for toxicological and spermatogenesis studies. Methods to purify the major somatic testicular cells, namely Leydig cells (LCs), peritubular myoid cells (PCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs), from rats, mice and guinea pigs have been reported. In humans, the isolation of populations enriched for primary LCs, PCs or SCs also have described. One objective of this study was to determine if populations of cells enriched for all three of these cell types can be isolated from testes of single human donors, and we were successful in doing so from testes of three donors...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#17
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#18
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324052/the-expression-profile-of-claudin-family-members-in-the-developing-mouse-lung-and-expression-alterations-resulting-from-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-shs
#19
Joshua B Lewis, Felix R Jimenez, Brigham J Merrell, Brent Kimbler, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudins are tight junctional proteins implicated in cell polarity and epithelial barrier maintenance. Claudin misregulation adversely impacts developmental aspects of cell differentiation and proliferation. The current research evaluated transcriptional expression for Claudins 1-11 and 18 in the developing murine lung at embryonic days (E) 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 and at post-natal day (PN) 3 and PN15. Mouse lungs were also assessed by immunohistochemical analysis to qualitatively evaluate Claudin protein expression...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323699/leukotriene-b4-receptor-2-regulates-the-proliferation-migration-and-barrier-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#20
Min Liu, Juan Shen, Huimin Yuan, Fengling Chen, Huaidong Song, Hui Qin, Yanqin Li, Jiabo Xu, Qing Ye, Shenxian Li, Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
The airway epithelium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The functions of leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2) on the airway epithelial cells remains unknown. In our study, BLT2 expression in 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were manipulated by transfection with BLT2 overexpression plasmid or BLT2 small interference RNA. 16HBE cells were then exposed to BLT2 antagonist (LY255283) or BLT2 agonist (12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid [12-HHT] or CAY10583). The results showed that BLT2 overexpression, 12-HHT stimulation or CAY10583 treatment resulted in the enhanced proliferation and migration of 16HBE cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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