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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149532/exploitation-of-micrornas-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-human-microglial-cells
#1
Meghana Rastogi, Neha Srivastava, Sunit K Singh
JEV infection in CNS leads to the JE neuroinflammation. Children and old age individual have been reported to be more prone to JEV infection. MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs, which regulate the gene expression. These are ∼22 nucleotide long, conserved RNA sequence that binds at the 3'UTR of a target mRNA and regulate the post-transcriptional gene expression. The role of microRNAs has been reported in several diseases like cancer, viral infection, neuro-degeneration, diabetes etc. In the present study, the human microglial cells were infected with JEV (JaOAr strain)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149506/integrating-soft-and-hard-tissues-via-interface-tissue-engineering
#2
REVIEW
Sahishnu Patel, Jon-Michael Caldwell, Stephen B Doty, William N Levine, Scott Rodeo, Louis J Soslowsky, Stavros Thomopoulos, Helen H Lu
The enthesis, or interface between bone and soft tissues such as ligament and tendon, is prone to injury and often does not heal post-surgical intervention. Interface tissue engineering represents an integrative strategy for regenerating the native enthesis by functionally connecting soft and hard tissues and thereby improving clinical outcome. This review focuses on integrative and cell-instructive scaffold designs that target the healing of the two most commonly injured soft tissue-bone junctions: the tendon-bone interface (e...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149299/twj-screen-an-isothermal-screening-assay-to-assess-ligand-dna-junction-interactions-in-vitro
#3
Ludivine Guyon, Marc Pirrotta, Katerina Duskova, Anton Granzhan, Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou, David Monchaud
The quest for chemicals able to operate at selected genomic loci in a spatiotemporally controlled manner is desirable to create manageable DNA damages. Mounting evidence now shows that alternative DNA structures, including G-quadruplexes and branched DNA (or DNA junctions), might hamper proper progression of replication fork, thus triggering DNA damages and genomic instability. Therefore, small molecules that stabilize these DNA structures are currently scrutinized as a promising way to create genomic defects that cannot be dealt with properly by cancer cells...
November 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149200/heterozygous-deletion-of-both-sclerostin-sost-and-connexin43-gja1-genes-in-mice-is-not-sufficient-to-impair-cortical-bone-modeling
#4
Susan K Grimston, Francesca Fontana, Marcus Watkins, Roberto Civitelli
Connexin43 (Cx43) is the main gap junction protein expressed in bone forming cells, where it modulates peak bone mass acquisition and cortical modeling. Genetic ablation of the Cx43 gene (Gja1) results in cortical expansion with accentuated periosteal bone formation associated with decreased expression of the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin. To determine whether sclerostin (Sost) down-regulation might contribute to periosteal expansion in Gja1 deficient bones, we took a gene interaction approach and crossed mice harboring germline null alleles for Gja1 or Sost to generate single Gja1+/-and Sost+/-and double Gja1+/-;Sost+/-heterozygous mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148173/metformin-protects-against-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-via-ampk%C3%AE-1-dependent-inhibition-of-jnk-signalling-activation
#5
Jun Deng, Lishan Zeng, Xueying Lai, Jing Li, Le Liu, Qianyun Lin, Ye Chen
Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, that involves the activation of C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), contributes to initiate and accelerate inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. Metformin has unexpected beneficial effects other than glucose-lowering effects. Here, we provided evidence that metformin can protect against intestinal barrier dysfunction in colitis. We showed that metformin alleviated dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance, FITC-dextran hyperpermeability, loss of the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 and bacterial translocation in Caco-2 cell monolayers or in colitis mice models...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146956/electrical-analysis-of-c-si-cgse-monolithic-tandem-solar-cells-by-using-a-cell-selective-light-absorption-scheme
#6
Ah Reum Jeong, Sung Bin Choi, Won Mok Kim, Jong-Keuk Park, Jihye Choi, Inho Kim, Jeung-Hyun Jeong
A monolithic tandem solar cell consisting of crystalline Si (c-Si)/indium tin oxide (ITO)/CuGaSe2 (CGSe) was demonstrated by stacking a CGSe solar cell on a c-Si/ITO solar cell to obtain a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of about 10%. Electrical analyses based on cell-selective light absorption were applied to individually characterize the photovoltaic performances of the top and bottom subcells. Illumination at a frequency that could be absorbed only by a targeted top or bottom subcell permitted measurement of the open-circuit voltage of the target subcell and the shunt resistance of the non-target subcell...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146182/plakophilin3-increases-desmosome-assembly-size-and-stability-by-increasing-expression-of-desmocollin2
#7
Mansa Gurjar, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Snehal Mahadik, Divya Reddy, Apurva Atak, Trupti Shetty, Kruthi Rao, Mansi S Karkhanis, Prajakta Gosavi, Lalit Sehgal, Sanjay Gupta, Sorab N Dalal
Previous reports show that the desmosomal plaque protein plakophilin3 (PKP3) is essential for desmosome formation. Here, we report that PKP3 over-expression decreases calcium dependency for de novo desmosome formation and makes existing cell-cell adhesion junctions more resilient in low calcium medium due to an increase in desmocollin2 expression. PKP3 overexpression increases the stability of other desmosomal proteins independently of the increase in DSC2 levels and regulates desmosome formation and stability by a multimodal mechanism affecting transcription, protein stability and cell border localization of desmosomal proteins...
November 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146153/the-stress-kinase-jnk-regulates-gap-junction-cx43-gene-expression-and-promotes-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-aged-heart
#8
Jiajie Yan, Justin K Thomson, Weiwei Zhao, Xiaomin Wu, Xianlong Gao, Dominic DeMarco, Wei Kong, Min Tong, Jun Sun, Mamdouh Bakhos, Vladimir G Fast, Qingrong Liang, Sumanth D Prabhu, Xun Ai
BACKGROUND: The stress kinase c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is critical in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases associated with an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. We recently discovered that JNK activation is linked to the loss of gap junction connexin43 (Cx43) and enhanced atrial arrhythmogenicity. However, direct evidence for JNK-mediated impairment of intercellular coupling (cell-cell communication) in the intact aged atrium is lacking, as is evidence for whether and how JNK suppresses Cx43 in the aged human atrium...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145393/estimating-the-probabilities-of-rare-arrhythmic-events-in-multiscale-computational-models-of-cardiac-cells-and-tissue
#9
Mark A Walker, Viatcheslav Gurev, John J Rice, Joseph L Greenstein, Raimond L Winslow
Ectopic heartbeats can trigger reentrant arrhythmias, leading to ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Such events have been attributed to perturbed Ca2+ handling in cardiac myocytes leading to spontaneous Ca2+ release and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). However, the ways in which perturbation of specific molecular mechanisms alters the probability of ectopic beats is not understood. We present a multiscale model of cardiac tissue incorporating a biophysically detailed three-dimensional model of the ventricular myocyte...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145341/primary-malignant-melanoma-of-the-gallbladder-with-multiple-metastases-a-case-report
#10
Jun-Ke Wang, Fei Su, Wen-Jie Ma, Hai-Jie Hu, Qin Yang, Fei Liu, Quan-Sheng Li, Fu-Yu Li
RATIONAL: Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder is an extremely rare tumor, with fewer than 40 cases reported in the literature worldwide. The majority of patients presented as a solitary lesion in the gallbladder. To our knowledge, only one case of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases has been reported, which involved the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, jejunum and a mesenteric lymph node. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with metastases to the duodenal bulb, right adrenal and a celiac lymph node...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144896/atg9-antagonizes-tor-signaling-to-regulate-intestinal-cell-growth-and-epithelial-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#11
Jung-Kun Wen, Yi-Ting Wang, Chih-Chiang Chan, Cheng-Wen Hsieh, Hsiao-Man Liao, Chin-Chun Hung, Guang-Chao Chen
Autophagy is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival under various stress conditions. Autophagy-related gene 9 (Atg9) encodes a multipass transmembrane protein thought to act as a membrane carrier for forming autophagosomes. However, the molecular regulation and physiological importance of Atg9 in animal development remain largely unclear. Here, we generated Atg9 null mutant flies and found that loss of Atg9 led to shortened lifespan, locomotor defects, and increased susceptibility to stress...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144745/high-efficiency-near-infrared-and-semitransparent-non-fullerene-acceptor-organic-photovoltaic-cells
#12
Yongxi Li, Jiu-Dong Lin, Xiaozhou Che, Yue Qu, Feng Liu, Liang-Sheng Liao, Stephen R Forrest
The absence of near-infrared (NIR) solar cells with high open circuit voltage (Voc) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) has impeded progress toward achieving organic photovoltaic (OPV) power conversion efficiency PCE > 15%. Here we report a small energy gap (1.3 eV), chlorinated nonfullerene acceptor-based solar cell with PCE = 11.2 ± 0.4%, short circuit current of 22.5 ± 0.6 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.70 ± 0.01 V and fill factor of 0.71 ± 0.02, which is the highest performance reported to date for NIR single junction OPVs...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144448/regeneration-of-the-entire-human-epidermis-using-transgenic-stem-cells
#13
Tobias Hirsch, Tobias Rothoeft, Norbert Teig, Johann W Bauer, Graziella Pellegrini, Laura De Rosa, Davide Scaglione, Julia Reichelt, Alfred Klausegger, Daniela Kneisz, Oriana Romano, Alessia Secone Seconetti, Roberta Contin, Elena Enzo, Irena Jurman, Sonia Carulli, Frank Jacobsen, Thomas Luecke, Marcus Lehnhardt, Meike Fischer, Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Daniela Quaglino, Michele Morgante, Silvio Bicciato, Sergio Bondanza, Michele De Luca
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a severe and often lethal genetic disease caused by mutations in genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332. Surviving patients with JEB develop chronic wounds to the skin and mucosa, which impair their quality of life and lead to skin cancer. Here we show that autologous transgenic keratinocyte cultures regenerated an entire, fully functional epidermis on a seven-year-old child suffering from a devastating, life-threatening form of JEB. The proviral integration pattern was maintained in vivo and epidermal renewal did not cause any clonal selection...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143961/upregulation-of-epidermal-gap-junctional-proteins-in-patients-with-venous-disease
#14
M Kanapathy, R Simpson, L Madden, C Thrasivoulou, A Mosahebi, D L Becker, T Richards
BACKGROUND: Leg ulceration is a feared complication of venous insufficiency. It is not known whether varicose veins predispose skin to poor wound healing. The expression pattern of gap junctional protein connexin, a known marker of poor wound healing, was investigated across various stages of venous disease. METHODS: Patients undergoing intervention for varicose veins were assessed according to the Clinical Etiologic Anatomic Pathophysiologic (CEAP) classification of varicose veins...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143947/connexin-30-is-expressed-in-a-subtype-of-mouse-brain-pericytes
#15
Noémie Mazaré, Alice Gilbert, Anne-Cécile Boulay, Nathalie Rouach, Martine Cohen-Salmon
Pericytes are mural cells of blood microvessels which play a crucial role at the neurovascular interface of the central nervous system. They are involved in the regulation of blood-brain barrier integrity, angiogenesis, clearance of toxic metabolites, capillary hemodynamic responses, and neuroinflammation, and they demonstrate stem cell activity. Morphological and molecular studies to characterize brain pericytes recently pointed out some heterogeneity in pericyte population. Nevertheless, a clear definition of pericyte subtypes is still lacking...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143930/photovoltaic-cell-electrical-heating-system-for-removing-snow-on-panel-including-verification
#16
Agnes Weiss, Helmut Weiss
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143796/angelica-sinensis-polysaccharides-ameliorate-stress-induced-premature-senescence-of-hematopoietic-cell-via-protecting-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-from-oxidative-injuries-caused-by-5-fluorouracil
#17
Hanxianzhi Xiao, Lirong Xiong, Xiaoying Song, Pengwei Jin, Linbo Chen, Xiongbin Chen, Hui Yao, Yaping Wang, Lu Wang
Myelosuppression is the most common complication of chemotherapy. Decline of self-renewal capacity and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) induced by chemotherapeutic agents may be the cause of long-term myelosuppression after chemotherapy. Whether the mechanism of SIPS of hematopoietic cells relates to chemotherapeutic injury occurred in hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) is still not well elucidated. This study explored the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an acetone extract polysaccharide found as the major effective ingredients of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb named Chinese Angelica (Dong Quai), on oxidative damage of homo sapiens bone marrow/stroma cell line (HS-5) caused by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and the effect of ASP relieving oxidative stress in HM on SIPS of hematopoietic cells...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143226/aligned-ovine-diaphragmatic-myoblasts-overexpressing-human-connexin-43-seeded-on-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffolds-for-potential-use-in-cardiac-regeneration
#18
Carlos Sebastián Giménez, Paola Locatelli, Florencia Montini Ballarin, Alejandro Orlowski, Ricardo A Dewey, Milagros Pena, Gustavo Abel Abraham, Ernesto Alejandro Aiello, María Del Rosario Bauzá, Luis Cuniberti, Fernanda Daniela Olea, Alberto Crottogini
Diaphragmatic myoblasts (DMs) are precursors of type-1 muscle cells displaying high exhaustion threshold on account that they contract and relax 20 times/min over a lifespan, making them potentially useful in cardiac regeneration strategies. Besides, it has been shown that biomaterials for stem cell delivery improve cell retention and viability in the target organ. In the present study, we aimed at developing a novel approach based on the use of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds seeded with DMs overexpressing connexin-43 (cx43), a gap junction protein that promotes inter-cell connectivity...
November 15, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143154/deciphering-the-molecular-events-during-arsenic-induced-transcription-signal-cascade-activation-in-cellular-milieu
#19
REVIEW
Harishkumar Madhyastha, Radha Madhyastha, Yuichi Nakajima, Masugi Maruyama
Anthropogenic sources of arsenic poses and creates unintentional toxico-pathological concerns to humans in many parts of the world. The understanding of toxicity of this metalloid, which shares properties of both metal and non-metal is principally structured on speciation types and holy grail of toxicity prevention. Visible symptoms of arsenic toxicity include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. In this review, we focused on the dermal cell stress caused by trivalent arsenic trioxide and pentavalent arsanilic acid...
November 15, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143117/the-expression-of-ve-cadherin-in-breast-cancer-cells-modulates-cell-dynamics-as-a-function-of-tumor-differentiation-and-promotes-tumor-endothelial-cell-interactions
#20
Maryam Rezaei, Jiahui Cao, Katrin Friedrich, Björn Kemper, Oliver Brendel, Marianne Grosser, Manuela Adrian, Gustavo Baretton, Georg Breier, Hans-Joachim Schnittler
The cadherin switch has profound consequences on cancer invasion and metastasis. The endothelial-specific vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) has been demonstrated in diverse cancer types including breast cancer and is supposed to modulate tumor progression and metastasis, but underlying mechanisms need to be better understood. First, we evaluated VE-cadherin expression by tissue microarray in 392 cases of breast cancer tumors and found a diverse expression and distribution of VE-cadherin. Experimental expression of fluorescence-tagged VE-cadherin (VE-EGFP) in undifferentiated, fibroblastoid and E-cadherin-negative MDA-231 (MDA-VE-EGFP) as well as in differentiated E-cadherin-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-VE-EGFP), respectively, displayed differentiation-dependent functional differences...
November 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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